Cancer despite immunosurveillance: immunoselection and immunosubversion View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2006-09-15

AUTHORS

Laurence Zitvogel, Antoine Tesniere, Guido Kroemer

ABSTRACT

Key PointsThe concept of immunosurveillance implies that the immune system can recognize and destroy most precursors of cancer. Cancer cells avoid immunosurveillance by the selection of non-immunogenic tumour-cell variants (which is known as immunoselection) and by the active suppression of the immune response (which is known as immunosubversion).The development of cancer is inhibited by several mechanisms that suppress tumours, many of which function in a cell-intrinsic manner. The activation of oncogenes can trigger the DNA-damage response, which controls pre-malignant lesions through the activation of several types of molecule: DNA-damage sensors, such as ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3 related); checkpoint kinases, such as CHK1 (checkpoint kinase 1 homologue) and CHK2; and the tumour-suppressor protein p53. ATM, ATR and CHK2 can also induce the expression of ligands for NKG2D (natural-killer group 2, member D) by tumour cells, thereby activating a cytotoxic response by NKG2D-expressing lymphocytes involved in immunosurveillance.Cancers have six recognized hallmarks, each of which influences the immunological characteristics of tumour cells. First, tumours can become self-sufficient for growth signals by producing autocrine and paracrine growth factors that have immunosuppressive characteristics. Second, tumours become insensitive to antigrowth signals (such as transforming growth factor-β), which induce local immunosuppression. Third, tumours evade apoptosis by overexpressing mitochondrial cell-death inhibitors (which are potential tumour antigens) and avoid caspase activation (which is required for immunogenic cell death). Fourth, limitless replication is associated with overexpression of TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase) and mutation of p53, two potential tumour antigens. Fifth, sustained angiogenesis involves tumour production of angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, that inhibit dendritic-cell maturation and T-cell activation. Sixth, local invasion and metastasis are also associated with beneficial and deleterious changes in the immunological characteristics of tumours.We favour the existence of a seventh, partly independent, hallmark of cancer, as has previously been proposed by other researchers. This hallmark is the avoidance of immune recognition by alteration of tumour-cell characteristics, as well as by creation of a local immunosuppressive network that inactivates innate and adaptive cytolytic effectors.Immunoselection is likely to have the main role in the early stages of carcinogenesis, whereas immunosubversion gradually accompanies advancing tumour growth, although there might be exceptions to this.The complete and permanent success of anticancer therapy relies on the induction of a productive immune response that eliminates residual tumour cells that have survived chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Immunostimulatory strategies that are designed to counter immunosubversion will be crucial for the development of an immunogenic chemotherapeutic regimen. Some current chemotherapeutic regimens have immunostimulatory effects, perhaps partly explaining their antitumour efficacy. More... »

PAGES

715-727

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  • Journal

    TITLE

    Nature Reviews Immunology

    ISSUE

    10

    VOLUME

    6

    Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nri1936

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nri1936

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032167355

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16977338


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