Humans and evolutionary and ecological forces shaped the phylogeography of recently emerged diseases View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2009-10-12

AUTHORS

Paul S. Keim, David M. Wagner

ABSTRACT

Key PointsThe movement of humans and commerce facilitate the emergence of new infectious diseases. Local pathogen populations can take advantage of human activities to create pandemics.Recently emerged pathogens are very homogeneous owing to their recent derivation from another species or group. Even among highly similar subtypes, just a subset of strains becomes globally distributed owing to their high fitness.Bacillus anthracis (which causes anthrax) spread globally owing to spore contamination of animal products such as hair, hides and bones. Long-range transmission of anthrax does not occur naturally but rather depends on humans.Yersinia pestis (which causes plague) evolved in Asia and was spread globally by human-mediated movement of infected rodents and their fleas. Regional and local ecological establishment is not uniform and is highly dependent on the make-up of local rodent populations.Francisella tularensis (which causes tularaemia) has four subspecies, each with distinctive geographical distributions. Only F. tularensis subsp. holarctica is commonly found on multiple continents and represents a highly fit genotype that has clonally expanded in a circumpolar fashion.Local pathogen populations may evolve 'hopeful monster' subtypes that can take advantage of ecological opportunities. In several cases, this opportunity has been human-mediated, long-distance dispersal with severe consequences for humans. More... »

PAGES

813-821

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nrmicro2219

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2219

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006787109

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19820723


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