Exosome-mediated delivery of siRNA in vitro and in vivo View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2012-11-15

AUTHORS

Samir El-Andaloussi, Yi Lee, Samira Lakhal-Littleton, Jinghuan Li, Yiqi Seow, Chris Gardiner, Lydia Alvarez-Erviti, Ian L Sargent, Matthew J A Wood

ABSTRACT

The use of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to induce gene silencing has opened a new avenue in drug discovery. However, their therapeutic potential is hampered by inadequate tissue-specific delivery. Exosomes are promising tools for drug delivery across different biological barriers. Here we show how exosomes derived from cultured cells can be harnessed for delivery of siRNA in vitro and in vivo. This protocol first describes the generation of targeted exosomes through transfection of an expression vector, comprising an exosomal protein fused with a peptide ligand. Next, we explain how to purify and characterize exosomes from transfected cell supernatant. Next, we detail crucial steps for loading siRNA into exosomes. Finally, we outline how to use exosomes to efficiently deliver siRNA in vitro and in vivo in mouse brain. Examples of anticipated results in which exosome-mediated siRNA delivery is evaluated by functional assays and imaging are also provided. The entire protocol takes ∼3 weeks. More... »

PAGES

2112-2126

Journal

TITLE

Nature Protocols

ISSUE

12

VOLUME

7

Related Patents

  • Delivery, Use And Therapeutic Applications Of The Crispr-Cas Systems And Compositions For Genome Editing
  • Crispr Having Or Associated With Destabilization Domains
  • Type Vii Crispr Proteins And Systems
  • Systems, Methods, And Compositions For Targeted Nucleic Acid Editing
  • Methods And Compositions For Optochemical Control Of Crispr-Cas9
  • Method Of Detecting The Presence Or Absence Of Autoantibodies
  • Analysis Of Genomic Dna, Rna, And Proteins In Exosomes For Diagnosis And Theranosis
  • Novel Cas12b Enzymes And Systems
  • Novel Crispr Enzymes And Systems
  • Use Of Exosomes For The Treatment Of Disease
  • Delivery, Use And Therapeutic Applications Of The Crispr-Cas Systems And Compositions For Targeting Disorders And Diseases Using Viral Components
  • Compositions And Methods Of Use Of Crispr-Cas Systems In Nucleotide Repeat Disorders
  • Crispr-Cas Systems Having Destabilization Domain
  • Cell-Type Specific Exosomes And Use Thereof
  • Delivery, Engineering And Optimization Of Systems, Methods And Compositions For Sequence Manipulation And Therapeutic Applications
  • Therapeutic Delivery Vesicles
  • Modulation Of Novel Immune Checkpoint Targets
  • Novel Delivery Of Large Payloads
  • Novel Nucleic Acid Modifiers
  • Protected Guide Rnas (Pgrnas)
  • Esosomi Ingegnerizzati Per Il Trattamento Della Leucemia Mieloide Cronica
  • Therapeutic Delivery Vesicles
  • Nuclear-Derived Exosomes And Methods Of Use Thereof
  • Therapeutic Delivery Vesicles
  • Novel Crispr Enzymes And Systems
  • Oligonucleotide Compounds For Targeting Huntingtin Mrna
  • Delivery, Engineering And Optimization Of Systems, Methods And Compositions For Sequence Manipulation And Therapeutic Applications
  • Cpf1 Complexes With Reduced Indel Activity
  • Cell Sorting
  • Genome Editing Using Cas9 Nickases
  • Delivery, Use And Therapeutic Applications Of The Crispr-Cas Systems And Compositions For Hbv And Viral Diseases And Disorders
  • Novel Crispr Enzymes And Systems
  • Exosome Isolation
  • Delivery, Use And Therapeutic Applications Of The Crispr-Cas Systems And Compositions For Hbv And Viral Diseases And Disorders
  • Delivery, Use And Therapeutic Applications Of The Crispr-Cas Systems And Compositions For Targeting Disorders And Diseases Using Viral Components
  • Novel Crispr Enzymes And Systems
  • Methods Of Producing And Using Exersomes And Bioengineered Exersomes
  • Delivery, Use And Therapeutic Applications Of The Crispr-Cas Systems And Compositions For Targeting Disorders And Diseases Using Particle Delivery Components
  • Two-Tailed Self-Delivering Sirna
  • Novel Crispr Enzymes And Systems
  • Engineering And Optimization Of Improved Systems, Methods And Enzyme Compositions For Sequence Manipulation
  • Protected Guide Rnas (Pgrnas)
  • Compositions And Methods Of Use Of Crispr-Cas Systems In Nucleotide Repeat Disorders
  • Novel Crispr Enzymes And Systems
  • Exosomal Loading Using Hydrophobically Modified Oligonucleotides
  • Delivery, Engineering And Optimization Of Tandem Guide Systems, Methods And Compositions For Sequence Manipulation
  • Compositions And Methods Of Use Of Crispr-Cas Systems In Nucleotide Repeat Disorders
  • 3-D Collagen Scaffold-Generated Exosomes And Uses Thereof
  • Type Vi Crispr Orthologs And Systems
  • Crispr Enzyme Mutations Reducing Off-Target Effects
  • Compositions And Methods For Evaluating And Modulating Immune Responses
  • Exosomal Loading Using Hydrophobically Modified Oligonucleotides
  • Combination For Treating An Inflammatory Disorder
  • Crispr Having Or Associated With Destabilization Domains
  • Novel Crispr Enzymes And Systems
  • Exosomal Loading Using Hydrophobically Modified Oligonucleotides
  • Compositions And Methods Of Use Of Crispr-Cas Systems In Nucleotide Repeat Disorders
  • Platforms, Compositions, And Methods For Therapeutic Delivery
  • Crispr-Associated Transposase Systems And Methods Of Use Thereof
  • Novel Cas13b Orthologues Crispr Enzymes And Systems
  • Novel Type Vi Crispr Orthologs And Systems
  • Modulation Of Novel Immune Checkpoint Targets
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nprot.2012.131

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2012.131

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017288792

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23154783


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Biological Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0601", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Biochemistry and Cell Biology", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Animals", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Brain", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Exosomes", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Gene Silencing", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Gene Transfer Techniques", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Genetic Vectors", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Mice", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "RNA, Small Interfering", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Transfection", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4714.6", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK", 
                "Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "El-Andaloussi", 
            "givenName": "Samir", 
            "id": "sg:person.07535165677.56", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07535165677.56"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4991.5", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Lee", 
            "givenName": "Yi", 
            "id": "sg:person.0772225071.64", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0772225071.64"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4991.5", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Lakhal-Littleton", 
            "givenName": "Samira", 
            "id": "sg:person.0577307112.01", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0577307112.01"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4991.5", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Li", 
            "givenName": "Jinghuan", 
            "id": "sg:person.0611570632.25", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0611570632.25"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Molecular Engineering Laboratory, Proteos, Agency for Science Technology and Research, Singapore, Singapore", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.185448.4", 
              "name": [
                "Molecular Engineering Laboratory, Proteos, Agency for Science Technology and Research, Singapore, Singapore"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Seow", 
            "givenName": "Yiqi", 
            "id": "sg:person.01055675676.02", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01055675676.02"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8348.7", 
              "name": [
                "Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Gardiner", 
            "givenName": "Chris", 
            "id": "sg:person.01241645654.42", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01241645654.42"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.83440.3b", 
              "name": [
                "University Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Alvarez-Erviti", 
            "givenName": "Lydia", 
            "id": "sg:person.01021245506.19", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01021245506.19"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8348.7", 
              "name": [
                "Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Sargent", 
            "givenName": "Ian L", 
            "id": "sg:person.01016306474.64", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01016306474.64"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4991.5", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Wood", 
            "givenName": "Matthew J A", 
            "id": "sg:person.014256626047.55", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014256626047.55"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.1807", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036478917", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.1807"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.leu.2404132", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046811448", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.leu.2404132"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ncb1596", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001718862", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ncb1596"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ncb1929", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001261659", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ncb1929"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00262-005-0075-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030793102", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00262-005-0075-9"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrd3459", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019933275", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd3459"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms1285", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010814909", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1285"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2012-11-15", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2012-11-15", 
        "description": "The use of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to induce gene silencing has opened a new avenue in drug discovery. However, their therapeutic potential is hampered by inadequate tissue-specific delivery. Exosomes are promising tools for drug delivery across different biological barriers. Here we show how exosomes derived from cultured cells can be harnessed for delivery of siRNA in vitro and in vivo. This protocol first describes the generation of targeted exosomes through transfection of an expression vector, comprising an exosomal protein fused with a peptide ligand. Next, we explain how to purify and characterize exosomes from transfected cell supernatant. Next, we detail crucial steps for loading siRNA into exosomes. Finally, we outline how to use exosomes to efficiently deliver siRNA in vitro and in vivo in mouse brain. Examples of anticipated results in which exosome-mediated siRNA delivery is evaluated by functional assays and imaging are also provided. The entire protocol takes \u223c3 weeks.", 
        "genre": "article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nprot.2012.131", 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isFundedItemOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2766146", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.5148980", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.5146732", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2756612", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.3636620", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }
        ], 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1037502", 
            "issn": [
              "1754-2189", 
              "1750-2799"
            ], 
            "name": "Nature Protocols", 
            "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "12", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "7"
          }
        ], 
        "keywords": [
          "delivery of siRNA", 
          "small interfering RNAs", 
          "tissue-specific delivery", 
          "different biological barriers", 
          "siRNA delivery", 
          "biological barriers", 
          "drug delivery", 
          "gene silencing", 
          "interfering RNAs", 
          "expression vector", 
          "exosomal proteins", 
          "cultured cells", 
          "functional assays", 
          "exosomes", 
          "new avenues", 
          "drug discovery", 
          "delivery", 
          "peptide ligands", 
          "entire protocol", 
          "mouse brain", 
          "promising tool", 
          "protocol", 
          "vitro", 
          "vivo", 
          "cell supernatants", 
          "therapeutic potential", 
          "silencing", 
          "crucial step", 
          "RNA", 
          "protein", 
          "transfection", 
          "cells", 
          "assays", 
          "discovery", 
          "vector", 
          "avenues", 
          "ligands", 
          "supernatant", 
          "potential", 
          "generation", 
          "imaging", 
          "brain", 
          "step", 
          "use", 
          "tool", 
          "barriers", 
          "results", 
          "example", 
          "weeks"
        ], 
        "name": "Exosome-mediated delivery of siRNA in vitro and in vivo", 
        "pagination": "2112-2126", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1017288792"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/nprot.2012.131"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "23154783"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2012.131", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017288792"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2022-11-24T20:56", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20221124/entities/gbq_results/article/article_559.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2012.131"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nprot.2012.131'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nprot.2012.131'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nprot.2012.131'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nprot.2012.131'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    253 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      90 URIs      75 LITERALS      16 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/nprot.2012.131 schema:about N14b9480ece5c42bb8639cf59731e74ce
    2 N22b4d168522c47b9b896f57822098003
    3 N2c7309a5dc3241be9239cf395ca48aa4
    4 N41ebf90ca9e94d009e16bff6cb5d7dc6
    5 N7c3fe22684154db7b2ca016473f342b8
    6 N8c4783e260e44b9ba3f126aeea263117
    7 N9ed02dff70714192b8732351789c3c40
    8 Na19df28139264e17b7833a094d349ed2
    9 Nf48e89bd984d4a81b1b6a9f257cc1d56
    10 anzsrc-for:06
    11 anzsrc-for:0601
    12 schema:author Nd7650928ec7a4b859752ad64d3558029
    13 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s00262-005-0075-9
    14 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.1807
    15 sg:pub.10.1038/ncb1596
    16 sg:pub.10.1038/ncb1929
    17 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms1285
    18 sg:pub.10.1038/nrd3459
    19 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.leu.2404132
    20 schema:datePublished 2012-11-15
    21 schema:datePublishedReg 2012-11-15
    22 schema:description The use of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to induce gene silencing has opened a new avenue in drug discovery. However, their therapeutic potential is hampered by inadequate tissue-specific delivery. Exosomes are promising tools for drug delivery across different biological barriers. Here we show how exosomes derived from cultured cells can be harnessed for delivery of siRNA in vitro and in vivo. This protocol first describes the generation of targeted exosomes through transfection of an expression vector, comprising an exosomal protein fused with a peptide ligand. Next, we explain how to purify and characterize exosomes from transfected cell supernatant. Next, we detail crucial steps for loading siRNA into exosomes. Finally, we outline how to use exosomes to efficiently deliver siRNA in vitro and in vivo in mouse brain. Examples of anticipated results in which exosome-mediated siRNA delivery is evaluated by functional assays and imaging are also provided. The entire protocol takes ∼3 weeks.
    23 schema:genre article
    24 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    25 schema:isPartOf N837681d4e5b446909124f3eda2862d1b
    26 Nd4e99000c9a946eeb01d69a385e49240
    27 sg:journal.1037502
    28 schema:keywords RNA
    29 assays
    30 avenues
    31 barriers
    32 biological barriers
    33 brain
    34 cell supernatants
    35 cells
    36 crucial step
    37 cultured cells
    38 delivery
    39 delivery of siRNA
    40 different biological barriers
    41 discovery
    42 drug delivery
    43 drug discovery
    44 entire protocol
    45 example
    46 exosomal proteins
    47 exosomes
    48 expression vector
    49 functional assays
    50 gene silencing
    51 generation
    52 imaging
    53 interfering RNAs
    54 ligands
    55 mouse brain
    56 new avenues
    57 peptide ligands
    58 potential
    59 promising tool
    60 protein
    61 protocol
    62 results
    63 siRNA delivery
    64 silencing
    65 small interfering RNAs
    66 step
    67 supernatant
    68 therapeutic potential
    69 tissue-specific delivery
    70 tool
    71 transfection
    72 use
    73 vector
    74 vitro
    75 vivo
    76 weeks
    77 schema:name Exosome-mediated delivery of siRNA in vitro and in vivo
    78 schema:pagination 2112-2126
    79 schema:productId N30555f4260904b138bacec037b6dc9ad
    80 N6fb7dc0110f44774867a30b1666e7383
    81 Nfe450b01d1b74a47a6c4b524a8a572c0
    82 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017288792
    83 https://doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2012.131
    84 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-11-24T20:56
    85 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    86 schema:sdPublisher N23df7207d250434088cb5b5769e372ac
    87 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2012.131
    88 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    89 sgo:sdDataset articles
    90 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    91 N14b9480ece5c42bb8639cf59731e74ce schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    92 schema:name Animals
    93 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    94 N1624a193552f4feaa9a2569fbc5796c0 rdf:first sg:person.01241645654.42
    95 rdf:rest N3d8f086cb28a4ef19d7985a23cb58f5c
    96 N22b4d168522c47b9b896f57822098003 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    97 schema:name Brain
    98 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    99 N23df7207d250434088cb5b5769e372ac schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    100 rdf:type schema:Organization
    101 N2c7309a5dc3241be9239cf395ca48aa4 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    102 schema:name Gene Transfer Techniques
    103 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    104 N30555f4260904b138bacec037b6dc9ad schema:name doi
    105 schema:value 10.1038/nprot.2012.131
    106 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    107 N3d8f086cb28a4ef19d7985a23cb58f5c rdf:first sg:person.01021245506.19
    108 rdf:rest N51207971066b40f9b7cdf8f562e196dd
    109 N41ebf90ca9e94d009e16bff6cb5d7dc6 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    110 schema:name Transfection
    111 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    112 N4352d2f43d7a4985a5da94d8f108d2c4 rdf:first sg:person.014256626047.55
    113 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    114 N51207971066b40f9b7cdf8f562e196dd rdf:first sg:person.01016306474.64
    115 rdf:rest N4352d2f43d7a4985a5da94d8f108d2c4
    116 N637d5e2852b94d12aaeebf020860f9c9 rdf:first sg:person.0772225071.64
    117 rdf:rest N63ec399f608f43f7b7f37c76f4b72f79
    118 N63ec399f608f43f7b7f37c76f4b72f79 rdf:first sg:person.0577307112.01
    119 rdf:rest N7c6cfc1eef0c4e3f93cdd7aea5f1ecc2
    120 N6fb7dc0110f44774867a30b1666e7383 schema:name pubmed_id
    121 schema:value 23154783
    122 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    123 N7c3fe22684154db7b2ca016473f342b8 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    124 schema:name Mice
    125 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    126 N7c6cfc1eef0c4e3f93cdd7aea5f1ecc2 rdf:first sg:person.0611570632.25
    127 rdf:rest N7dfe1a4f145948949149b62a326fd66a
    128 N7dfe1a4f145948949149b62a326fd66a rdf:first sg:person.01055675676.02
    129 rdf:rest N1624a193552f4feaa9a2569fbc5796c0
    130 N837681d4e5b446909124f3eda2862d1b schema:volumeNumber 7
    131 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    132 N8c4783e260e44b9ba3f126aeea263117 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    133 schema:name RNA, Small Interfering
    134 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    135 N9ed02dff70714192b8732351789c3c40 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    136 schema:name Gene Silencing
    137 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    138 Na19df28139264e17b7833a094d349ed2 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    139 schema:name Genetic Vectors
    140 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    141 Nd4e99000c9a946eeb01d69a385e49240 schema:issueNumber 12
    142 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    143 Nd7650928ec7a4b859752ad64d3558029 rdf:first sg:person.07535165677.56
    144 rdf:rest N637d5e2852b94d12aaeebf020860f9c9
    145 Nf48e89bd984d4a81b1b6a9f257cc1d56 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    146 schema:name Exosomes
    147 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    148 Nfe450b01d1b74a47a6c4b524a8a572c0 schema:name dimensions_id
    149 schema:value pub.1017288792
    150 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    151 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    152 schema:name Biological Sciences
    153 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    154 anzsrc-for:0601 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    155 schema:name Biochemistry and Cell Biology
    156 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    157 sg:grant.2756612 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/nprot.2012.131
    158 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    159 sg:grant.2766146 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/nprot.2012.131
    160 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    161 sg:grant.3636620 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/nprot.2012.131
    162 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    163 sg:grant.5146732 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/nprot.2012.131
    164 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    165 sg:grant.5148980 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/nprot.2012.131
    166 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    167 sg:journal.1037502 schema:issn 1750-2799
    168 1754-2189
    169 schema:name Nature Protocols
    170 schema:publisher Springer Nature
    171 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    172 sg:person.01016306474.64 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.8348.7
    173 schema:familyName Sargent
    174 schema:givenName Ian L
    175 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01016306474.64
    176 rdf:type schema:Person
    177 sg:person.01021245506.19 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.83440.3b
    178 schema:familyName Alvarez-Erviti
    179 schema:givenName Lydia
    180 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01021245506.19
    181 rdf:type schema:Person
    182 sg:person.01055675676.02 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.185448.4
    183 schema:familyName Seow
    184 schema:givenName Yiqi
    185 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01055675676.02
    186 rdf:type schema:Person
    187 sg:person.01241645654.42 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.8348.7
    188 schema:familyName Gardiner
    189 schema:givenName Chris
    190 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01241645654.42
    191 rdf:type schema:Person
    192 sg:person.014256626047.55 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.4991.5
    193 schema:familyName Wood
    194 schema:givenName Matthew J A
    195 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014256626047.55
    196 rdf:type schema:Person
    197 sg:person.0577307112.01 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.4991.5
    198 schema:familyName Lakhal-Littleton
    199 schema:givenName Samira
    200 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0577307112.01
    201 rdf:type schema:Person
    202 sg:person.0611570632.25 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.4991.5
    203 schema:familyName Li
    204 schema:givenName Jinghuan
    205 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0611570632.25
    206 rdf:type schema:Person
    207 sg:person.07535165677.56 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.4714.6
    208 schema:familyName El-Andaloussi
    209 schema:givenName Samir
    210 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07535165677.56
    211 rdf:type schema:Person
    212 sg:person.0772225071.64 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.4991.5
    213 schema:familyName Lee
    214 schema:givenName Yi
    215 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0772225071.64
    216 rdf:type schema:Person
    217 sg:pub.10.1007/s00262-005-0075-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030793102
    218 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00262-005-0075-9
    219 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    220 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.1807 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036478917
    221 https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.1807
    222 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    223 sg:pub.10.1038/ncb1596 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001718862
    224 https://doi.org/10.1038/ncb1596
    225 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    226 sg:pub.10.1038/ncb1929 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001261659
    227 https://doi.org/10.1038/ncb1929
    228 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    229 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms1285 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010814909
    230 https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1285
    231 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    232 sg:pub.10.1038/nrd3459 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019933275
    233 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd3459
    234 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    235 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.leu.2404132 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046811448
    236 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.leu.2404132
    237 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    238 grid-institutes:grid.185448.4 schema:alternateName Molecular Engineering Laboratory, Proteos, Agency for Science Technology and Research, Singapore, Singapore
    239 schema:name Molecular Engineering Laboratory, Proteos, Agency for Science Technology and Research, Singapore, Singapore
    240 rdf:type schema:Organization
    241 grid-institutes:grid.4714.6 schema:alternateName Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden
    242 schema:name Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden
    243 Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    244 rdf:type schema:Organization
    245 grid-institutes:grid.4991.5 schema:alternateName Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    246 schema:name Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    247 rdf:type schema:Organization
    248 grid-institutes:grid.83440.3b schema:alternateName University Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK
    249 schema:name University Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK
    250 rdf:type schema:Organization
    251 grid-institutes:grid.8348.7 schema:alternateName Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    252 schema:name Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    253 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...