Chondroitin sulphate N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase-1 inhibits recovery from neural injury View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2013-11-12

AUTHORS

Kosei Takeuchi, Nozomu Yoshioka, Susumu Higa Onaga, Yumi Watanabe, Shinji Miyata, Yoshino Wada, Chika Kudo, Masayasu Okada, Kentaro Ohko, Kanako Oda, Toshiya Sato, Minesuke Yokoyama, Natsuki Matsushita, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano, Kenji Sakimura, Hitoshi Kawano, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Michihiro Igarashi

ABSTRACT

Extracellular factors that inhibit axon growth and intrinsic factors that promote it affect neural regeneration. Therapies targeting any single gene have not yet simultaneously optimized both types of factors. Chondroitin sulphate (CS), a glycosaminoglycan, is the most abundant extracellular inhibitor of axon growth. Here we show that mice carrying a gene knockout for CS N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-1 (T1), a key enzyme in CS biosynthesis, recover more completely from spinal cord injury than wild-type mice and even chondroitinase ABC-treated mice. Notably, synthesis of heparan sulphate (HS), a glycosaminoglycan promoting axonal growth, is also upregulated in TI knockout mice because HS-synthesis enzymes are induced in the mutant neurons. Moreover, chondroitinase ABC treatment never induces HS upregulation. Taken together, our results indicate that regulation of a single gene, T1, mediates excellent recovery from spinal cord injury by optimizing counteracting effectors of axon regeneration—an extracellular inhibitor of CS and intrinsic promoters, namely, HS-synthesis enzymes. More... »

PAGES

2740

Journal

TITLE

Nature Communications

ISSUE

1

VOLUME

4

Author Affiliations

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/ncomms3740

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3740

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008776503

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24220492


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1109", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Neurosciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Animals", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Chondroitin Sulfates", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Mice", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Mice, Knockout", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Spinal Cord Injuries", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.260975.f", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan", 
            "Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Takeuchi", 
        "givenName": "Kosei", 
        "id": "sg:person.07625513635.94", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07625513635.94"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Doctoral and restart postdoctoral fellowship program, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), 102 8472, Tokyo, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.54432.34", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan", 
            "Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan", 
            "Laboratory of Neural Regeneration, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Tokyo 156 8506, Japan", 
            "Doctoral and restart postdoctoral fellowship program, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), 102 8472, Tokyo, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Yoshioka", 
        "givenName": "Nozomu", 
        "id": "sg:person.0701115244.71", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0701115244.71"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.260975.f", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Higa Onaga", 
        "givenName": "Susumu", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Doctoral and restart postdoctoral fellowship program, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), 102 8472, Tokyo, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.54432.34", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan", 
            "Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan", 
            "Doctoral and restart postdoctoral fellowship program, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), 102 8472, Tokyo, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Watanabe", 
        "givenName": "Yumi", 
        "id": "sg:person.011563246004.43", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011563246004.43"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Biochemistry, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, 4-19-1 Motoyamakita-machi, Kobe 658 8558, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411100.5", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Biochemistry, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, 4-19-1 Motoyamakita-machi, Kobe 658 8558, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Miyata", 
        "givenName": "Shinji", 
        "id": "sg:person.013762006643.05", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013762006643.05"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.260975.f", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Wada", 
        "givenName": "Yoshino", 
        "id": "sg:person.0677044141.95", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0677044141.95"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.260975.f", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kudo", 
        "givenName": "Chika", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, 951 8510, Niigata, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.260975.f", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan", 
            "Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, 951 8510, Niigata, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Okada", 
        "givenName": "Masayasu", 
        "id": "sg:person.01347041763.22", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01347041763.22"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.260975.f", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan", 
            "Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Ohko", 
        "givenName": "Kentaro", 
        "id": "sg:person.01273044214.57", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01273044214.57"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Comparative and Experimental Medicine, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.260975.f", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Comparative and Experimental Medicine, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Oda", 
        "givenName": "Kanako", 
        "id": "sg:person.0630730741.24", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0630730741.24"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Comparative and Experimental Medicine, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.260975.f", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Comparative and Experimental Medicine, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Sato", 
        "givenName": "Toshiya", 
        "id": "sg:person.01363451357.17", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01363451357.17"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Comparative and Experimental Medicine, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.260975.f", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Comparative and Experimental Medicine, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Yokoyama", 
        "givenName": "Minesuke", 
        "id": "sg:person.013720004322.04", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013720004322.04"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Translational Research Center (TRC), Ehime University Hospital, Shitsukawa, 791-0295, Ehime, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452478.8", 
          "name": [
            "Translational Research Center (TRC), Ehime University Hospital, Shitsukawa, 791-0295, Ehime, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Matsushita", 
        "givenName": "Natsuki", 
        "id": "sg:person.011203704551.98", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011203704551.98"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Orthopedics, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.26091.3c", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Orthopedics, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Nakamura", 
        "givenName": "Masaya", 
        "id": "sg:person.07725047564.45", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07725047564.45"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Departments of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.26091.3c", 
          "name": [
            "Departments of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Okano", 
        "givenName": "Hideyuki", 
        "id": "sg:person.01023402201.84", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01023402201.84"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Cellular Neurobiology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.260975.f", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Cellular Neurobiology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Sakimura", 
        "givenName": "Kenji", 
        "id": "sg:person.0677173024.94", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0677173024.94"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Laboratory of Neural Regeneration, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Tokyo 156 8506, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.272456.0", 
          "name": [
            "Laboratory of Neural Regeneration, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Tokyo 156 8506, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kawano", 
        "givenName": "Hitoshi", 
        "id": "sg:person.01204772377.08", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01204772377.08"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Biochemistry, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, 4-19-1 Motoyamakita-machi, Kobe 658 8558, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411100.5", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Biochemistry, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, 4-19-1 Motoyamakita-machi, Kobe 658 8558, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kitagawa", 
        "givenName": "Hiroshi", 
        "id": "sg:person.014036461464.19", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014036461464.19"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.260975.f", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan", 
            "Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Igarashi", 
        "givenName": "Michihiro", 
        "id": "sg:person.016350202215.86", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016350202215.86"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nm1425", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031515995", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nm1425"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature10199", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035016292", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10199"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/416636a", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041597476", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/416636a"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrn2591", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006651607", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2591"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00441-012-1375-y", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046188384", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-012-1375-y"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrn1326", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045767072", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn1326"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11064-010-0324-y", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017024505", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-010-0324-y"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s12264-013-1359-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046851120", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s12264-013-1359-2"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nn.2603", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008018961", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.2603"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2013-11-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2013-11-12", 
    "description": "Extracellular factors that inhibit axon growth and intrinsic factors that promote it affect neural regeneration. Therapies targeting any single gene have not yet simultaneously optimized both types of factors. Chondroitin sulphate (CS), a glycosaminoglycan, is the most abundant extracellular inhibitor of axon growth. Here we show that mice carrying a gene knockout for CS N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-1 (T1), a key enzyme in CS biosynthesis, recover more completely from spinal cord injury than wild-type mice and even chondroitinase ABC-treated mice. Notably, synthesis of heparan sulphate (HS), a glycosaminoglycan promoting axonal growth, is also upregulated in TI knockout mice because HS-synthesis enzymes are induced in the mutant neurons. Moreover, chondroitinase ABC treatment never induces HS upregulation. Taken together, our results indicate that regulation of a single gene, T1, mediates excellent recovery from spinal cord injury by optimizing counteracting effectors of axon regeneration\u2014an extracellular inhibitor of CS and intrinsic promoters, namely, HS-synthesis enzymes.", 
    "genre": "article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms3740", 
    "inLanguage": "en", 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isFundedItemOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.6057687", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.6027905", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.6079885", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.6055246", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.6134906", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.6070593", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.5767021", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.5929885", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.6089924", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.6072037", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.6032104", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.6079906", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }
    ], 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1043282", 
        "issn": [
          "2041-1723"
        ], 
        "name": "Nature Communications", 
        "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "1", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "4"
      }
    ], 
    "keywords": [
      "spinal cord injury", 
      "cord injury", 
      "axon growth", 
      "wild-type mice", 
      "chondroitin sulfate", 
      "CS N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase", 
      "heparan sulfate", 
      "neural injury", 
      "chondroitinase ABC treatment", 
      "knockout mice", 
      "axon regeneration", 
      "axonal growth", 
      "neural regeneration", 
      "extracellular inhibitors", 
      "mutant neurons", 
      "mice", 
      "injury", 
      "ABC treatment", 
      "intrinsic promoters", 
      "inhibits recovery", 
      "chondroitinase ABC", 
      "extracellular factors", 
      "inhibitors", 
      "CS biosynthesis", 
      "intrinsic factors", 
      "excellent recovery", 
      "therapy", 
      "factors", 
      "gene knockout", 
      "key enzyme", 
      "neurons", 
      "upregulation", 
      "N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase", 
      "treatment", 
      "recovery", 
      "genes", 
      "enzyme", 
      "single gene", 
      "knockout", 
      "regeneration", 
      "glycosaminoglycans", 
      "effectors", 
      "T1", 
      "types of factors", 
      "sulfate", 
      "regulation", 
      "growth", 
      "promoter", 
      "ABC", 
      "types", 
      "results", 
      "biosynthesis", 
      "synthesis"
    ], 
    "name": "Chondroitin sulphate N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase-1 inhibits recovery from neural injury", 
    "pagination": "2740", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1008776503"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1038/ncomms3740"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "24220492"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3740", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008776503"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2022-05-20T07:28", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20220519/entities/gbq_results/article/article_604.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3740"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/ncomms3740'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/ncomms3740'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/ncomms3740'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/ncomms3740'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

356 TRIPLES      22 PREDICATES      95 URIs      78 LITERALS      14 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms3740 schema:about N38fb17f2934d4228a420dc5243069808
2 N432bec5282d04bc08d6a315c9e98089a
3 N50d56a79601b412eb59cb849ca1ec844
4 N528c050e208341e79b312b60e671449d
5 Nc09b094d172b46e99da4f65f70d46447
6 Ne09162937c014fa3bac721a99c64b841
7 Nf8368b7088bd4e08a20af28c065e8d88
8 anzsrc-for:11
9 anzsrc-for:1109
10 schema:author N83ea9264c9f145bda3147e94d97ad383
11 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s00441-012-1375-y
12 sg:pub.10.1007/s11064-010-0324-y
13 sg:pub.10.1007/s12264-013-1359-2
14 sg:pub.10.1038/416636a
15 sg:pub.10.1038/nature10199
16 sg:pub.10.1038/nm1425
17 sg:pub.10.1038/nn.2603
18 sg:pub.10.1038/nrn1326
19 sg:pub.10.1038/nrn2591
20 schema:datePublished 2013-11-12
21 schema:datePublishedReg 2013-11-12
22 schema:description Extracellular factors that inhibit axon growth and intrinsic factors that promote it affect neural regeneration. Therapies targeting any single gene have not yet simultaneously optimized both types of factors. Chondroitin sulphate (CS), a glycosaminoglycan, is the most abundant extracellular inhibitor of axon growth. Here we show that mice carrying a gene knockout for CS N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-1 (T1), a key enzyme in CS biosynthesis, recover more completely from spinal cord injury than wild-type mice and even chondroitinase ABC-treated mice. Notably, synthesis of heparan sulphate (HS), a glycosaminoglycan promoting axonal growth, is also upregulated in TI knockout mice because HS-synthesis enzymes are induced in the mutant neurons. Moreover, chondroitinase ABC treatment never induces HS upregulation. Taken together, our results indicate that regulation of a single gene, T1, mediates excellent recovery from spinal cord injury by optimizing counteracting effectors of axon regeneration—an extracellular inhibitor of CS and intrinsic promoters, namely, HS-synthesis enzymes.
23 schema:genre article
24 schema:inLanguage en
25 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
26 schema:isPartOf N6156f2ba027b4b8e840f190cc1f7b679
27 Nbb822267805b414ea242126b94242e42
28 sg:journal.1043282
29 schema:keywords ABC
30 ABC treatment
31 CS N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
32 CS biosynthesis
33 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
34 T1
35 axon growth
36 axon regeneration
37 axonal growth
38 biosynthesis
39 chondroitin sulfate
40 chondroitinase ABC
41 chondroitinase ABC treatment
42 cord injury
43 effectors
44 enzyme
45 excellent recovery
46 extracellular factors
47 extracellular inhibitors
48 factors
49 gene knockout
50 genes
51 glycosaminoglycans
52 growth
53 heparan sulfate
54 inhibitors
55 inhibits recovery
56 injury
57 intrinsic factors
58 intrinsic promoters
59 key enzyme
60 knockout
61 knockout mice
62 mice
63 mutant neurons
64 neural injury
65 neural regeneration
66 neurons
67 promoter
68 recovery
69 regeneration
70 regulation
71 results
72 single gene
73 spinal cord injury
74 sulfate
75 synthesis
76 therapy
77 treatment
78 types
79 types of factors
80 upregulation
81 wild-type mice
82 schema:name Chondroitin sulphate N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase-1 inhibits recovery from neural injury
83 schema:pagination 2740
84 schema:productId N39e3436088b34a6b99fa0506ec7d1049
85 N80284bf1421b4586bfbbfa5f03c803bd
86 Ncd1e45cb996946d0872280f0cd2f79ea
87 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008776503
88 https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3740
89 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-05-20T07:28
90 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
91 schema:sdPublisher N7ed0931a17354e43a8741528a5694278
92 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3740
93 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
94 sgo:sdDataset articles
95 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
96 N0982b1f913cf47cab305259655ab7e71 rdf:first sg:person.0677044141.95
97 rdf:rest N641b42a2c2824d5c8d90631869957c12
98 N0d092345f4f1457886b58862250d43d6 rdf:first sg:person.013720004322.04
99 rdf:rest Nff94c431fd7d425b8911089caf546331
100 N158eb9e991e44cce8dec0f3d3739ebc1 rdf:first sg:person.01023402201.84
101 rdf:rest N94a6477266ff4bfd90bccf774d57c429
102 N2e26a3ae2eff4d37bcb5f1943fc56f8e rdf:first sg:person.011563246004.43
103 rdf:rest N83c6b9deae944e978a38200b6023612a
104 N38fb17f2934d4228a420dc5243069808 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
105 schema:name Mice
106 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
107 N39e3436088b34a6b99fa0506ec7d1049 schema:name pubmed_id
108 schema:value 24220492
109 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
110 N432bec5282d04bc08d6a315c9e98089a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
111 schema:name Animals
112 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
113 N50d56a79601b412eb59cb849ca1ec844 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
114 schema:name Mice, Knockout
115 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
116 N528c050e208341e79b312b60e671449d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
117 schema:name Spinal Cord Injuries
118 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
119 N5fd5ecfd9ce441f29dbd4c5b2706b865 rdf:first sg:person.01273044214.57
120 rdf:rest Na88f443cd04549af8b6680ba8af604d8
121 N6156f2ba027b4b8e840f190cc1f7b679 schema:volumeNumber 4
122 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
123 N641b42a2c2824d5c8d90631869957c12 rdf:first Nbcc90849c07349a8a5fefedf92ee6bec
124 rdf:rest N696c76a1aa5f457a8b362c68a0d35eb2
125 N696c76a1aa5f457a8b362c68a0d35eb2 rdf:first sg:person.01347041763.22
126 rdf:rest N5fd5ecfd9ce441f29dbd4c5b2706b865
127 N74afb75094cd4aaaadf0b82040070dc1 rdf:first sg:person.07725047564.45
128 rdf:rest N158eb9e991e44cce8dec0f3d3739ebc1
129 N7ed0931a17354e43a8741528a5694278 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
130 rdf:type schema:Organization
131 N80284bf1421b4586bfbbfa5f03c803bd schema:name dimensions_id
132 schema:value pub.1008776503
133 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
134 N8115827cbf6140d2956892849d67b259 rdf:first sg:person.01363451357.17
135 rdf:rest N0d092345f4f1457886b58862250d43d6
136 N81a29c615e2b4a4c80128c06a0fe774c rdf:first sg:person.0701115244.71
137 rdf:rest Naddbecd0082945a787a4b43543b3e648
138 N83c6b9deae944e978a38200b6023612a rdf:first sg:person.013762006643.05
139 rdf:rest N0982b1f913cf47cab305259655ab7e71
140 N83ea9264c9f145bda3147e94d97ad383 rdf:first sg:person.07625513635.94
141 rdf:rest N81a29c615e2b4a4c80128c06a0fe774c
142 N89e17c2520d44ee58012d6286beb8cfe rdf:first sg:person.016350202215.86
143 rdf:rest rdf:nil
144 N8b540e9179424112b63f4ad020630bf5 rdf:first sg:person.01204772377.08
145 rdf:rest Na484504dc5a44fba9c4ef4353d355c98
146 N94a6477266ff4bfd90bccf774d57c429 rdf:first sg:person.0677173024.94
147 rdf:rest N8b540e9179424112b63f4ad020630bf5
148 Na066223083d5498d8b0295e5d59137af schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.260975.f
149 schema:familyName Higa Onaga
150 schema:givenName Susumu
151 rdf:type schema:Person
152 Na484504dc5a44fba9c4ef4353d355c98 rdf:first sg:person.014036461464.19
153 rdf:rest N89e17c2520d44ee58012d6286beb8cfe
154 Na88f443cd04549af8b6680ba8af604d8 rdf:first sg:person.0630730741.24
155 rdf:rest N8115827cbf6140d2956892849d67b259
156 Naddbecd0082945a787a4b43543b3e648 rdf:first Na066223083d5498d8b0295e5d59137af
157 rdf:rest N2e26a3ae2eff4d37bcb5f1943fc56f8e
158 Nbb822267805b414ea242126b94242e42 schema:issueNumber 1
159 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
160 Nbcc90849c07349a8a5fefedf92ee6bec schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.260975.f
161 schema:familyName Kudo
162 schema:givenName Chika
163 rdf:type schema:Person
164 Nc09b094d172b46e99da4f65f70d46447 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
165 schema:name N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases
166 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
167 Ncd1e45cb996946d0872280f0cd2f79ea schema:name doi
168 schema:value 10.1038/ncomms3740
169 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
170 Ne09162937c014fa3bac721a99c64b841 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
171 schema:name Chondroitin Sulfates
172 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
173 Nf8368b7088bd4e08a20af28c065e8d88 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
174 schema:name Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
175 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
176 Nff94c431fd7d425b8911089caf546331 rdf:first sg:person.011203704551.98
177 rdf:rest N74afb75094cd4aaaadf0b82040070dc1
178 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
179 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
180 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
181 anzsrc-for:1109 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
182 schema:name Neurosciences
183 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
184 sg:grant.5767021 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms3740
185 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
186 sg:grant.5929885 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms3740
187 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
188 sg:grant.6027905 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms3740
189 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
190 sg:grant.6032104 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms3740
191 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
192 sg:grant.6055246 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms3740
193 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
194 sg:grant.6057687 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms3740
195 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
196 sg:grant.6070593 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms3740
197 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
198 sg:grant.6072037 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms3740
199 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
200 sg:grant.6079885 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms3740
201 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
202 sg:grant.6079906 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms3740
203 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
204 sg:grant.6089924 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms3740
205 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
206 sg:grant.6134906 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms3740
207 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
208 sg:journal.1043282 schema:issn 2041-1723
209 schema:name Nature Communications
210 schema:publisher Springer Nature
211 rdf:type schema:Periodical
212 sg:person.01023402201.84 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.26091.3c
213 schema:familyName Okano
214 schema:givenName Hideyuki
215 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01023402201.84
216 rdf:type schema:Person
217 sg:person.011203704551.98 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.452478.8
218 schema:familyName Matsushita
219 schema:givenName Natsuki
220 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011203704551.98
221 rdf:type schema:Person
222 sg:person.011563246004.43 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.54432.34
223 schema:familyName Watanabe
224 schema:givenName Yumi
225 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011563246004.43
226 rdf:type schema:Person
227 sg:person.01204772377.08 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.272456.0
228 schema:familyName Kawano
229 schema:givenName Hitoshi
230 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01204772377.08
231 rdf:type schema:Person
232 sg:person.01273044214.57 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.260975.f
233 schema:familyName Ohko
234 schema:givenName Kentaro
235 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01273044214.57
236 rdf:type schema:Person
237 sg:person.01347041763.22 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.260975.f
238 schema:familyName Okada
239 schema:givenName Masayasu
240 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01347041763.22
241 rdf:type schema:Person
242 sg:person.01363451357.17 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.260975.f
243 schema:familyName Sato
244 schema:givenName Toshiya
245 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01363451357.17
246 rdf:type schema:Person
247 sg:person.013720004322.04 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.260975.f
248 schema:familyName Yokoyama
249 schema:givenName Minesuke
250 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013720004322.04
251 rdf:type schema:Person
252 sg:person.013762006643.05 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.411100.5
253 schema:familyName Miyata
254 schema:givenName Shinji
255 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013762006643.05
256 rdf:type schema:Person
257 sg:person.014036461464.19 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.411100.5
258 schema:familyName Kitagawa
259 schema:givenName Hiroshi
260 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014036461464.19
261 rdf:type schema:Person
262 sg:person.016350202215.86 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.260975.f
263 schema:familyName Igarashi
264 schema:givenName Michihiro
265 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016350202215.86
266 rdf:type schema:Person
267 sg:person.0630730741.24 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.260975.f
268 schema:familyName Oda
269 schema:givenName Kanako
270 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0630730741.24
271 rdf:type schema:Person
272 sg:person.0677044141.95 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.260975.f
273 schema:familyName Wada
274 schema:givenName Yoshino
275 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0677044141.95
276 rdf:type schema:Person
277 sg:person.0677173024.94 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.260975.f
278 schema:familyName Sakimura
279 schema:givenName Kenji
280 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0677173024.94
281 rdf:type schema:Person
282 sg:person.0701115244.71 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.54432.34
283 schema:familyName Yoshioka
284 schema:givenName Nozomu
285 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0701115244.71
286 rdf:type schema:Person
287 sg:person.07625513635.94 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.260975.f
288 schema:familyName Takeuchi
289 schema:givenName Kosei
290 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07625513635.94
291 rdf:type schema:Person
292 sg:person.07725047564.45 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.26091.3c
293 schema:familyName Nakamura
294 schema:givenName Masaya
295 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07725047564.45
296 rdf:type schema:Person
297 sg:pub.10.1007/s00441-012-1375-y schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046188384
298 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-012-1375-y
299 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
300 sg:pub.10.1007/s11064-010-0324-y schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017024505
301 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-010-0324-y
302 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
303 sg:pub.10.1007/s12264-013-1359-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046851120
304 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12264-013-1359-2
305 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
306 sg:pub.10.1038/416636a schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041597476
307 https://doi.org/10.1038/416636a
308 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
309 sg:pub.10.1038/nature10199 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035016292
310 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10199
311 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
312 sg:pub.10.1038/nm1425 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031515995
313 https://doi.org/10.1038/nm1425
314 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
315 sg:pub.10.1038/nn.2603 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008018961
316 https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.2603
317 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
318 sg:pub.10.1038/nrn1326 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045767072
319 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn1326
320 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
321 sg:pub.10.1038/nrn2591 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006651607
322 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2591
323 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
324 grid-institutes:grid.26091.3c schema:alternateName Department of Orthopedics, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
325 Departments of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
326 schema:name Department of Orthopedics, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
327 Departments of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
328 rdf:type schema:Organization
329 grid-institutes:grid.260975.f schema:alternateName Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan
330 Department of Cellular Neurobiology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan
331 Department of Comparative and Experimental Medicine, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan
332 Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan
333 Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan
334 Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, 951 8510, Niigata, Japan
335 schema:name Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan
336 Department of Cellular Neurobiology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan
337 Department of Comparative and Experimental Medicine, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan
338 Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan
339 Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan
340 Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, 951 8510, Niigata, Japan
341 rdf:type schema:Organization
342 grid-institutes:grid.272456.0 schema:alternateName Laboratory of Neural Regeneration, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Tokyo 156 8506, Japan
343 schema:name Laboratory of Neural Regeneration, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Tokyo 156 8506, Japan
344 rdf:type schema:Organization
345 grid-institutes:grid.411100.5 schema:alternateName Department of Biochemistry, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, 4-19-1 Motoyamakita-machi, Kobe 658 8558, Japan
346 schema:name Department of Biochemistry, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, 4-19-1 Motoyamakita-machi, Kobe 658 8558, Japan
347 rdf:type schema:Organization
348 grid-institutes:grid.452478.8 schema:alternateName Translational Research Center (TRC), Ehime University Hospital, Shitsukawa, 791-0295, Ehime, Japan
349 schema:name Translational Research Center (TRC), Ehime University Hospital, Shitsukawa, 791-0295, Ehime, Japan
350 rdf:type schema:Organization
351 grid-institutes:grid.54432.34 schema:alternateName Doctoral and restart postdoctoral fellowship program, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), 102 8472, Tokyo, Japan
352 schema:name Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan
353 Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Niigata 951 8510, Japan
354 Doctoral and restart postdoctoral fellowship program, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), 102 8472, Tokyo, Japan
355 Laboratory of Neural Regeneration, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Tokyo 156 8506, Japan
356 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...