New CRISPR–Cas systems from uncultivated microbes View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2016-12-22

AUTHORS

David Burstein, Lucas B. Harrington, Steven C. Strutt, Alexander J. Probst, Karthik Anantharaman, Brian C. Thomas, Jennifer A. Doudna, Jillian F. Banfield

ABSTRACT

CRISPR-Cas systems provide microbes with adaptive immunity by employing short DNA sequences, termed spacers, that guide Cas proteins to cleave foreign DNA. Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems are streamlined versions, in which a single RNA-bound Cas protein recognizes and cleaves target sequences. The programmable nature of these minimal systems has enabled researchers to repurpose them into a versatile technology that is broadly revolutionizing biological and clinical research. However, current CRISPR-Cas technologies are based solely on systems from isolated bacteria, leaving the vast majority of enzymes from organisms that have not been cultured untapped. Metagenomics, the sequencing of DNA extracted directly from natural microbial communities, provides access to the genetic material of a huge array of uncultivated organisms. Here, using genome-resolved metagenomics, we identify a number of CRISPR-Cas systems, including the first reported Cas9 in the archaeal domain of life, to our knowledge. This divergent Cas9 protein was found in little-studied nanoarchaea as part of an active CRISPR-Cas system. In bacteria, we discovered two previously unknown systems, CRISPR-CasX and CRISPR-CasY, which are among the most compact systems yet discovered. Notably, all required functional components were identified by metagenomics, enabling validation of robust in vivo RNA-guided DNA interference activity in Escherichia coli. Interrogation of environmental microbial communities combined with in vivo experiments allows us to access an unprecedented diversity of genomes, the content of which will expand the repertoire of microbe-based biotechnologies. More... »

PAGES

237

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2016-04-20. The crystal structure of Cpf1 in complex with CRISPR RNA in NATURE
  • 2016-09. Applications of CRISPR technologies in research and beyond in NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • 2016-06. Profiling of engineering hotspots identifies an allosteric CRISPR-Cas9 switch in NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • 2006-06. The Repetitive DNA Elements Called CRISPRs and Their Associated Genes: Evidence of Horizontal Transfer Among Prokaryotes in JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR EVOLUTION
  • 2008-03. CRISPR — a widespread system that provides acquired resistance against phages in bacteria and archaea in NATURE REVIEWS MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2015-06. The Phyre2 web portal for protein modeling, prediction and analysis in NATURE PROTOCOLS
  • 2016-02-03. Major bacterial lineages are essentially devoid of CRISPR-Cas viral defence systems in NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
  • 2015-04. CRISPR adaptation biases explain preference for acquisition of foreign DNA in NATURE
  • 2011-05. EMIRGE: reconstruction of full-length ribosomal genes from microbial community short read sequencing data in GENOME BIOLOGY
  • 2016-05. A new view of the tree of life in NATURE MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2014-09. Structural basis of PAM-dependent target DNA recognition by the Cas9 endonuclease in NATURE
  • 2013-12. Comparative genomics in acid mine drainage biofilm communities reveals metabolic and structural differentiation of co-occurring archaea in BMC GENOMICS
  • 2009-12. BLAST+: architecture and applications in BMC BIOINFORMATICS
  • 2012-04. Fast gapped-read alignment with Bowtie 2 in NATURE METHODS
  • 2009-05. Enzymatic assembly of DNA molecules up to several hundred kilobases in NATURE METHODS
  • 2015-07. Unusual biology across a group comprising more than 15% of domain Bacteria in NATURE
  • 2013-07. Insights into the phylogeny and coding potential of microbial dark matter in NATURE
  • 2014-06. Cas1–Cas2 complex formation mediates spacer acquisition during CRISPR–Cas adaptive immunity in NATURE STRUCTURAL & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
  • 2011-03. CRISPR RNA maturation by trans-encoded small RNA and host factor RNase III in NATURE
  • 2013-11. Orthogonal Cas9 proteins for RNA-guided gene regulation and editing in NATURE METHODS
  • 2010-12. Prodigal: prokaryotic gene recognition and translation initiation site identification in BMC BIOINFORMATICS
  • 2009-08. Community-wide analysis of microbial genome sequence signatures in GENOME BIOLOGY
  • 2012-02. HHblits: lightning-fast iterative protein sequence searching by HMM-HMM alignment in NATURE METHODS
  • 2015-12. Diverse uncultivated ultra-small bacterial cells in groundwater in NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
  • 2015-03. Integrase-mediated spacer acquisition during CRISPR–Cas adaptive immunity in NATURE
  • 2016-10-24. Thousands of microbial genomes shed light on interconnected biogeochemical processes in an aquifer system in NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
  • 2004-01. Versatile and open software for comparing large genomes in GENOME BIOLOGY
  • 2015-11. An updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR–Cas systems in NATURE REVIEWS MICROBIOLOGY
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature21059

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature21059

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023889809

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28005056


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0605", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Microbiology", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Biological Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Amino Acid Sequence", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Archaea", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Bacteria", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Base Sequence", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Biotechnology", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "CRISPR-Associated Proteins", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "CRISPR-Cas Systems", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "DNA", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Escherichia coli", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Gene Expression Profiling", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Genome", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Metagenomics", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "RNA, Bacterial", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Reproducibility of Results", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of California, Berkeley", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.47840.3f", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Burstein", 
            "givenName": "David", 
            "id": "sg:person.01053302152.33", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01053302152.33"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of California, Berkeley", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.47840.3f", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Harrington", 
            "givenName": "Lucas B.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01327122747.78", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01327122747.78"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of California, Berkeley", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.47840.3f", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Strutt", 
            "givenName": "Steven C.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01132567323.01", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01132567323.01"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of California, Berkeley", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.47840.3f", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Probst", 
            "givenName": "Alexander J.", 
            "id": "sg:person.0757405471.24", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0757405471.24"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of California, Berkeley", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.47840.3f", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Anantharaman", 
            "givenName": "Karthik", 
            "id": "sg:person.0714252516.09", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0714252516.09"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of California, Berkeley", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.47840.3f", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Thomas", 
            "givenName": "Brian C.", 
            "id": "sg:person.0732742066.21", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0732742066.21"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.184769.5", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA", 
                "Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA", 
                "Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA", 
                "Innovative Genomics Initiative, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA", 
                "MBIB Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Doudna", 
            "givenName": "Jennifer A.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01147702313.96", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01147702313.96"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of California, Berkeley", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.47840.3f", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA", 
                "Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Banfield", 
            "givenName": "Jillian F.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01350542775.47", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01350542775.47"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2011-12-5-r44", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000326175", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2011-12-5-r44"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btu033", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000848409"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/30.7.1575", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001067672"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nprot.2015.053", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001304490", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2015.053"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-14-485", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002051529", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-485"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.13362", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003096235"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00713", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004758922"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nsmb.2820", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005186267", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nsmb.2820"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1923", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006541515", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1923"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00367", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007690415"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature14302", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007792186", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14302"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro1793", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008079037", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro1793"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.00708-13", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009706926"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro3569", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010036058", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro3569"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.48", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010598799", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.48"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gks216", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010822369"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1247997", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010970903"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkr367", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012248325"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkg595", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013618001"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2009-10-8-r85", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014147708", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2009-10-8-r85"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1261/rna.030882.111", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015360819"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.09.038", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015956969"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.849004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016890117"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1818", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017098509", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1818"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature12352", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019299949", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12352"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.3659", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019638425", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.3659"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.3659", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019638425", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.3659"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.3659", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019638425", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.3659"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.3659", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019638425", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.3659"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku989", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020681127"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1218389", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020835091"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2004-5-2-r12", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022585853", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2004-5-2-r12"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms10613", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022975138", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10613"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.00797-08", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025888636"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2105-11-119", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026423599", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-11-119"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkv332", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026513014"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts565", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027022529"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkt183", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027801996"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2010.05.008", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027997735"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.2681", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028304735", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2681"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2015.09.020", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028953734"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature14486", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029031769", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14486"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature09886", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030591890", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09886"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms7372", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031540291", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms7372"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00239-005-0223-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033365389", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00239-005-0223-z"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00239-005-0223-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033365389", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00239-005-0223-z"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.04.003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034723548"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.04.003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034723548"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms13219", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035143030", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms13219"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1138140", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036312168"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature13579", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036390967", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13579"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1247023", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037693556"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkm360", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037970477"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku241", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038476578"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1318", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040405189", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1318"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1318", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040405189", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1318"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1225829", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041850060"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature17944", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042305403", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature17944"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts174", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044126939"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaf5573", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044901034"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst010", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045545793"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.3528", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046541356", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.3528"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2013.05.001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048229289"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0914470107", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048450700"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2015.10.008", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049244620"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature14237", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050366278", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14237"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2105-10-421", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050579230", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-10-421"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.12817", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050804996"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkw290", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052513774"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btv638", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059414543"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1129333", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062453928"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1132690", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062454732"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.4161/rna.23764", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1072310097"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2016-12-22", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2016-12-22", 
        "description": "CRISPR-Cas systems provide microbes with adaptive immunity by employing short DNA sequences, termed spacers, that guide Cas proteins to cleave foreign DNA. Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems are streamlined versions, in which a single RNA-bound Cas protein recognizes and cleaves target sequences. The programmable nature of these minimal systems has enabled researchers to repurpose them into a versatile technology that is broadly revolutionizing biological and clinical research. However, current CRISPR-Cas technologies are based solely on systems from isolated bacteria, leaving the vast majority of enzymes from organisms that have not been cultured untapped. Metagenomics, the sequencing of DNA extracted directly from natural microbial communities, provides access to the genetic material of a huge array of uncultivated organisms. Here, using genome-resolved metagenomics, we identify a number of CRISPR-Cas systems, including the first reported Cas9 in the archaeal domain of life, to our knowledge. This divergent Cas9 protein was found in little-studied nanoarchaea as part of an active CRISPR-Cas system. In bacteria, we discovered two previously unknown systems, CRISPR-CasX and CRISPR-CasY, which are among the most compact systems yet discovered. Notably, all required functional components were identified by metagenomics, enabling validation of robust in vivo RNA-guided DNA interference activity in Escherichia coli. Interrogation of environmental microbial communities combined with in vivo experiments allows us to access an unprecedented diversity of genomes, the content of which will expand the repertoire of microbe-based biotechnologies.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature21059", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isFundedItemOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.3480456", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }
        ], 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1018957", 
            "issn": [
              "0090-0028", 
              "1476-4687"
            ], 
            "name": "Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "7640", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "542"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "New CRISPR\u2013Cas systems from uncultivated microbes", 
        "pagination": "237", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "71d050e31ac8d35127306248f0fb973f9c921961aa0e9990ad4945827cb0d9f4"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "28005056"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "0410462"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/nature21059"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1023889809"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature21059", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023889809"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T18:08", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8675_00000424.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://www.nature.com/articles/nature21059"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature21059'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature21059'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature21059'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature21059'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    414 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      109 URIs      34 LITERALS      23 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/nature21059 schema:about N05d016006dba4b849ed1d794b61e6c83
    2 N12e8a10faecb44df8437e116c6412a00
    3 N130a7929301347af9dc3ef523572341d
    4 N25d53ad8418a42aa893e5a3082edbde2
    5 N389d636581094066bacd5da19f9e0fb9
    6 N39c9ba8b09194bd3a0d671a7d504940a
    7 N6efdcadd688c4e5493d2260b3053a625
    8 N78d85708baa142478879c0290c32ac94
    9 Na173221cf8e04902a11f737e78c1439c
    10 Nc39acd4058654001a20739e371cdd1e9
    11 Nc76d82f82e0e446483583cb4174d9ce7
    12 Nd1fca33b16e74d92b766273486ff4476
    13 Nf736827df1e243369a438f25a87b047f
    14 Nf7c5f94ab5934cc28ec8cdea7110993f
    15 anzsrc-for:06
    16 anzsrc-for:0605
    17 schema:author N04033f200e6442b29f87a2a77a8c7e04
    18 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s00239-005-0223-z
    19 sg:pub.10.1038/nature09886
    20 sg:pub.10.1038/nature12352
    21 sg:pub.10.1038/nature13579
    22 sg:pub.10.1038/nature14237
    23 sg:pub.10.1038/nature14302
    24 sg:pub.10.1038/nature14486
    25 sg:pub.10.1038/nature17944
    26 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.3528
    27 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.3659
    28 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms10613
    29 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms13219
    30 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms7372
    31 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1318
    32 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1818
    33 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1923
    34 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.2681
    35 sg:pub.10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.48
    36 sg:pub.10.1038/nprot.2015.053
    37 sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro1793
    38 sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro3569
    39 sg:pub.10.1038/nsmb.2820
    40 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2105-10-421
    41 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2105-11-119
    42 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-14-485
    43 sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2004-5-2-r12
    44 sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2009-10-8-r85
    45 sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2011-12-5-r44
    46 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.09.038
    47 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.04.003
    48 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2013.05.001
    49 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2015.09.020
    50 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2015.10.008
    51 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2010.05.008
    52 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0914470107
    53 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts174
    54 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts565
    55 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btu033
    56 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btv638
    57 https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst010
    58 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/30.7.1575
    59 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkg595
    60 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkm360
    61 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkr367
    62 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gks216
    63 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkt183
    64 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku241
    65 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku989
    66 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkv332
    67 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkw290
    68 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.849004
    69 https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.12817
    70 https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.13362
    71 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1129333
    72 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1132690
    73 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1138140
    74 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1218389
    75 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1225829
    76 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1247023
    77 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1247997
    78 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaf5573
    79 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.00797-08
    80 https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.00708-13
    81 https://doi.org/10.1261/rna.030882.111
    82 https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00367
    83 https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00713
    84 https://doi.org/10.4161/rna.23764
    85 schema:datePublished 2016-12-22
    86 schema:datePublishedReg 2016-12-22
    87 schema:description CRISPR-Cas systems provide microbes with adaptive immunity by employing short DNA sequences, termed spacers, that guide Cas proteins to cleave foreign DNA. Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems are streamlined versions, in which a single RNA-bound Cas protein recognizes and cleaves target sequences. The programmable nature of these minimal systems has enabled researchers to repurpose them into a versatile technology that is broadly revolutionizing biological and clinical research. However, current CRISPR-Cas technologies are based solely on systems from isolated bacteria, leaving the vast majority of enzymes from organisms that have not been cultured untapped. Metagenomics, the sequencing of DNA extracted directly from natural microbial communities, provides access to the genetic material of a huge array of uncultivated organisms. Here, using genome-resolved metagenomics, we identify a number of CRISPR-Cas systems, including the first reported Cas9 in the archaeal domain of life, to our knowledge. This divergent Cas9 protein was found in little-studied nanoarchaea as part of an active CRISPR-Cas system. In bacteria, we discovered two previously unknown systems, CRISPR-CasX and CRISPR-CasY, which are among the most compact systems yet discovered. Notably, all required functional components were identified by metagenomics, enabling validation of robust in vivo RNA-guided DNA interference activity in Escherichia coli. Interrogation of environmental microbial communities combined with in vivo experiments allows us to access an unprecedented diversity of genomes, the content of which will expand the repertoire of microbe-based biotechnologies.
    88 schema:genre research_article
    89 schema:inLanguage en
    90 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    91 schema:isPartOf N741c525214914af98f6b50be08386bb1
    92 Nf08704d7b3524bfb96b781346fb80963
    93 sg:journal.1018957
    94 schema:name New CRISPR–Cas systems from uncultivated microbes
    95 schema:pagination 237
    96 schema:productId N1909794d9d4a4c87a3811e3f7ffc0f26
    97 N22cf3cc267194d3782a20d5d6e951e82
    98 Nc0f88f8f0854463c9150e4bbf95fc333
    99 Nc413c4b02b71464fb82b8050360eba1b
    100 Nf3dcee147e564c4d9645ceb52db8c2f1
    101 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023889809
    102 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature21059
    103 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T18:08
    104 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    105 schema:sdPublisher N328e05e84c3847578258868b0b4d821b
    106 schema:url https://www.nature.com/articles/nature21059
    107 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    108 sgo:sdDataset articles
    109 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    110 N04033f200e6442b29f87a2a77a8c7e04 rdf:first sg:person.01053302152.33
    111 rdf:rest N1d540c322ccf446198f40d84683a5fb0
    112 N05d016006dba4b849ed1d794b61e6c83 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    113 schema:name Genome
    114 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    115 N12e8a10faecb44df8437e116c6412a00 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    116 schema:name Metagenomics
    117 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    118 N130a7929301347af9dc3ef523572341d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    119 schema:name RNA, Bacterial
    120 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    121 N1909794d9d4a4c87a3811e3f7ffc0f26 schema:name pubmed_id
    122 schema:value 28005056
    123 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    124 N1d540c322ccf446198f40d84683a5fb0 rdf:first sg:person.01327122747.78
    125 rdf:rest N961ff0971a96472793c746a5ae48ec8a
    126 N22cf3cc267194d3782a20d5d6e951e82 schema:name nlm_unique_id
    127 schema:value 0410462
    128 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    129 N25d53ad8418a42aa893e5a3082edbde2 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    130 schema:name CRISPR-Associated Proteins
    131 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    132 N310f38158c3f40098fcd673f3adff9bd rdf:first sg:person.01147702313.96
    133 rdf:rest Nbfad583f5c1c4973a86d46f1accc5e36
    134 N328e05e84c3847578258868b0b4d821b schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    135 rdf:type schema:Organization
    136 N389d636581094066bacd5da19f9e0fb9 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    137 schema:name Base Sequence
    138 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    139 N39c9ba8b09194bd3a0d671a7d504940a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    140 schema:name Archaea
    141 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    142 N3fdc286e8bd848788d66f619d568dae4 rdf:first sg:person.0732742066.21
    143 rdf:rest N310f38158c3f40098fcd673f3adff9bd
    144 N6efdcadd688c4e5493d2260b3053a625 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    145 schema:name Gene Expression Profiling
    146 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    147 N741c525214914af98f6b50be08386bb1 schema:issueNumber 7640
    148 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    149 N78d85708baa142478879c0290c32ac94 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    150 schema:name Reproducibility of Results
    151 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    152 N961ff0971a96472793c746a5ae48ec8a rdf:first sg:person.01132567323.01
    153 rdf:rest Nbc1a0086314546efbc02413675c0bd49
    154 Na173221cf8e04902a11f737e78c1439c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    155 schema:name Escherichia coli
    156 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    157 Nbc1a0086314546efbc02413675c0bd49 rdf:first sg:person.0757405471.24
    158 rdf:rest Ne3f686c96e2141d69018be6014608831
    159 Nbfad583f5c1c4973a86d46f1accc5e36 rdf:first sg:person.01350542775.47
    160 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    161 Nc0f88f8f0854463c9150e4bbf95fc333 schema:name doi
    162 schema:value 10.1038/nature21059
    163 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    164 Nc39acd4058654001a20739e371cdd1e9 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    165 schema:name DNA
    166 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    167 Nc413c4b02b71464fb82b8050360eba1b schema:name dimensions_id
    168 schema:value pub.1023889809
    169 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    170 Nc76d82f82e0e446483583cb4174d9ce7 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    171 schema:name Amino Acid Sequence
    172 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    173 Nd1fca33b16e74d92b766273486ff4476 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    174 schema:name Biotechnology
    175 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    176 Ne3f686c96e2141d69018be6014608831 rdf:first sg:person.0714252516.09
    177 rdf:rest N3fdc286e8bd848788d66f619d568dae4
    178 Nf08704d7b3524bfb96b781346fb80963 schema:volumeNumber 542
    179 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    180 Nf3dcee147e564c4d9645ceb52db8c2f1 schema:name readcube_id
    181 schema:value 71d050e31ac8d35127306248f0fb973f9c921961aa0e9990ad4945827cb0d9f4
    182 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    183 Nf736827df1e243369a438f25a87b047f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    184 schema:name Bacteria
    185 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    186 Nf7c5f94ab5934cc28ec8cdea7110993f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    187 schema:name CRISPR-Cas Systems
    188 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    189 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    190 schema:name Biological Sciences
    191 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    192 anzsrc-for:0605 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    193 schema:name Microbiology
    194 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    195 sg:grant.3480456 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/nature21059
    196 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    197 sg:journal.1018957 schema:issn 0090-0028
    198 1476-4687
    199 schema:name Nature
    200 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    201 sg:person.01053302152.33 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.47840.3f
    202 schema:familyName Burstein
    203 schema:givenName David
    204 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01053302152.33
    205 rdf:type schema:Person
    206 sg:person.01132567323.01 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.47840.3f
    207 schema:familyName Strutt
    208 schema:givenName Steven C.
    209 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01132567323.01
    210 rdf:type schema:Person
    211 sg:person.01147702313.96 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.184769.5
    212 schema:familyName Doudna
    213 schema:givenName Jennifer A.
    214 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01147702313.96
    215 rdf:type schema:Person
    216 sg:person.01327122747.78 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.47840.3f
    217 schema:familyName Harrington
    218 schema:givenName Lucas B.
    219 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01327122747.78
    220 rdf:type schema:Person
    221 sg:person.01350542775.47 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.47840.3f
    222 schema:familyName Banfield
    223 schema:givenName Jillian F.
    224 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01350542775.47
    225 rdf:type schema:Person
    226 sg:person.0714252516.09 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.47840.3f
    227 schema:familyName Anantharaman
    228 schema:givenName Karthik
    229 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0714252516.09
    230 rdf:type schema:Person
    231 sg:person.0732742066.21 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.47840.3f
    232 schema:familyName Thomas
    233 schema:givenName Brian C.
    234 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0732742066.21
    235 rdf:type schema:Person
    236 sg:person.0757405471.24 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.47840.3f
    237 schema:familyName Probst
    238 schema:givenName Alexander J.
    239 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0757405471.24
    240 rdf:type schema:Person
    241 sg:pub.10.1007/s00239-005-0223-z schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033365389
    242 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00239-005-0223-z
    243 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    244 sg:pub.10.1038/nature09886 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030591890
    245 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09886
    246 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    247 sg:pub.10.1038/nature12352 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019299949
    248 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12352
    249 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    250 sg:pub.10.1038/nature13579 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036390967
    251 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13579
    252 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    253 sg:pub.10.1038/nature14237 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050366278
    254 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14237
    255 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    256 sg:pub.10.1038/nature14302 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007792186
    257 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14302
    258 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    259 sg:pub.10.1038/nature14486 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029031769
    260 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14486
    261 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    262 sg:pub.10.1038/nature17944 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042305403
    263 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature17944
    264 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    265 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.3528 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046541356
    266 https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.3528
    267 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    268 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.3659 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019638425
    269 https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.3659
    270 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    271 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms10613 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022975138
    272 https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10613
    273 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    274 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms13219 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035143030
    275 https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms13219
    276 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    277 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms7372 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031540291
    278 https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms7372
    279 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    280 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1318 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040405189
    281 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1318
    282 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    283 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1818 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017098509
    284 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1818
    285 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    286 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1923 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006541515
    287 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1923
    288 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    289 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.2681 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028304735
    290 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2681
    291 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    292 sg:pub.10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.48 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010598799
    293 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.48
    294 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    295 sg:pub.10.1038/nprot.2015.053 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001304490
    296 https://doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2015.053
    297 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    298 sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro1793 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008079037
    299 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro1793
    300 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    301 sg:pub.10.1038/nrmicro3569 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010036058
    302 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro3569
    303 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    304 sg:pub.10.1038/nsmb.2820 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005186267
    305 https://doi.org/10.1038/nsmb.2820
    306 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    307 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2105-10-421 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050579230
    308 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-10-421
    309 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    310 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2105-11-119 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026423599
    311 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-11-119
    312 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    313 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-14-485 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002051529
    314 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-485
    315 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    316 sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2004-5-2-r12 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022585853
    317 https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2004-5-2-r12
    318 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    319 sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2009-10-8-r85 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014147708
    320 https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2009-10-8-r85
    321 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    322 sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2011-12-5-r44 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000326175
    323 https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2011-12-5-r44
    324 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    325 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.09.038 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015956969
    326 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    327 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.04.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034723548
    328 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    329 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2013.05.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048229289
    330 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    331 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2015.09.020 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028953734
    332 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    333 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2015.10.008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049244620
    334 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    335 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2010.05.008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027997735
    336 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    337 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0914470107 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048450700
    338 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    339 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts174 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044126939
    340 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    341 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts565 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027022529
    342 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    343 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btu033 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000848409
    344 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    345 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btv638 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059414543
    346 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    347 https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst010 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045545793
    348 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    349 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/30.7.1575 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001067672
    350 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    351 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkg595 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013618001
    352 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    353 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkm360 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037970477
    354 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    355 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkr367 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012248325
    356 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    357 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gks216 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010822369
    358 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    359 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkt183 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027801996
    360 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    361 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku241 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038476578
    362 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    363 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku989 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020681127
    364 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    365 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkv332 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026513014
    366 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    367 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkw290 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052513774
    368 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    369 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.849004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016890117
    370 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    371 https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.12817 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050804996
    372 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    373 https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.13362 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003096235
    374 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    375 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1129333 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062453928
    376 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    377 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1132690 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062454732
    378 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    379 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1138140 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036312168
    380 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    381 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1218389 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020835091
    382 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    383 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1225829 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041850060
    384 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    385 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1247023 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037693556
    386 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    387 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1247997 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010970903
    388 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    389 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaf5573 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044901034
    390 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    391 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.00797-08 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025888636
    392 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    393 https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.00708-13 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009706926
    394 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    395 https://doi.org/10.1261/rna.030882.111 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015360819
    396 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    397 https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00367 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007690415
    398 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    399 https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00713 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004758922
    400 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    401 https://doi.org/10.4161/rna.23764 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1072310097
    402 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    403 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.184769.5 schema:alternateName Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
    404 schema:name Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    405 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    406 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    407 Innovative Genomics Initiative, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    408 MBIB Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    409 rdf:type schema:Organization
    410 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.47840.3f schema:alternateName University of California, Berkeley
    411 schema:name Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    412 Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    413 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    414 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...