Transcriptional mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle differentiation, growth and homeostasis View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2011-05-23

AUTHORS

Thomas Braun, Mathias Gautel

ABSTRACT

Key PointsThe requirement for locomotion led to the evolution of muscles in all animal phyla.The determination and terminal differentiation of muscle cells is governed by four transcription factors known as myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs): myogenic factor 5 (MYF5), muscle-specific regulatory factor 4 (MRF4), myoblast determination protein (MYOD) and myogenin.Upstream of these are other transcription factors; for example, paired box proteins, T-box transcription factors and sine oculis homeobox (SIX) proteins, which either prepare the stage for MRFs to initiate myogenesis or activate MRFs.Myogenesis is also regulated post-transcriptionally by the action of microRNAs, which are thought to regulate the transcription factors that control myogenesis.Muscles can be remodelled postnatally to switch between fibre types (slow-twitch and fast-twitch) to adapt to specific conditions. The type of neuronal activity acting on a fibre is probably the most important factor determining fibre type.Muscle remodelling can also affect muscle mass; this is regulated by anabolic and catabolic signalling pathways, which induce muscle hypertrophy and muscle atrophy, respectively. Mechanical stress and hormones also feed into these signalling pathways.Some of the factors involved in early muscle development, such as SIX proteins and myogenin, also have roles in postnatal changes of muscle phenotype and mass. More... »

PAGES

349-361

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    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nrm3118

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    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrm3118

    DIMENSIONS

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    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21602905


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    60 determination
    61 development
    62 differentiation
    63 early muscle development
    64 evolution
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    68 factor 5
    69 factors
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    73 homeobox protein
    74 homeostasis
    75 hormone
    76 hypertrophy
    77 important factor
    78 locomotion
    79 mass
    80 mechanical stress
    81 mechanism
    82 microRNAs
    83 muscle
    84 muscle atrophy
    85 muscle cells
    86 muscle development
    87 muscle differentiation
    88 muscle hypertrophy
    89 muscle mass
    90 muscle phenotype
    91 muscle remodelling
    92 myoblast determination protein
    93 myogenesis
    94 myogenic factor 5
    95 myogenic regulatory factors
    96 myogenin
    97 neuronal activity
    98 pathway
    99 phenotype
    100 phyla
    101 post
    102 postnatal changes
    103 protein
    104 regulatory factor 4
    105 regulatory factors
    106 remodelling
    107 requirements
    108 role
    109 skeletal muscle differentiation
    110 specific conditions
    111 stage
    112 stress
    113 terminal differentiation
    114 transcription factors
    115 transcriptional mechanisms
    116 types
    117 upstream
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