Human-induced nitrogen–phosphorus imbalances alter natural and managed ecosystems across the globe View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2013-12-17

AUTHORS

Josep Peñuelas, Benjamin Poulter, Jordi Sardans, Philippe Ciais, Marijn van der Velde, Laurent Bopp, Olivier Boucher, Yves Godderis, Philippe Hinsinger, Joan Llusia, Elise Nardin, Sara Vicca, Michael Obersteiner, Ivan A. Janssens

ABSTRACT

The availability of carbon from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and of nitrogen from various human-induced inputs to ecosystems is continuously increasing; however, these increases are not paralleled by a similar increase in phosphorus inputs. The inexorable change in the stoichiometry of carbon and nitrogen relative to phosphorus has no equivalent in Earth’s history. Here we report the profound and yet uncertain consequences of the human imprint on the phosphorus cycle and nitrogen:phosphorus stoichiometry for the structure, functioning and diversity of terrestrial and aquatic organisms and ecosystems. A mass balance approach is used to show that limited phosphorus and nitrogen availability are likely to jointly reduce future carbon storage by natural ecosystems during this century. Further, if phosphorus fertilizers cannot be made increasingly accessible, the crop yields projections of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment imply an increase of the nutrient deficit in developing regions. More... »

PAGES

2934

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/ncomms3934

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3934

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021959818

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24343268


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27 schema:description The availability of carbon from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and of nitrogen from various human-induced inputs to ecosystems is continuously increasing; however, these increases are not paralleled by a similar increase in phosphorus inputs. The inexorable change in the stoichiometry of carbon and nitrogen relative to phosphorus has no equivalent in Earth’s history. Here we report the profound and yet uncertain consequences of the human imprint on the phosphorus cycle and nitrogen:phosphorus stoichiometry for the structure, functioning and diversity of terrestrial and aquatic organisms and ecosystems. A mass balance approach is used to show that limited phosphorus and nitrogen availability are likely to jointly reduce future carbon storage by natural ecosystems during this century. Further, if phosphorus fertilizers cannot be made increasingly accessible, the crop yields projections of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment imply an increase of the nutrient deficit in developing regions.
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36 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
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39 assessment
40 atmospheric carbon dioxide levels
41 availability
42 availability of carbon
43 balance approach
44 carbon
45 carbon dioxide levels
46 carbon storage
47 century
48 changes
49 consequences
50 crops
51 cycle
52 deficits
53 diversity
54 ecosystems
55 equivalent
56 fertilizer
57 functioning
58 future carbon storage
59 globe
60 history
61 human imprint
62 imbalance
63 imprint
64 increase
65 inexorable change
66 input
67 levels
68 limited phosphorus
69 mass balance approach
70 natural ecosystems
71 nitrogen
72 nitrogen availability
73 nutrient deficits
74 organisms
75 phosphorus
76 phosphorus cycle
77 phosphorus fertilizer
78 phosphorus inputs
79 phosphorus stoichiometry
80 projections
81 region
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83 stoichiometry
84 stoichiometry of carbon
85 storage
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87 uncertain consequences
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