Nanoparticle-detained toxins for safe and effective vaccination View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2013-12

AUTHORS

Che-Ming J. Hu, Ronnie H. Fang, Brian T. Luk, Liangfang Zhang

ABSTRACT

Toxoid vaccines--vaccines based on inactivated bacterial toxins--are routinely used to promote antitoxin immunity for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. Following chemical or heat denaturation, inactivated toxins can be administered to mount toxin-specific immune responses. However, retaining faithful antigenic presentation while removing toxin virulence remains a major challenge and presents a trade-off between efficacy and safety in toxoid development. Here, we show a nanoparticle-based toxin-detainment strategy that safely delivers non-disrupted pore-forming toxins for immune processing. Using erythrocyte membrane-coated nanoparticles and staphylococcal α-haemolysin, we demonstrate effective virulence neutralization via spontaneous particle entrapment. Compared with vaccination with heat-denatured toxin, mice vaccinated with the nanoparticle-detained toxin showed superior protective immunity against toxin-mediated adverse effects. We find that the non-disruptive detoxification approach benefited the immunogenicity and efficacy of toxoid vaccines. We anticipate that this study will open new possibilities in the preparation of antitoxin vaccines against the many virulence factors that threaten public health. More... »

PAGES

933-938

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nnano.2013.254

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2013.254

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053141455

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24292514


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1103", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Clinical Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Animals", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Bacterial Toxins", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Drug Delivery Systems", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Hemolysin Proteins", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Humans", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Mice", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Nanoparticles", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Safety", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Vaccination", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of California, San Diego", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.266100.3", 
          "name": [
            "Department of NanoEngineering and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Hu", 
        "givenName": "Che-Ming J.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01203261451.11", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01203261451.11"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of California, San Diego", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.266100.3", 
          "name": [
            "Department of NanoEngineering and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Fang", 
        "givenName": "Ronnie H.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01161652373.60", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01161652373.60"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of California, San Diego", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.266100.3", 
          "name": [
            "Department of NanoEngineering and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Luk", 
        "givenName": "Brian T.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01012442640.06", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01012442640.06"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of California, San Diego", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.266100.3", 
          "name": [
            "Department of NanoEngineering and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Zhang", 
        "givenName": "Liangfang", 
        "id": "sg:person.011527076027.43", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011527076027.43"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/269602a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000655776", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/269602a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.01.065", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005957279"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.00783-12", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006120334"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1112648109", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007685870"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/656043", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008313945"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08604", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012248564", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08604"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08604", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012248564", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08604"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nm.2451", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014691817", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.2451"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro1095", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015362103", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro1095"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro1095", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015362103", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro1095"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro1095", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015362103", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro1095"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201200446", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016972848"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.74.1.586-593.2006", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017311057"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.06.007", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018891025"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt1332", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019395484", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt1332"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmat2960", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021036125", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat2960"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5175.743", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022218357"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.12.032", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023329999"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038567", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025234739"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0966-842x(01)02259-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027389394"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1106634108", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030557212"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20072208", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030703946"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nnano.2007.223", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036245928", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2007.223"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1586/erv.11.60", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036401123"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nnano.2012.212", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036981585", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2012.212"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m310752200", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038160637"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/313883", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041425775"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nnano.2013.54", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046616776", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2013.54"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature04721", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050800201", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04721"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature04721", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050800201", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04721"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.347579", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062616186"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3003763", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062687435"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(68)87164-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081268727"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082173388", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2013-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2013-12-01", 
    "description": "Toxoid vaccines--vaccines based on inactivated bacterial toxins--are routinely used to promote antitoxin immunity for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. Following chemical or heat denaturation, inactivated toxins can be administered to mount toxin-specific immune responses. However, retaining faithful antigenic presentation while removing toxin virulence remains a major challenge and presents a trade-off between efficacy and safety in toxoid development. Here, we show a nanoparticle-based toxin-detainment strategy that safely delivers non-disrupted pore-forming toxins for immune processing. Using erythrocyte membrane-coated nanoparticles and staphylococcal \u03b1-haemolysin, we demonstrate effective virulence neutralization via spontaneous particle entrapment. Compared with vaccination with heat-denatured toxin, mice vaccinated with the nanoparticle-detained toxin showed superior protective immunity against toxin-mediated adverse effects. We find that the non-disruptive detoxification approach benefited the immunogenicity and efficacy of toxoid vaccines. We anticipate that this study will open new possibilities in the preparation of antitoxin vaccines against the many virulence factors that threaten public health.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nnano.2013.254", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isFundedItemOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.2622717", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.2500635", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.3140207", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }
    ], 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1037429", 
        "issn": [
          "1748-3387", 
          "1748-3395"
        ], 
        "name": "Nature Nanotechnology", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "12", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "8"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Nanoparticle-detained toxins for safe and effective vaccination", 
    "pagination": "933-938", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "fd1ff15623dc6dd4e04686e33b0fc8d860342fa86bccc6795d951e634b838ad0"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "24292514"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "101283273"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1038/nnano.2013.254"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1053141455"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2013.254", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053141455"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T21:28", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8687_00000469.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "http://www.nature.com/articles/nnano.2013.254"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nnano.2013.254'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nnano.2013.254'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nnano.2013.254'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nnano.2013.254'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

231 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      68 URIs      30 LITERALS      18 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1038/nnano.2013.254 schema:about N079a0962b1194f4a9f6e0cd64960318f
2 N209135ffd1a24db0bf2d7e409c4464d4
3 N3ddbde5ccf6a4dc9be994a18352eedf1
4 N46cc939805e44db1900c54d296087801
5 N5249992980714d418df38a408aead56d
6 N60b943aae7af4144924dc59d72511496
7 N750af5971adb4907b3bc922f259d06cc
8 N94c73e2fb6b74ba38623b02e78ddce97
9 N9bbbaf2ecc8242d3a4c9d604cd74d29a
10 anzsrc-for:11
11 anzsrc-for:1103
12 schema:author N7535e69fa3434a51afa24b4aef45da35
13 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1038/269602a0
14 sg:pub.10.1038/nature04721
15 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08604
16 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt1332
17 sg:pub.10.1038/nm.2451
18 sg:pub.10.1038/nmat2960
19 sg:pub.10.1038/nnano.2007.223
20 sg:pub.10.1038/nnano.2012.212
21 sg:pub.10.1038/nnano.2013.54
22 sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro1095
23 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082173388
24 https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201200446
25 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.12.032
26 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.01.065
27 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.06.007
28 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0966-842x(01)02259-4
29 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1106634108
30 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1112648109
31 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m310752200
32 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20072208
33 https://doi.org/10.1086/313883
34 https://doi.org/10.1086/656043
35 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.347579
36 https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3003763
37 https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.74.1.586-593.2006
38 https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.00783-12
39 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5175.743
40 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038567
41 https://doi.org/10.1586/erv.11.60
42 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(68)87164-4
43 schema:datePublished 2013-12
44 schema:datePublishedReg 2013-12-01
45 schema:description Toxoid vaccines--vaccines based on inactivated bacterial toxins--are routinely used to promote antitoxin immunity for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. Following chemical or heat denaturation, inactivated toxins can be administered to mount toxin-specific immune responses. However, retaining faithful antigenic presentation while removing toxin virulence remains a major challenge and presents a trade-off between efficacy and safety in toxoid development. Here, we show a nanoparticle-based toxin-detainment strategy that safely delivers non-disrupted pore-forming toxins for immune processing. Using erythrocyte membrane-coated nanoparticles and staphylococcal α-haemolysin, we demonstrate effective virulence neutralization via spontaneous particle entrapment. Compared with vaccination with heat-denatured toxin, mice vaccinated with the nanoparticle-detained toxin showed superior protective immunity against toxin-mediated adverse effects. We find that the non-disruptive detoxification approach benefited the immunogenicity and efficacy of toxoid vaccines. We anticipate that this study will open new possibilities in the preparation of antitoxin vaccines against the many virulence factors that threaten public health.
46 schema:genre research_article
47 schema:inLanguage en
48 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
49 schema:isPartOf N21ae1edc857847fb927262067f57a203
50 Ncbe59a11f5f84ebc8c00d128abda8380
51 sg:journal.1037429
52 schema:name Nanoparticle-detained toxins for safe and effective vaccination
53 schema:pagination 933-938
54 schema:productId N2d4680fe53f84c77961a5497fc356d06
55 N44317871267d4cf3b984cb1570218f44
56 N61ffba57dbbc4772b5c064c846369436
57 N66d047954c384ab69006fc2dece7fc8c
58 N84473c984cb046359fc4ca2d458f6c1e
59 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053141455
60 https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2013.254
61 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T21:28
62 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
63 schema:sdPublisher N13874255e0c6424583e2a9138ee67917
64 schema:url http://www.nature.com/articles/nnano.2013.254
65 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
66 sgo:sdDataset articles
67 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
68 N079a0962b1194f4a9f6e0cd64960318f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
69 schema:name Humans
70 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
71 N13874255e0c6424583e2a9138ee67917 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
72 rdf:type schema:Organization
73 N209135ffd1a24db0bf2d7e409c4464d4 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
74 schema:name Vaccination
75 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
76 N21ae1edc857847fb927262067f57a203 schema:issueNumber 12
77 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
78 N2d4680fe53f84c77961a5497fc356d06 schema:name doi
79 schema:value 10.1038/nnano.2013.254
80 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
81 N3ddbde5ccf6a4dc9be994a18352eedf1 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
82 schema:name Drug Delivery Systems
83 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
84 N44317871267d4cf3b984cb1570218f44 schema:name nlm_unique_id
85 schema:value 101283273
86 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
87 N46cc939805e44db1900c54d296087801 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
88 schema:name Animals
89 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
90 N5249992980714d418df38a408aead56d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
91 schema:name Mice
92 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
93 N60b943aae7af4144924dc59d72511496 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
94 schema:name Hemolysin Proteins
95 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
96 N60f777a20b274670bbe6b07cffe89a0a rdf:first sg:person.01161652373.60
97 rdf:rest Nface29ff6bdf499792269acfbc7feb38
98 N61ffba57dbbc4772b5c064c846369436 schema:name readcube_id
99 schema:value fd1ff15623dc6dd4e04686e33b0fc8d860342fa86bccc6795d951e634b838ad0
100 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
101 N66d047954c384ab69006fc2dece7fc8c schema:name dimensions_id
102 schema:value pub.1053141455
103 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
104 N750af5971adb4907b3bc922f259d06cc schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
105 schema:name Nanoparticles
106 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
107 N7535e69fa3434a51afa24b4aef45da35 rdf:first sg:person.01203261451.11
108 rdf:rest N60f777a20b274670bbe6b07cffe89a0a
109 N84473c984cb046359fc4ca2d458f6c1e schema:name pubmed_id
110 schema:value 24292514
111 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
112 N94c73e2fb6b74ba38623b02e78ddce97 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
113 schema:name Safety
114 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
115 N9bbbaf2ecc8242d3a4c9d604cd74d29a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
116 schema:name Bacterial Toxins
117 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
118 Ncbe59a11f5f84ebc8c00d128abda8380 schema:volumeNumber 8
119 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
120 Ne7116846c3954fbc949366a9205c1941 rdf:first sg:person.011527076027.43
121 rdf:rest rdf:nil
122 Nface29ff6bdf499792269acfbc7feb38 rdf:first sg:person.01012442640.06
123 rdf:rest Ne7116846c3954fbc949366a9205c1941
124 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
125 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
126 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
127 anzsrc-for:1103 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
128 schema:name Clinical Sciences
129 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
130 sg:grant.2500635 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/nnano.2013.254
131 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
132 sg:grant.2622717 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/nnano.2013.254
133 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
134 sg:grant.3140207 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/nnano.2013.254
135 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
136 sg:journal.1037429 schema:issn 1748-3387
137 1748-3395
138 schema:name Nature Nanotechnology
139 rdf:type schema:Periodical
140 sg:person.01012442640.06 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.266100.3
141 schema:familyName Luk
142 schema:givenName Brian T.
143 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01012442640.06
144 rdf:type schema:Person
145 sg:person.011527076027.43 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.266100.3
146 schema:familyName Zhang
147 schema:givenName Liangfang
148 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011527076027.43
149 rdf:type schema:Person
150 sg:person.01161652373.60 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.266100.3
151 schema:familyName Fang
152 schema:givenName Ronnie H.
153 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01161652373.60
154 rdf:type schema:Person
155 sg:person.01203261451.11 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.266100.3
156 schema:familyName Hu
157 schema:givenName Che-Ming J.
158 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01203261451.11
159 rdf:type schema:Person
160 sg:pub.10.1038/269602a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000655776
161 https://doi.org/10.1038/269602a0
162 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
163 sg:pub.10.1038/nature04721 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050800201
164 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04721
165 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
166 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08604 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012248564
167 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08604
168 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
169 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt1332 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019395484
170 https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt1332
171 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
172 sg:pub.10.1038/nm.2451 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014691817
173 https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.2451
174 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
175 sg:pub.10.1038/nmat2960 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021036125
176 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat2960
177 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
178 sg:pub.10.1038/nnano.2007.223 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036245928
179 https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2007.223
180 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
181 sg:pub.10.1038/nnano.2012.212 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036981585
182 https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2012.212
183 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
184 sg:pub.10.1038/nnano.2013.54 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046616776
185 https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2013.54
186 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
187 sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro1095 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015362103
188 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro1095
189 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
190 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082173388 schema:CreativeWork
191 https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201200446 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016972848
192 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
193 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.12.032 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023329999
194 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
195 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.01.065 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005957279
196 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
197 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.06.007 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018891025
198 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
199 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0966-842x(01)02259-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027389394
200 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
201 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1106634108 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030557212
202 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
203 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1112648109 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007685870
204 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
205 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m310752200 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038160637
206 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
207 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20072208 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030703946
208 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
209 https://doi.org/10.1086/313883 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041425775
210 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
211 https://doi.org/10.1086/656043 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008313945
212 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
213 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.347579 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062616186
214 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
215 https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3003763 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062687435
216 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
217 https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.74.1.586-593.2006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017311057
218 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
219 https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.00783-12 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006120334
220 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
221 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5175.743 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022218357
222 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
223 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038567 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025234739
224 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
225 https://doi.org/10.1586/erv.11.60 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036401123
226 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
227 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(68)87164-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081268727
228 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
229 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.266100.3 schema:alternateName University of California, San Diego
230 schema:name Department of NanoEngineering and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
231 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...