Promoting solution phase discharge in Li–O2 batteries containing weakly solvating electrolyte solutions View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2016-08

AUTHORS

Xiangwen Gao, Yuhui Chen, Lee Johnson, Peter G Bruce

ABSTRACT

On discharge, the Li-O2 battery can form a Li2O2 film on the cathode surface, leading to low capacities, low rates and early cell death, or it can form Li2O2 particles in solution, leading to high capacities at relatively high rates and avoiding early cell death. Achieving discharge in solution is important and may be encouraged by the use of high donor or acceptor number solvents or salts that dissolve the LiO2 intermediate involved in the formation of Li2O2. However, the characteristics that make high donor or acceptor number solvents good (for example, high polarity) result in them being unstable towards LiO2 or Li2O2. Here we demonstrate that introduction of the additive 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DBBQ) promotes solution phase formation of Li2O2 in low-polarity and weakly solvating electrolyte solutions. Importantly, it does so while simultaneously suppressing direct reduction to Li2O2 on the cathode surface, which would otherwise lead to Li2O2 film growth and premature cell death. It also halves the overpotential during discharge, increases the capacity 80- to 100-fold and enables rates >1 mA cmareal(-2) for cathodes with capacities of >4 mAh cmareal(-2). The DBBQ additive operates by a new mechanism that avoids the reactive LiO2 intermediate in solution. More... »

PAGES

882

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nmat4629

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmat4629

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032412790

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27111413


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54 schema:description On discharge, the Li-O2 battery can form a Li2O2 film on the cathode surface, leading to low capacities, low rates and early cell death, or it can form Li2O2 particles in solution, leading to high capacities at relatively high rates and avoiding early cell death. Achieving discharge in solution is important and may be encouraged by the use of high donor or acceptor number solvents or salts that dissolve the LiO2 intermediate involved in the formation of Li2O2. However, the characteristics that make high donor or acceptor number solvents good (for example, high polarity) result in them being unstable towards LiO2 or Li2O2. Here we demonstrate that introduction of the additive 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DBBQ) promotes solution phase formation of Li2O2 in low-polarity and weakly solvating electrolyte solutions. Importantly, it does so while simultaneously suppressing direct reduction to Li2O2 on the cathode surface, which would otherwise lead to Li2O2 film growth and premature cell death. It also halves the overpotential during discharge, increases the capacity 80- to 100-fold and enables rates >1 mA cmareal(-2) for cathodes with capacities of >4 mAh cmareal(-2). The DBBQ additive operates by a new mechanism that avoids the reactive LiO2 intermediate in solution.
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