RNA-directed DNA methylation: an epigenetic pathway of increasing complexity View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2014-05-08

AUTHORS

Marjori A. Matzke, Rebecca A. Mosher

ABSTRACT

Key PointsRNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is prevalent in flowering plants and induces transcriptional silencing at repetitive DNA, including all types of transposons.During RdDM, RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) initiates production of 24-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct transcriptionally repressive DNA methylation to homologous Pol V-transcribed loci. Pol IV and Pol V are recruited to genomic regions that contain transcriptionally repressive epigenetic marks, thereby reinforcing and maintaining the silent state.Recent research has uncovered variations on the canonical RdDM pathway, including the involvement of RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 6 (RDR6) and NEEDED FOR RDR2-INDEPENDENT DNA METHYLATION (NERD), which might allow 'young' (that is, recently acquired) transposons to come under the control of RdDM.In additional to transposon control, RdDM might help hosts to respond to biotic or abiotic challenges, or to faithfully transmit DNA methylation patterns to their offspring. RdDM might also affect germ cell specification and parent-specific gene expression.There is increasing evidence that siRNAs are used to communicate epigenetic states between homologous sequences within a nucleus or indeed between nuclei. More... »

PAGES

394-408

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