The DAZ gene cluster on the human Y chromosome arose from an autosomal gene that was transposed, repeatedly amplified and ... View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1996-11

AUTHORS

R Saxena, L G Brown, T Hawkins, R K Alagappan, H Skaletsky, M P Reeve, R Reijo, S Rozen, M B Dinulos, C M Disteche, D C Page

ABSTRACT

It is widely believed that most or all Y-chromosomal genes were once shared with the X chromosome. The DAZ gene is a candidate for the human Y-chromosomal Azoospermia Factor (AZF). We report multiple copies of DAZ (> 99% identical in DNA sequence) clustered in the AZF region and a functional DAZ homologue (DAZH) on human chromosome 3. The entire gene family appears to be expressed in germ cells. Sequence analysis indicates that the Y-chromosomal DAZ cluster arose during primate evolution by (i) transposing the autosomal gene to the Y, (ii) amplifying and pruning exons within the transposed gene and (iii) amplifying the modified gene. These results challenge prevailing views of sex chromosome evolution, suggesting that acquisition of autosomal fertility genes is an important process in Y chromosome evolution. More... »

PAGES

292

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/ng1196-292

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng1196-292

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012147825

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8896558


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0604", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Genetics", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Biological Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Amino Acid Sequence", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Base Sequence", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Chromosome Mapping", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Cloning, Molecular", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "DNA Transposable Elements", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Deleted in Azoospermia 1 Protein", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Evolution, Molecular", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Female", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Gene Amplification", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Gene Expression Regulation", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Humans", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Male", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Molecular Sequence Data", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Multigene Family", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Ovary", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "RNA-Binding Proteins", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Tissue Distribution", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Transcription, Genetic", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Y Chromosome", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Howard Hughes Medical Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.413575.1", 
          "name": [
            "Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA."
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Saxena", 
        "givenName": "R", 
        "id": "sg:person.01152504217.26", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01152504217.26"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Brown", 
        "givenName": "L G", 
        "id": "sg:person.012271742572.52", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012271742572.52"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Hawkins", 
        "givenName": "T", 
        "id": "sg:person.015660711271.83", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015660711271.83"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Alagappan", 
        "givenName": "R K", 
        "id": "sg:person.01064432564.38", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01064432564.38"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Skaletsky", 
        "givenName": "H", 
        "id": "sg:person.01266753034.97", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01266753034.97"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Reeve", 
        "givenName": "M P", 
        "id": "sg:person.0733054651.36", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0733054651.36"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Reijo", 
        "givenName": "R", 
        "id": "sg:person.0702070764.31", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0702070764.31"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Rozen", 
        "givenName": "S", 
        "id": "sg:person.013130175037.28", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013130175037.28"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Dinulos", 
        "givenName": "M B", 
        "id": "sg:person.0745654173.13", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0745654173.13"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Disteche", 
        "givenName": "C M", 
        "id": "sg:person.01071102663.03", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01071102663.03"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Page", 
        "givenName": "D C", 
        "id": "sg:person.01224407762.64", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01224407762.64"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0890-8508(06)80007-1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005367668"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.89.16.7591", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005699547"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0968-0004(91)90088-d", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007634021"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.1320360405", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007665221"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.1320360405", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007665221"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/5.3.339", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009108975"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf03052599", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012783276", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03052599"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf03052599", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012783276", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03052599"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf03052599", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012783276", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03052599"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-88178-7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017975083", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-88178-7"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-88178-7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017975083", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-88178-7"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.89.18.8794", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018026304"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ng0895-472", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018446934", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/ng0895-472"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(84)90388-7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021275256"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/5.4.513", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021703657"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/381783a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022406423", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/381783a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ng0895-383", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022756729", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/ng0895-383"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1159/000134310", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023617915"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/381740a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027005987", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/381740a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.950170407", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028552972"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(93)90058-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031366256"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/5.7.933", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032542838"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-9525(00)89043-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033724747"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/geno.1996.0366", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034430577"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(96)90938-1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037424118"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185x.1931.tb01030.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041883500"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ng0895-466", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044287777", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/ng0895-466"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1809.1993.tb00886.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047925569"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9378(89)90959-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049223294"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0960-9822(02)00448-7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051005894"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00278879", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053460948", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00278879"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00278879", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053460948", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00278879"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016672300014051", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053746761"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016672300014051", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053746761"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/1.1.29", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059643795"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/sqb.1986.051.01.029", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060405779"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1359640", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062477300"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1439769", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062482218"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1604317", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062494784"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.270.5244.1945", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062551849"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.8036511", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062652041"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.8284674", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062653965"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2307/1312947", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069435099"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077372424", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079043933", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079502891", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079505954", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079788523", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082892460", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083025084", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "1996-11", 
    "datePublishedReg": "1996-11-01", 
    "description": "It is widely believed that most or all Y-chromosomal genes were once shared with the X chromosome. The DAZ gene is a candidate for the human Y-chromosomal Azoospermia Factor (AZF). We report multiple copies of DAZ (> 99% identical in DNA sequence) clustered in the AZF region and a functional DAZ homologue (DAZH) on human chromosome 3. The entire gene family appears to be expressed in germ cells. Sequence analysis indicates that the Y-chromosomal DAZ cluster arose during primate evolution by (i) transposing the autosomal gene to the Y, (ii) amplifying and pruning exons within the transposed gene and (iii) amplifying the modified gene. These results challenge prevailing views of sex chromosome evolution, suggesting that acquisition of autosomal fertility genes is an important process in Y chromosome evolution.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ng1196-292", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1103138", 
        "issn": [
          "1061-4036", 
          "1546-1718"
        ], 
        "name": "Nature Genetics", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "3", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "14"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "The DAZ gene cluster on the human Y chromosome arose from an autosomal gene that was transposed, repeatedly amplified and pruned", 
    "pagination": "292", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "39e00b12206ad92342f503d2f66f414b9bd76e40e08d24be6bd172cce50a1187"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "8896558"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "9216904"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1038/ng1196-292"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1012147825"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1038/ng1196-292", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012147825"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T01:47", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8700_00000434.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://www.nature.com/articles/ng1196-292"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/ng1196-292'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/ng1196-292'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/ng1196-292'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/ng1196-292'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

346 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      94 URIs      42 LITERALS      30 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1038/ng1196-292 schema:about N0ebd1bc2cc534d5dafa8577e635b6bcc
2 N1f38d0c470a74152b99b0d27a48c8a55
3 N24f6049a0eec47c2af2e333a3d8c994f
4 N48fd6c4113ad4c81855ea7cc2f4cffbc
5 N4dd61537a4a74601acdf453fb9af2871
6 N56c358d3955f4e8bb201e2333320c94c
7 N5bc8099b2a0b48d281c65e964a4de95e
8 N5cde2ea5117b433287f160318c73378a
9 N675e2856af8d471b99b1610c0cede660
10 N792ca048e6a1448f9072b581f2dafee7
11 N7e79c3cfb3fa4455b1f4fe126a175e18
12 N883f999cbd5c4a1aaebe9196c33e58cd
13 N8e75350249464745850a8673d7174623
14 N9db5aec362f74658a7c3a6087e22dd32
15 Nb2fe8343dbfe4b93ba22956c3f340e81
16 Nb7009a77333d446b994221654dfceafd
17 Nc7e5592327c04207b2473f9404e900bc
18 Nd26ff508d4584056957383e2439cc725
19 Ndbc56aca36fa448c87be552b5dfdce46
20 Nebcd1727efea4aeebdb14dc06fb7c3ba
21 Nec7b39979f6b4ae9be7f45fee8fef473
22 anzsrc-for:06
23 anzsrc-for:0604
24 schema:author N022b9c9966964fa4814292d6082ecb1d
25 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-88178-7
26 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00278879
27 sg:pub.10.1007/bf03052599
28 sg:pub.10.1038/381740a0
29 sg:pub.10.1038/381783a0
30 sg:pub.10.1038/ng0895-383
31 sg:pub.10.1038/ng0895-466
32 sg:pub.10.1038/ng0895-472
33 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077372424
34 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079043933
35 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079502891
36 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079505954
37 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079788523
38 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082892460
39 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083025084
40 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.1320360405
41 https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.950170407
42 https://doi.org/10.1006/geno.1996.0366
43 https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9378(89)90959-9
44 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(84)90388-7
45 https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(93)90058-x
46 https://doi.org/10.1016/0968-0004(91)90088-d
47 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(96)90938-1
48 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-9525(00)89043-5
49 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0890-8508(06)80007-1
50 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0960-9822(02)00448-7
51 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016672300014051
52 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.89.16.7591
53 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.89.18.8794
54 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/1.1.29
55 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/5.3.339
56 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/5.4.513
57 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/5.7.933
58 https://doi.org/10.1101/sqb.1986.051.01.029
59 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1809.1993.tb00886.x
60 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185x.1931.tb01030.x
61 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1359640
62 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1439769
63 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1604317
64 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.270.5244.1945
65 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.8036511
66 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.8284674
67 https://doi.org/10.1159/000134310
68 https://doi.org/10.2307/1312947
69 schema:datePublished 1996-11
70 schema:datePublishedReg 1996-11-01
71 schema:description It is widely believed that most or all Y-chromosomal genes were once shared with the X chromosome. The DAZ gene is a candidate for the human Y-chromosomal Azoospermia Factor (AZF). We report multiple copies of DAZ (> 99% identical in DNA sequence) clustered in the AZF region and a functional DAZ homologue (DAZH) on human chromosome 3. The entire gene family appears to be expressed in germ cells. Sequence analysis indicates that the Y-chromosomal DAZ cluster arose during primate evolution by (i) transposing the autosomal gene to the Y, (ii) amplifying and pruning exons within the transposed gene and (iii) amplifying the modified gene. These results challenge prevailing views of sex chromosome evolution, suggesting that acquisition of autosomal fertility genes is an important process in Y chromosome evolution.
72 schema:genre research_article
73 schema:inLanguage en
74 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
75 schema:isPartOf N1d3f6ae7bd9a46cea62e46d716433f19
76 Ndbc6d90312c949aeb6c61f26a4043792
77 sg:journal.1103138
78 schema:name The DAZ gene cluster on the human Y chromosome arose from an autosomal gene that was transposed, repeatedly amplified and pruned
79 schema:pagination 292
80 schema:productId N01c695a98cb340bdac271c4c9538ab53
81 N03a50faea8d54220b5f92e3949165947
82 N184173676aae43c3a3f2c79a9c9fbece
83 N7177bd87e198488fbc1d8df334ddadcc
84 Ncdcf69dfdec945638113d3463c0abf6e
85 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012147825
86 https://doi.org/10.1038/ng1196-292
87 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T01:47
88 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
89 schema:sdPublisher Nb13ccb9d66714e5f96e0a3d23400025f
90 schema:url https://www.nature.com/articles/ng1196-292
91 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
92 sgo:sdDataset articles
93 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
94 N01c695a98cb340bdac271c4c9538ab53 schema:name pubmed_id
95 schema:value 8896558
96 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
97 N022b9c9966964fa4814292d6082ecb1d rdf:first sg:person.01152504217.26
98 rdf:rest N550bbf7b6ee146bbacaadc899ead079f
99 N03a50faea8d54220b5f92e3949165947 schema:name readcube_id
100 schema:value 39e00b12206ad92342f503d2f66f414b9bd76e40e08d24be6bd172cce50a1187
101 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
102 N0a898b42f662470ca42fce83a8cd32a2 rdf:first sg:person.01224407762.64
103 rdf:rest rdf:nil
104 N0ebd1bc2cc534d5dafa8577e635b6bcc schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
105 schema:name Deleted in Azoospermia 1 Protein
106 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
107 N184173676aae43c3a3f2c79a9c9fbece schema:name doi
108 schema:value 10.1038/ng1196-292
109 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
110 N1d3f6ae7bd9a46cea62e46d716433f19 schema:issueNumber 3
111 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
112 N1f38d0c470a74152b99b0d27a48c8a55 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
113 schema:name RNA-Binding Proteins
114 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
115 N2383419396ae4de29c6fd7dc2c2634a8 rdf:first sg:person.0745654173.13
116 rdf:rest Nffc32705327a4cfc95a201eeb5f27095
117 N24f6049a0eec47c2af2e333a3d8c994f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
118 schema:name Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3
119 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
120 N27011d91f6a24f608d75fa627d976a35 rdf:first sg:person.01064432564.38
121 rdf:rest N4931b97cfe6f43909664bbcc5b52e696
122 N31cc52c4cf2d4a5796e38107817b5cb2 rdf:first sg:person.015660711271.83
123 rdf:rest N27011d91f6a24f608d75fa627d976a35
124 N3dcda7670e6b46e79b9a9ab4a3e3c70f rdf:first sg:person.0702070764.31
125 rdf:rest N80af4e223c4149bfa9aa1e1cf0a3cf43
126 N48fd6c4113ad4c81855ea7cc2f4cffbc schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
127 schema:name Base Sequence
128 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
129 N4931b97cfe6f43909664bbcc5b52e696 rdf:first sg:person.01266753034.97
130 rdf:rest N689fa885713c4f7f957bb5cac85ab89d
131 N4dd61537a4a74601acdf453fb9af2871 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
132 schema:name Tissue Distribution
133 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
134 N550bbf7b6ee146bbacaadc899ead079f rdf:first sg:person.012271742572.52
135 rdf:rest N31cc52c4cf2d4a5796e38107817b5cb2
136 N56c358d3955f4e8bb201e2333320c94c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
137 schema:name Female
138 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
139 N5bc8099b2a0b48d281c65e964a4de95e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
140 schema:name Y Chromosome
141 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
142 N5cde2ea5117b433287f160318c73378a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
143 schema:name Transcription, Genetic
144 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
145 N675e2856af8d471b99b1610c0cede660 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
146 schema:name Multigene Family
147 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
148 N689fa885713c4f7f957bb5cac85ab89d rdf:first sg:person.0733054651.36
149 rdf:rest N3dcda7670e6b46e79b9a9ab4a3e3c70f
150 N7177bd87e198488fbc1d8df334ddadcc schema:name dimensions_id
151 schema:value pub.1012147825
152 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
153 N792ca048e6a1448f9072b581f2dafee7 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
154 schema:name Cloning, Molecular
155 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
156 N7e79c3cfb3fa4455b1f4fe126a175e18 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
157 schema:name Gene Amplification
158 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
159 N80af4e223c4149bfa9aa1e1cf0a3cf43 rdf:first sg:person.013130175037.28
160 rdf:rest N2383419396ae4de29c6fd7dc2c2634a8
161 N883f999cbd5c4a1aaebe9196c33e58cd schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
162 schema:name Male
163 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
164 N8e75350249464745850a8673d7174623 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
165 schema:name Humans
166 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
167 N9db5aec362f74658a7c3a6087e22dd32 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
168 schema:name DNA Transposable Elements
169 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
170 Nb13ccb9d66714e5f96e0a3d23400025f schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
171 rdf:type schema:Organization
172 Nb2fe8343dbfe4b93ba22956c3f340e81 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
173 schema:name Gene Expression Regulation
174 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
175 Nb7009a77333d446b994221654dfceafd schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
176 schema:name Evolution, Molecular
177 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
178 Nc7e5592327c04207b2473f9404e900bc schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
179 schema:name Amino Acid Sequence
180 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
181 Ncdcf69dfdec945638113d3463c0abf6e schema:name nlm_unique_id
182 schema:value 9216904
183 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
184 Nd26ff508d4584056957383e2439cc725 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
185 schema:name Chromosome Mapping
186 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
187 Ndbc56aca36fa448c87be552b5dfdce46 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
188 schema:name Molecular Sequence Data
189 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
190 Ndbc6d90312c949aeb6c61f26a4043792 schema:volumeNumber 14
191 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
192 Nebcd1727efea4aeebdb14dc06fb7c3ba schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
193 schema:name Ovary
194 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
195 Nec7b39979f6b4ae9be7f45fee8fef473 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
196 schema:name Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
197 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
198 Nffc32705327a4cfc95a201eeb5f27095 rdf:first sg:person.01071102663.03
199 rdf:rest N0a898b42f662470ca42fce83a8cd32a2
200 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
201 schema:name Biological Sciences
202 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
203 anzsrc-for:0604 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
204 schema:name Genetics
205 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
206 sg:journal.1103138 schema:issn 1061-4036
207 1546-1718
208 schema:name Nature Genetics
209 rdf:type schema:Periodical
210 sg:person.01064432564.38 schema:familyName Alagappan
211 schema:givenName R K
212 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01064432564.38
213 rdf:type schema:Person
214 sg:person.01071102663.03 schema:familyName Disteche
215 schema:givenName C M
216 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01071102663.03
217 rdf:type schema:Person
218 sg:person.01152504217.26 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.413575.1
219 schema:familyName Saxena
220 schema:givenName R
221 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01152504217.26
222 rdf:type schema:Person
223 sg:person.01224407762.64 schema:familyName Page
224 schema:givenName D C
225 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01224407762.64
226 rdf:type schema:Person
227 sg:person.012271742572.52 schema:familyName Brown
228 schema:givenName L G
229 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012271742572.52
230 rdf:type schema:Person
231 sg:person.01266753034.97 schema:familyName Skaletsky
232 schema:givenName H
233 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01266753034.97
234 rdf:type schema:Person
235 sg:person.013130175037.28 schema:familyName Rozen
236 schema:givenName S
237 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013130175037.28
238 rdf:type schema:Person
239 sg:person.015660711271.83 schema:familyName Hawkins
240 schema:givenName T
241 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015660711271.83
242 rdf:type schema:Person
243 sg:person.0702070764.31 schema:familyName Reijo
244 schema:givenName R
245 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0702070764.31
246 rdf:type schema:Person
247 sg:person.0733054651.36 schema:familyName Reeve
248 schema:givenName M P
249 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0733054651.36
250 rdf:type schema:Person
251 sg:person.0745654173.13 schema:familyName Dinulos
252 schema:givenName M B
253 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0745654173.13
254 rdf:type schema:Person
255 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-88178-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017975083
256 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-88178-7
257 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
258 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00278879 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053460948
259 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00278879
260 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
261 sg:pub.10.1007/bf03052599 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012783276
262 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03052599
263 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
264 sg:pub.10.1038/381740a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027005987
265 https://doi.org/10.1038/381740a0
266 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
267 sg:pub.10.1038/381783a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022406423
268 https://doi.org/10.1038/381783a0
269 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
270 sg:pub.10.1038/ng0895-383 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022756729
271 https://doi.org/10.1038/ng0895-383
272 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
273 sg:pub.10.1038/ng0895-466 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044287777
274 https://doi.org/10.1038/ng0895-466
275 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
276 sg:pub.10.1038/ng0895-472 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018446934
277 https://doi.org/10.1038/ng0895-472
278 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
279 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077372424 schema:CreativeWork
280 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079043933 schema:CreativeWork
281 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079502891 schema:CreativeWork
282 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079505954 schema:CreativeWork
283 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079788523 schema:CreativeWork
284 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082892460 schema:CreativeWork
285 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083025084 schema:CreativeWork
286 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.1320360405 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007665221
287 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
288 https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.950170407 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028552972
289 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
290 https://doi.org/10.1006/geno.1996.0366 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034430577
291 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
292 https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9378(89)90959-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049223294
293 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
294 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(84)90388-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021275256
295 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
296 https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(93)90058-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031366256
297 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
298 https://doi.org/10.1016/0968-0004(91)90088-d schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007634021
299 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
300 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(96)90938-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037424118
301 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
302 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-9525(00)89043-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033724747
303 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
304 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0890-8508(06)80007-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005367668
305 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
306 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0960-9822(02)00448-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051005894
307 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
308 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016672300014051 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053746761
309 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
310 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.89.16.7591 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005699547
311 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
312 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.89.18.8794 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018026304
313 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
314 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/1.1.29 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059643795
315 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
316 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/5.3.339 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009108975
317 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
318 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/5.4.513 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021703657
319 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
320 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/5.7.933 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032542838
321 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
322 https://doi.org/10.1101/sqb.1986.051.01.029 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060405779
323 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
324 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1809.1993.tb00886.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047925569
325 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
326 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185x.1931.tb01030.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041883500
327 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
328 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1359640 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062477300
329 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
330 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1439769 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062482218
331 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
332 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1604317 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062494784
333 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
334 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.270.5244.1945 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062551849
335 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
336 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.8036511 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062652041
337 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
338 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.8284674 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062653965
339 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
340 https://doi.org/10.1159/000134310 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023617915
341 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
342 https://doi.org/10.2307/1312947 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069435099
343 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
344 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.413575.1 schema:alternateName Howard Hughes Medical Institute
345 schema:name Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
346 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...