Type 2 cytokines: mechanisms and therapeutic strategies View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2015-05

AUTHORS

Thomas A. Wynn

ABSTRACT

Type 2 immune responses are defined by the cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13, which can either be host protective or have pathogenic activity. Type 2 immunity promotes antihelminth immunity, suppresses type 1-driven autoimmune disease, neutralizes toxins, maintains metabolic homeostasis, and regulates wound repair and tissue regeneration pathways following infection or injury. Nevertheless, when type 2 responses are dysregulated, they can become important drivers of disease. Type 2 immunity induces a complex inflammatory response characterized by eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, IL-4-and/or IL-13-conditioned macrophages and T helper 2 (TH2) cells, which are crucial to the pathogenesis of many allergic and fibrotic disorders. As chronic type 2 immune responses promote disease, the mechanisms that regulate their maintenance are thought to function as crucial disease modifiers. This Review discusses the many endogenous negative regulatory mechanisms that antagonize type 2 immunity and highlights how therapies that target some of these pathways are being developed to treat type 2-mediated disease. More... »

PAGES

271-282

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    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nri3831

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nri3831

    DIMENSIONS

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    PUBMED

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