Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2016-01

AUTHORS

David Silver, Aja Huang, Chris J. Maddison, Arthur Guez, Laurent Sifre, George van den Driessche, Julian Schrittwieser, Ioannis Antonoglou, Veda Panneershelvam, Marc Lanctot, Sander Dieleman, Dominik Grewe, John Nham, Nal Kalchbrenner, Ilya Sutskever, Timothy Lillicrap, Madeleine Leach, Koray Kavukcuoglu, Thore Graepel, Demis Hassabis

ABSTRACT

The game of Go has long been viewed as the most challenging of classic games for artificial intelligence owing to its enormous search space and the difficulty of evaluating board positions and moves. Here we introduce a new approach to computer Go that uses 'value networks' to evaluate board positions and 'policy networks' to select moves. These deep neural networks are trained by a novel combination of supervised learning from human expert games, and reinforcement learning from games of self-play. Without any lookahead search, the neural networks play Go at the level of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo tree search programs that simulate thousands of random games of self-play. We also introduce a new search algorithm that combines Monte Carlo simulation with value and policy networks. Using this search algorithm, our program AlphaGo achieved a 99.8% winning rate against other Go programs, and defeated the human European Go champion by 5 games to 0. This is the first time that a computer program has defeated a human professional player in the full-sized game of Go, a feat previously thought to be at least a decade away. More... »

PAGES

484

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2004. Evaluation in Go by a Neural Network Using Soft Segmentation in ADVANCES IN COMPUTER GAMES
  • 2015-05. Deep learning in NATURE
  • 2004. Monte-Carlo Go Developments in ADVANCES IN COMPUTER GAMES
  • 2010. A Lock-Free Multithreaded Monte-Carlo Tree Search Algorithm in ADVANCES IN COMPUTER GAMES
  • 1992-05. Simple Statistical Gradient-Following Algorithms for Connectionist Reinforcement Learning in MACHINE LEARNING
  • 2000-09. Learning to Play Chess Using Temporal Differences in MACHINE LEARNING
  • 2011. On the Scalability of Parallel UCT in COMPUTERS AND GAMES
  • 2006. Bandit Based Monte-Carlo Planning in MACHINE LEARNING: ECML 2006
  • 2014. Investigating the Limits of Monte-Carlo Tree Search Methods in Computer Go in COMPUTERS AND GAMES
  • 2015-02. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning in NATURE
  • 2007. Efficient Selectivity and Backup Operators in Monte-Carlo Tree Search in COMPUTERS AND GAMES
  • 2011-03. Multi-armed bandits with episode context in ANNALS OF MATHEMATICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
  • 2012-05. Temporal-difference search in computer Go in MACHINE LEARNING
  • 1999. From Simple Features to Sophisticated Evaluation Functions in COMPUTERS AND GAMES
  • 2008. Mimicking Go Experts with Convolutional Neural Networks in ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS - ICANN 2008
  • 2008. Whole-History Rating: A Bayesian Rating System for Players of Time-Varying Strength in COMPUTERS AND GAMES
  • 1988-08. Learning to Predict by the Methods of Temporal Differences in MACHINE LEARNING
  • 2007. Computational Intelligence in Mind Games in CHALLENGES FOR COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature16961

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature16961

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039427823

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26819042


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0801", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Artificial Intelligence and Image Processing", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/08", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Information and Computing Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Computers", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Europe", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Games, Recreational", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Humans", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Monte Carlo Method", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Neural Networks (Computer)", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Reinforcement (Psychology)", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Software", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Supervised Machine Learning", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Silver", 
            "givenName": "David", 
            "id": "sg:person.0631073136.81", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0631073136.81"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Huang", 
            "givenName": "Aja", 
            "id": "sg:person.01261111261.08", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01261111261.08"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Maddison", 
            "givenName": "Chris J.", 
            "id": "sg:person.0736526127.62", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0736526127.62"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Guez", 
            "givenName": "Arthur", 
            "id": "sg:person.0603620361.92", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0603620361.92"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Sifre", 
            "givenName": "Laurent", 
            "id": "sg:person.0651733561.64", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0651733561.64"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "van den Driessche", 
            "givenName": "George", 
            "id": "sg:person.0720046761.68", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0720046761.68"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Schrittwieser", 
            "givenName": "Julian", 
            "id": "sg:person.0766162161.25", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0766162161.25"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Antonoglou", 
            "givenName": "Ioannis", 
            "id": "sg:person.0703047436.03", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0703047436.03"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Panneershelvam", 
            "givenName": "Veda", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Lanctot", 
            "givenName": "Marc", 
            "id": "sg:person.01150523761.08", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01150523761.08"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Dieleman", 
            "givenName": "Sander", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Grewe", 
            "givenName": "Dominik", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Google (United States)", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.420451.6", 
              "name": [
                "Google, 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, California 94043, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Nham", 
            "givenName": "John", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kalchbrenner", 
            "givenName": "Nal", 
            "id": "sg:person.0607461461.18", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0607461461.18"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Google (United States)", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.420451.6", 
              "name": [
                "Google, 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, California 94043, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Sutskever", 
            "givenName": "Ilya", 
            "id": "sg:person.015503241325.61", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015503241325.61"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Lillicrap", 
            "givenName": "Timothy", 
            "id": "sg:person.01005720522.17", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01005720522.17"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Leach", 
            "givenName": "Madeleine", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kavukcuoglu", 
            "givenName": "Koray", 
            "id": "sg:person.01354477236.72", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01354477236.72"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Graepel", 
            "givenName": "Thore", 
            "id": "sg:person.013007605545.25", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013007605545.25"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hassabis", 
            "givenName": "Demis", 
            "id": "sg:person.0741767337.55", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0741767337.55"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-87559-8_11", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000894869", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-87559-8_11"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/3-540-48957-6_8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002847551", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-48957-6_8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-3702(92)90074-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005668257"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-3702(92)90074-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005668257"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3233/icg-2011-34302", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007861337"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10472-011-9258-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009945078", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10472-011-9258-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature14539", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010020120", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14539"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0065-2458(00)80019-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010386103"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1162/neco.1994.6.2.215", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010905201"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(01)00166-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010924070"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022672621406", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011015238", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022672621406"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(01)00152-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013320308"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-09165-5_4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014262390", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09165-5_4"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-3702(75)90019-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014742214"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-3702(75)90019-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014742214"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-0-387-35706-5_7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014993740", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-35706-5_7"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1145/1143844.1143954", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015038846"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022633531479", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016395729", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022633531479"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2326-1951.1998.tb03356.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016891317"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-1-55860-335-6.50027-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018104702"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-17928-0_4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021283639", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-17928-0_4"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-17928-0_4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021283639", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-17928-0_4"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10994-012-5280-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022392051", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10994-012-5280-0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1145/2093548.2093574", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024448622"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(78)80012-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026072770"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(01)00129-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027780827"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-71984-7_15", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028258394", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-71984-7_15"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-71984-7_15", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028258394", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-71984-7_15"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.artint.2011.03.007", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028334643"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature14236", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030517994", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14236"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-87608-3_11", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034025447", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-87608-3_11"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-87608-3_11", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034025447", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-87608-3_11"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/11871842_29", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037233025", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/11871842_29"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/11871842_29", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037233025", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/11871842_29"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1145/1553374.1553495", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037619444"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-12993-3_2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043913590", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-12993-3_2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-12993-3_2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043913590", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-12993-3_2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-0-387-35706-5_11", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044078476", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-35706-5_11"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1007634325138", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047698138", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1007634325138"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(01)00121-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049498780"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-75538-8_7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049999349", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-75538-8_7"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-75538-8_7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049999349", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-75538-8_7"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/72.554195", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061218851"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/tciaig.2010.2083662", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061548858"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/tciaig.2010.2100396", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061548865"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/tciaig.2012.2186810", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061548895"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/tnn.1998.712192", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061716400"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1147/rd.116.0601", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063179753"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/cig.2014.6932903", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1095762918"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3233/icg-2007-30403", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1104488856"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2016-01", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2016-01-01", 
        "description": "The game of Go has long been viewed as the most challenging of classic games for artificial intelligence owing to its enormous search space and the difficulty of evaluating board positions and moves. Here we introduce a new approach to computer Go that uses 'value networks' to evaluate board positions and 'policy networks' to select moves. These deep neural networks are trained by a novel combination of supervised learning from human expert games, and reinforcement learning from games of self-play. Without any lookahead search, the neural networks play Go at the level of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo tree search programs that simulate thousands of random games of self-play. We also introduce a new search algorithm that combines Monte Carlo simulation with value and policy networks. Using this search algorithm, our program AlphaGo achieved a 99.8% winning rate against other Go programs, and defeated the human European Go champion by 5 games to 0. This is the first time that a computer program has defeated a human professional player in the full-sized game of Go, a feat previously thought to be at least a decade away. ", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature16961", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1018957", 
            "issn": [
              "0090-0028", 
              "1476-4687"
            ], 
            "name": "Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "7587", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "529"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search", 
        "pagination": "484", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "bbd0f9095d2db9c7df4d1dfbcfc4aca50f864b212b7bc27a6fecb7f489571a11"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "26819042"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "0410462"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/nature16961"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1039427823"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature16961", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039427823"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T02:28", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8700_00000591.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://www.nature.com/articles/nature16961"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature16961'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature16961'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature16961'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature16961'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    413 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      80 URIs      30 LITERALS      18 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/nature16961 schema:about N1becd1f2471642a395d7715bc9186205
    2 N6d82eaec8883475fb49020eeeb50cd32
    3 N93a63c124d9a47dda238ed979bf22e95
    4 N97947ff0cd7345209763c856501f51f4
    5 N9fc7a781a8c046a4b32bc002b5958a77
    6 Nc5ea961de8434a579743386a34ec59fc
    7 Nde93dac2d390421aa978bcd9c66f87af
    8 Nf50b528676464d03ba624f291e957e9a
    9 Nffde36b02fd34076b4b16531be451634
    10 anzsrc-for:08
    11 anzsrc-for:0801
    12 schema:author Nf00675c787c44ae4a78fb31141530163
    13 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/11871842_29
    14 sg:pub.10.1007/3-540-48957-6_8
    15 sg:pub.10.1007/978-0-387-35706-5_11
    16 sg:pub.10.1007/978-0-387-35706-5_7
    17 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-09165-5_4
    18 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-71984-7_15
    19 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-75538-8_7
    20 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-87559-8_11
    21 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-87608-3_11
    22 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-12993-3_2
    23 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-17928-0_4
    24 sg:pub.10.1007/s10472-011-9258-6
    25 sg:pub.10.1007/s10994-012-5280-0
    26 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1007634325138
    27 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022633531479
    28 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022672621406
    29 sg:pub.10.1038/nature14236
    30 sg:pub.10.1038/nature14539
    31 https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2326-1951.1998.tb03356.x
    32 https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-3702(75)90019-3
    33 https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-3702(92)90074-8
    34 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-1-55860-335-6.50027-1
    35 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.artint.2011.03.007
    36 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(01)00121-7
    37 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(01)00129-1
    38 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(01)00152-7
    39 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(01)00166-7
    40 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(78)80012-5
    41 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0065-2458(00)80019-4
    42 https://doi.org/10.1109/72.554195
    43 https://doi.org/10.1109/cig.2014.6932903
    44 https://doi.org/10.1109/tciaig.2010.2083662
    45 https://doi.org/10.1109/tciaig.2010.2100396
    46 https://doi.org/10.1109/tciaig.2012.2186810
    47 https://doi.org/10.1109/tnn.1998.712192
    48 https://doi.org/10.1145/1143844.1143954
    49 https://doi.org/10.1145/1553374.1553495
    50 https://doi.org/10.1145/2093548.2093574
    51 https://doi.org/10.1147/rd.116.0601
    52 https://doi.org/10.1162/neco.1994.6.2.215
    53 https://doi.org/10.3233/icg-2007-30403
    54 https://doi.org/10.3233/icg-2011-34302
    55 schema:datePublished 2016-01
    56 schema:datePublishedReg 2016-01-01
    57 schema:description The game of Go has long been viewed as the most challenging of classic games for artificial intelligence owing to its enormous search space and the difficulty of evaluating board positions and moves. Here we introduce a new approach to computer Go that uses 'value networks' to evaluate board positions and 'policy networks' to select moves. These deep neural networks are trained by a novel combination of supervised learning from human expert games, and reinforcement learning from games of self-play. Without any lookahead search, the neural networks play Go at the level of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo tree search programs that simulate thousands of random games of self-play. We also introduce a new search algorithm that combines Monte Carlo simulation with value and policy networks. Using this search algorithm, our program AlphaGo achieved a 99.8% winning rate against other Go programs, and defeated the human European Go champion by 5 games to 0. This is the first time that a computer program has defeated a human professional player in the full-sized game of Go, a feat previously thought to be at least a decade away.
    58 schema:genre research_article
    59 schema:inLanguage en
    60 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    61 schema:isPartOf Na75b3a847958403183f950a1f005443a
    62 Ne19c84bc3ebb4e9dbadbf2d73f866a50
    63 sg:journal.1018957
    64 schema:name Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search
    65 schema:pagination 484
    66 schema:productId N013787c4ece144c888265e8cd1c78e0c
    67 N5ab6870a78464a9182d5e0a3896184f0
    68 N5c2861ed59fe4a07b5b38845243a13cb
    69 Ncae33c6594b242c093939b5d528c7307
    70 Nefeeec9ca641432bb6eceabc9d1d1ad7
    71 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039427823
    72 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature16961
    73 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T02:28
    74 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    75 schema:sdPublisher Nb55434c2cda24e058df7d8274c62858d
    76 schema:url https://www.nature.com/articles/nature16961
    77 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    78 sgo:sdDataset articles
    79 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    80 N013787c4ece144c888265e8cd1c78e0c schema:name readcube_id
    81 schema:value bbd0f9095d2db9c7df4d1dfbcfc4aca50f864b212b7bc27a6fecb7f489571a11
    82 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    83 N098c3d0c262241469cfa89725594da77 schema:name Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK
    84 rdf:type schema:Organization
    85 N0a9261c8fd2248c9bcbaeb1c14092659 rdf:first sg:person.01261111261.08
    86 rdf:rest Nd8e5f0cd1d4c4840acffbc58438d323b
    87 N177aec9aa2eb4171bb9fa332e037c9b2 rdf:first Ne5e76288ab214d8890a59e3d38eb6a4b
    88 rdf:rest N420ff37dec3541d1887488d3843c5416
    89 N1becd1f2471642a395d7715bc9186205 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    90 schema:name Neural Networks (Computer)
    91 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    92 N27c0dcb36dc641798865ca3022150128 schema:name Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK
    93 rdf:type schema:Organization
    94 N2a681fe72b514f37909f357d9f6c07f0 rdf:first Nf177f3d448bd4da9ab463058f8a64ed1
    95 rdf:rest N94bf5a421e874fec8ba6667e4822c7f4
    96 N2e8d5c445c2e41938167ac2e6c5e14e8 rdf:first sg:person.015503241325.61
    97 rdf:rest N7bdd5ec99e3540e984bf8b38e6123ca7
    98 N34563665394448428c5feff60863b3b9 schema:name Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK
    99 rdf:type schema:Organization
    100 N37ed8df1afe04737b1dd3e105269302b schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.420451.6
    101 schema:familyName Nham
    102 schema:givenName John
    103 rdf:type schema:Person
    104 N4161de009aec4ddc9db889cd45fe61ba rdf:first sg:person.0766162161.25
    105 rdf:rest N4ca28855e4aa4dacbd3c2df8ff57b1ed
    106 N420ff37dec3541d1887488d3843c5416 rdf:first sg:person.01150523761.08
    107 rdf:rest N62d80f2c8d354468b543479d2ca07d96
    108 N48481bec1f7740ed9c5605b58b24ecc2 rdf:first sg:person.013007605545.25
    109 rdf:rest Nca5364d493d648c1b62bd559fff3b01e
    110 N4ca28855e4aa4dacbd3c2df8ff57b1ed rdf:first sg:person.0703047436.03
    111 rdf:rest N177aec9aa2eb4171bb9fa332e037c9b2
    112 N52840dd04c03440696f32e266133ae14 schema:name Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK
    113 rdf:type schema:Organization
    114 N5ab6870a78464a9182d5e0a3896184f0 schema:name nlm_unique_id
    115 schema:value 0410462
    116 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    117 N5c2861ed59fe4a07b5b38845243a13cb schema:name doi
    118 schema:value 10.1038/nature16961
    119 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    120 N5e447c47770545669f96c4dd2edb3c78 rdf:first sg:person.0607461461.18
    121 rdf:rest N2e8d5c445c2e41938167ac2e6c5e14e8
    122 N604b60f5903a41baab233d41560926d3 rdf:first sg:person.01354477236.72
    123 rdf:rest N48481bec1f7740ed9c5605b58b24ecc2
    124 N62d80f2c8d354468b543479d2ca07d96 rdf:first Nf47f893bada446ec8ce66cb394daa4b2
    125 rdf:rest N2a681fe72b514f37909f357d9f6c07f0
    126 N63bec029b07f414db5aa1af4038c7c27 schema:name Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK
    127 rdf:type schema:Organization
    128 N6ab3b8e2f47346d88b35f6ca8a31ea47 schema:name Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK
    129 rdf:type schema:Organization
    130 N6d82eaec8883475fb49020eeeb50cd32 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    131 schema:name Reinforcement (Psychology)
    132 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    133 N6f4e91510c8f4049a320c36787e0db46 schema:name Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK
    134 rdf:type schema:Organization
    135 N75a5973d796a4884a85166c388542a91 schema:name Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK
    136 rdf:type schema:Organization
    137 N7bdd5ec99e3540e984bf8b38e6123ca7 rdf:first sg:person.01005720522.17
    138 rdf:rest Nd603097cc9514415a6b8c7f7742fa995
    139 N7d8291dc46284d68bbfcfc98f97cf363 schema:name Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK
    140 rdf:type schema:Organization
    141 N7ec0ac73b040476ba0227d411ae5906d schema:name Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK
    142 rdf:type schema:Organization
    143 N7f478fe9dc13437a85de9ad16e2d3608 schema:name Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK
    144 rdf:type schema:Organization
    145 N86d2fac68ffd45ae93227d3f610182c5 rdf:first sg:person.0720046761.68
    146 rdf:rest N4161de009aec4ddc9db889cd45fe61ba
    147 N87f307e8c90b4aa58773a53bdd7eb215 schema:name Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK
    148 rdf:type schema:Organization
    149 N93a63c124d9a47dda238ed979bf22e95 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    150 schema:name Games, Recreational
    151 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    152 N94bf5a421e874fec8ba6667e4822c7f4 rdf:first N37ed8df1afe04737b1dd3e105269302b
    153 rdf:rest N5e447c47770545669f96c4dd2edb3c78
    154 N97947ff0cd7345209763c856501f51f4 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    155 schema:name Computers
    156 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    157 N9fc7a781a8c046a4b32bc002b5958a77 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    158 schema:name Europe
    159 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    160 Na634088669c543f7bd407279a88da2e0 rdf:first sg:person.0651733561.64
    161 rdf:rest N86d2fac68ffd45ae93227d3f610182c5
    162 Na75b3a847958403183f950a1f005443a schema:volumeNumber 529
    163 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    164 Naa0ebd1dad56475e806330b94772762a schema:name Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK
    165 rdf:type schema:Organization
    166 Naade2bc6d3d94a779ce5b6294f495e4e schema:name Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK
    167 rdf:type schema:Organization
    168 Nb3ce58de1c5940d9ae933ebaa68a0093 schema:name Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK
    169 rdf:type schema:Organization
    170 Nb55434c2cda24e058df7d8274c62858d schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    171 rdf:type schema:Organization
    172 Nc5ea961de8434a579743386a34ec59fc schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    173 schema:name Humans
    174 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    175 Nca5364d493d648c1b62bd559fff3b01e rdf:first sg:person.0741767337.55
    176 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    177 Ncae33c6594b242c093939b5d528c7307 schema:name pubmed_id
    178 schema:value 26819042
    179 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    180 Nd2b391bbd1e04a138cb8ab91cd050a52 schema:name Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK
    181 rdf:type schema:Organization
    182 Nd603097cc9514415a6b8c7f7742fa995 rdf:first Ne86a661582b4482aa6d849b9f73a5183
    183 rdf:rest N604b60f5903a41baab233d41560926d3
    184 Nd8e5f0cd1d4c4840acffbc58438d323b rdf:first sg:person.0736526127.62
    185 rdf:rest Nf04b0bb18a5a48588ad881a18f253c2e
    186 Nde93dac2d390421aa978bcd9c66f87af schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    187 schema:name Software
    188 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    189 Ne19c84bc3ebb4e9dbadbf2d73f866a50 schema:issueNumber 7587
    190 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    191 Ne5e76288ab214d8890a59e3d38eb6a4b schema:affiliation N63bec029b07f414db5aa1af4038c7c27
    192 schema:familyName Panneershelvam
    193 schema:givenName Veda
    194 rdf:type schema:Person
    195 Ne86a661582b4482aa6d849b9f73a5183 schema:affiliation N75a5973d796a4884a85166c388542a91
    196 schema:familyName Leach
    197 schema:givenName Madeleine
    198 rdf:type schema:Person
    199 Nee6b8f4bb4b642b8a768ce66cddf9e30 schema:name Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK
    200 rdf:type schema:Organization
    201 Nefeeec9ca641432bb6eceabc9d1d1ad7 schema:name dimensions_id
    202 schema:value pub.1039427823
    203 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    204 Nf00675c787c44ae4a78fb31141530163 rdf:first sg:person.0631073136.81
    205 rdf:rest N0a9261c8fd2248c9bcbaeb1c14092659
    206 Nf04b0bb18a5a48588ad881a18f253c2e rdf:first sg:person.0603620361.92
    207 rdf:rest Na634088669c543f7bd407279a88da2e0
    208 Nf05d9f742f1f43e9819c0dcc29ffbd0a schema:name Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK
    209 rdf:type schema:Organization
    210 Nf177f3d448bd4da9ab463058f8a64ed1 schema:affiliation Naade2bc6d3d94a779ce5b6294f495e4e
    211 schema:familyName Grewe
    212 schema:givenName Dominik
    213 rdf:type schema:Person
    214 Nf47f893bada446ec8ce66cb394daa4b2 schema:affiliation N87f307e8c90b4aa58773a53bdd7eb215
    215 schema:familyName Dieleman
    216 schema:givenName Sander
    217 rdf:type schema:Person
    218 Nf50b528676464d03ba624f291e957e9a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    219 schema:name Monte Carlo Method
    220 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    221 Nffde36b02fd34076b4b16531be451634 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    222 schema:name Supervised Machine Learning
    223 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    224 anzsrc-for:08 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    225 schema:name Information and Computing Sciences
    226 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    227 anzsrc-for:0801 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    228 schema:name Artificial Intelligence and Image Processing
    229 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    230 sg:journal.1018957 schema:issn 0090-0028
    231 1476-4687
    232 schema:name Nature
    233 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    234 sg:person.01005720522.17 schema:affiliation Nd2b391bbd1e04a138cb8ab91cd050a52
    235 schema:familyName Lillicrap
    236 schema:givenName Timothy
    237 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01005720522.17
    238 rdf:type schema:Person
    239 sg:person.01150523761.08 schema:affiliation Naa0ebd1dad56475e806330b94772762a
    240 schema:familyName Lanctot
    241 schema:givenName Marc
    242 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01150523761.08
    243 rdf:type schema:Person
    244 sg:person.01261111261.08 schema:affiliation N7ec0ac73b040476ba0227d411ae5906d
    245 schema:familyName Huang
    246 schema:givenName Aja
    247 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01261111261.08
    248 rdf:type schema:Person
    249 sg:person.013007605545.25 schema:affiliation N52840dd04c03440696f32e266133ae14
    250 schema:familyName Graepel
    251 schema:givenName Thore
    252 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013007605545.25
    253 rdf:type schema:Person
    254 sg:person.01354477236.72 schema:affiliation N7d8291dc46284d68bbfcfc98f97cf363
    255 schema:familyName Kavukcuoglu
    256 schema:givenName Koray
    257 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01354477236.72
    258 rdf:type schema:Person
    259 sg:person.015503241325.61 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.420451.6
    260 schema:familyName Sutskever
    261 schema:givenName Ilya
    262 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015503241325.61
    263 rdf:type schema:Person
    264 sg:person.0603620361.92 schema:affiliation N27c0dcb36dc641798865ca3022150128
    265 schema:familyName Guez
    266 schema:givenName Arthur
    267 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0603620361.92
    268 rdf:type schema:Person
    269 sg:person.0607461461.18 schema:affiliation N098c3d0c262241469cfa89725594da77
    270 schema:familyName Kalchbrenner
    271 schema:givenName Nal
    272 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0607461461.18
    273 rdf:type schema:Person
    274 sg:person.0631073136.81 schema:affiliation N6f4e91510c8f4049a320c36787e0db46
    275 schema:familyName Silver
    276 schema:givenName David
    277 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0631073136.81
    278 rdf:type schema:Person
    279 sg:person.0651733561.64 schema:affiliation N7f478fe9dc13437a85de9ad16e2d3608
    280 schema:familyName Sifre
    281 schema:givenName Laurent
    282 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0651733561.64
    283 rdf:type schema:Person
    284 sg:person.0703047436.03 schema:affiliation N6ab3b8e2f47346d88b35f6ca8a31ea47
    285 schema:familyName Antonoglou
    286 schema:givenName Ioannis
    287 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0703047436.03
    288 rdf:type schema:Person
    289 sg:person.0720046761.68 schema:affiliation Nf05d9f742f1f43e9819c0dcc29ffbd0a
    290 schema:familyName van den Driessche
    291 schema:givenName George
    292 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0720046761.68
    293 rdf:type schema:Person
    294 sg:person.0736526127.62 schema:affiliation Nb3ce58de1c5940d9ae933ebaa68a0093
    295 schema:familyName Maddison
    296 schema:givenName Chris J.
    297 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0736526127.62
    298 rdf:type schema:Person
    299 sg:person.0741767337.55 schema:affiliation Nee6b8f4bb4b642b8a768ce66cddf9e30
    300 schema:familyName Hassabis
    301 schema:givenName Demis
    302 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0741767337.55
    303 rdf:type schema:Person
    304 sg:person.0766162161.25 schema:affiliation N34563665394448428c5feff60863b3b9
    305 schema:familyName Schrittwieser
    306 schema:givenName Julian
    307 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0766162161.25
    308 rdf:type schema:Person
    309 sg:pub.10.1007/11871842_29 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037233025
    310 https://doi.org/10.1007/11871842_29
    311 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    312 sg:pub.10.1007/3-540-48957-6_8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002847551
    313 https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-48957-6_8
    314 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    315 sg:pub.10.1007/978-0-387-35706-5_11 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044078476
    316 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-35706-5_11
    317 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    318 sg:pub.10.1007/978-0-387-35706-5_7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014993740
    319 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-35706-5_7
    320 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    321 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-09165-5_4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014262390
    322 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09165-5_4
    323 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    324 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-71984-7_15 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028258394
    325 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-71984-7_15
    326 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    327 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-75538-8_7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049999349
    328 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-75538-8_7
    329 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    330 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-87559-8_11 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000894869
    331 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-87559-8_11
    332 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    333 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-87608-3_11 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034025447
    334 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-87608-3_11
    335 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    336 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-12993-3_2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043913590
    337 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-12993-3_2
    338 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    339 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-17928-0_4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021283639
    340 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-17928-0_4
    341 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    342 sg:pub.10.1007/s10472-011-9258-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009945078
    343 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10472-011-9258-6
    344 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    345 sg:pub.10.1007/s10994-012-5280-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022392051
    346 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10994-012-5280-0
    347 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    348 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1007634325138 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047698138
    349 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1007634325138
    350 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    351 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022633531479 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016395729
    352 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022633531479
    353 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    354 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022672621406 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011015238
    355 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022672621406
    356 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    357 sg:pub.10.1038/nature14236 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030517994
    358 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14236
    359 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    360 sg:pub.10.1038/nature14539 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010020120
    361 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14539
    362 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    363 https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2326-1951.1998.tb03356.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016891317
    364 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    365 https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-3702(75)90019-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014742214
    366 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    367 https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-3702(92)90074-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005668257
    368 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    369 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-1-55860-335-6.50027-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018104702
    370 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    371 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.artint.2011.03.007 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028334643
    372 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    373 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(01)00121-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049498780
    374 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    375 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(01)00129-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027780827
    376 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    377 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(01)00152-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013320308
    378 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    379 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(01)00166-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010924070
    380 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    381 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(78)80012-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026072770
    382 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    383 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0065-2458(00)80019-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010386103
    384 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    385 https://doi.org/10.1109/72.554195 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061218851
    386 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    387 https://doi.org/10.1109/cig.2014.6932903 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1095762918
    388 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    389 https://doi.org/10.1109/tciaig.2010.2083662 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061548858
    390 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    391 https://doi.org/10.1109/tciaig.2010.2100396 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061548865
    392 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    393 https://doi.org/10.1109/tciaig.2012.2186810 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061548895
    394 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    395 https://doi.org/10.1109/tnn.1998.712192 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061716400
    396 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    397 https://doi.org/10.1145/1143844.1143954 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015038846
    398 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    399 https://doi.org/10.1145/1553374.1553495 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037619444
    400 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    401 https://doi.org/10.1145/2093548.2093574 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024448622
    402 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    403 https://doi.org/10.1147/rd.116.0601 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063179753
    404 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    405 https://doi.org/10.1162/neco.1994.6.2.215 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010905201
    406 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    407 https://doi.org/10.3233/icg-2007-30403 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1104488856
    408 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    409 https://doi.org/10.3233/icg-2011-34302 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007861337
    410 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    411 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.420451.6 schema:alternateName Google (United States)
    412 schema:name Google, 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, California 94043, USA
    413 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...