Key tissue targets responsible for anthrax-toxin-induced lethality View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2013-09

AUTHORS

Shihui Liu, Yi Zhang, Mahtab Moayeri, Jie Liu, Devorah Crown, Rasem J. Fattah, Alexander N. Wein, Zu-Xi Yu, Toren Finkel, Stephen H. Leppla

ABSTRACT

Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, is lethal owing to the actions of two exotoxins: anthrax lethal toxin (LT) and oedema toxin (ET). The key tissue targets responsible for the lethal effects of these toxins are unknown. Here we generated cell-type-specific anthrax toxin receptor capillary morphogenesis protein-2 (CMG2)-null mice and cell-type-specific CMG2-expressing mice and challenged them with the toxins. Our results show that lethality induced by LT and ET occurs through damage to distinct cell types; whereas targeting cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells is required for LT-induced mortality, ET-induced lethality occurs mainly through its action in hepatocytes. Notably, and in contradiction to what has been previously postulated, targeting of endothelial cells by either toxin does not seem to contribute significantly to lethality. Our findings demonstrate that B. anthracis has evolved to use LT and ET to induce host lethality by coordinately damaging two distinct vital systems. More... »

PAGES

63

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature12510

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12510

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001404301

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995686


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0601", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Biochemistry and Cell Biology", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Biological Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Animals", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Anthrax", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Antigens, Bacterial", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Bacillus anthracis", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Bacterial Toxins", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Disease Resistance", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Edema", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Endothelial Cells", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Epithelial Cells", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Female", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Hepatocytes", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Intestines", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Liver", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Male", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Mice", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Mice, Transgenic", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Muscle, Smooth, Vascular", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Myocytes, Cardiac", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Organ Specificity", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Receptors, Peptide", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Substrate Specificity", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Survival Analysis", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419681.3", 
          "name": [
            "Microbial Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Liu", 
        "givenName": "Shihui", 
        "id": "sg:person.01137304423.20", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01137304423.20"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419681.3", 
          "name": [
            "Microbial Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Zhang", 
        "givenName": "Yi", 
        "id": "sg:person.010177172207.11", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010177172207.11"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419681.3", 
          "name": [
            "Microbial Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Moayeri", 
        "givenName": "Mahtab", 
        "id": "sg:person.0622534725.92", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0622534725.92"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Heart Lung and Blood Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.279885.9", 
          "name": [
            "Center for Molecular Medicine, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Liu", 
        "givenName": "Jie", 
        "id": "sg:person.01073324074.84", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01073324074.84"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419681.3", 
          "name": [
            "Microbial Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Crown", 
        "givenName": "Devorah", 
        "id": "sg:person.0645605767.03", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0645605767.03"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419681.3", 
          "name": [
            "Microbial Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Fattah", 
        "givenName": "Rasem J.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01132255131.02", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01132255131.02"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419681.3", 
          "name": [
            "Microbial Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Wein", 
        "givenName": "Alexander N.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01336574177.41", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01336574177.41"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Heart Lung and Blood Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.279885.9", 
          "name": [
            "Pathology Core Facility, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Yu", 
        "givenName": "Zu-Xi", 
        "id": "sg:person.016472676324.55", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016472676324.55"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Heart Lung and Blood Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.279885.9", 
          "name": [
            "Center for Molecular Medicine, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Finkel", 
        "givenName": "Toren", 
        "id": "sg:person.01151172562.95", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01151172562.95"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419681.3", 
          "name": [
            "Microbial Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Leppla", 
        "givenName": "Stephen H.", 
        "id": "sg:person.010320513717.65", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010320513717.65"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9440(10)63697-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001363910"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0905409106", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002154689"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1385/1-59259-969-9:503", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002317345", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1385/1-59259-969-9:503"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1120755109", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008343004"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2008.08.011", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008962376"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0431098100", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011115393"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m301154200", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011616089"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9440(10)62496-0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012400804"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3201/eid0706.010604", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013263249"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/n35101999", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013838376", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/n35101999"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/n35101999", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013838376", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/n35101999"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/labinvest.2010.5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017564887", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/labinvest.2010.5"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/labinvest.2010.5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017564887", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/labinvest.2010.5"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.10091", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018164513"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2009.07.003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018563860"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature09446", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019149631", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09446"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature09446", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019149631", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09446"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-5822.2006.00845.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021080713"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1172/jci119509", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024979688"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002638", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025419022"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2010.10.004", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026957598"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.274.1.305", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027059198"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2011.09.014", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028210647"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000906", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028934921"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2011.05.016", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029910194"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/cvi.00023-06", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032792545"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000456", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032958644"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/gene.20112", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033295627"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-5822.2006.00738.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036877652"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0712195105", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037961542"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m210321200", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041940882"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003130", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043779194"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.74.1.682-693.2006", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044752646"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1206933109", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044970784"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9440(10)61218-7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045609427"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddm076", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045992192"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.79.10.3162", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047349678"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1998.9040", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048538964"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.102650499", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049853561"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.20643", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052054244"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.20643", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052054244"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.20643", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052054244"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1172/jci17991", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053460996"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2011.08.016", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053618348"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1042/0264-6021:3520739", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056715190"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.280.5364.734", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062560949"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.176.16.5188-5192.1994", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062722979"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077171401", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077191740", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077826574", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2013-09", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2013-09-01", 
    "description": "Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, is lethal owing to the actions of two exotoxins: anthrax lethal toxin (LT) and oedema toxin (ET). The key tissue targets responsible for the lethal effects of these toxins are unknown. Here we generated cell-type-specific anthrax toxin receptor capillary morphogenesis protein-2 (CMG2)-null mice and cell-type-specific CMG2-expressing mice and challenged them with the toxins. Our results show that lethality induced by LT and ET occurs through damage to distinct cell types; whereas targeting cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells is required for LT-induced mortality, ET-induced lethality occurs mainly through its action in hepatocytes. Notably, and in contradiction to what has been previously postulated, targeting of endothelial cells by either toxin does not seem to contribute significantly to lethality. Our findings demonstrate that B. anthracis has evolved to use LT and ET to induce host lethality by coordinately damaging two distinct vital systems. ", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature12510", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isFundedItemOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.2726622", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.2683860", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.2723248", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }
    ], 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1018957", 
        "issn": [
          "0090-0028", 
          "1476-4687"
        ], 
        "name": "Nature", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "7465", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "501"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Key tissue targets responsible for anthrax-toxin-induced lethality", 
    "pagination": "63", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "06b07535088a3074034026484aa72fce2acd864c037912581843c6a53c0c227a"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "23995686"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "0410462"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1038/nature12510"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1001404301"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12510", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001404301"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T18:07", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8675_00000421.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://www.nature.com/articles/nature12510"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature12510'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature12510'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature12510'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature12510'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

366 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      96 URIs      43 LITERALS      31 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1038/nature12510 schema:about N05e3d6b4d9064da784433e0aa1a7ff1e
2 N0a7e3222884d46778e917b46b6b226bd
3 N235309d108ac4397ab9a1466b582bd86
4 N4890b7cadc4047aca179a71d978decbd
5 N56a0e6eae916464c8f5605bfaf758187
6 N60e0d33bc9ce46ba9d2b5b2a57592bb7
7 N71d1b3336809498dbb574dca81488ace
8 N7ae12155d41c4ab597a94d6eb0ca8bb3
9 N7c9cd8c7840d42e6aec7818804b4f84e
10 N8364c16b9fa744418ef79411e7681351
11 N93ffbac36c3a441bb3d001e3dbe2fc49
12 N983509338adb4e5a95786cda83b76a40
13 N9c45b8a51947461aaaddcafad3756892
14 N9d2dad70e9e0491782db499592dcadf8
15 N9f1e1f57c002452092b7ee9271949250
16 Na89800758ab042ad9aa28e690f79f318
17 Nb28aa70ac3d948f8ad6e015d6c3201d2
18 Nbd6359b17dd745c79c4faa2d93633b32
19 Nc5614421e38044b5aa64f56287912024
20 Ndcdce6bef3594828bef08d9a13fcea22
21 Nec940f8d3d0f42a9a87ea474a3420406
22 Nee2b749cfb2b407295fa779629953484
23 anzsrc-for:06
24 anzsrc-for:0601
25 schema:author Ndcb6b078033749e88fafcffa11aafa1c
26 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1038/labinvest.2010.5
27 sg:pub.10.1038/n35101999
28 sg:pub.10.1038/nature09446
29 sg:pub.10.1385/1-59259-969-9:503
30 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077171401
31 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077191740
32 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077826574
33 https://doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.10091
34 https://doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.20643
35 https://doi.org/10.1002/gene.20112
36 https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1998.9040
37 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2010.10.004
38 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2011.09.014
39 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2009.07.003
40 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2011.08.016
41 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2011.05.016
42 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2008.08.011
43 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9440(10)61218-7
44 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9440(10)62496-0
45 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9440(10)63697-8
46 https://doi.org/10.1042/0264-6021:3520739
47 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0431098100
48 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0712195105
49 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0905409106
50 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.102650499
51 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1120755109
52 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1206933109
53 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.79.10.3162
54 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.274.1.305
55 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m210321200
56 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m301154200
57 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddm076
58 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-5822.2006.00738.x
59 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-5822.2006.00845.x
60 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.280.5364.734
61 https://doi.org/10.1128/cvi.00023-06
62 https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.74.1.682-693.2006
63 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.176.16.5188-5192.1994
64 https://doi.org/10.1172/jci119509
65 https://doi.org/10.1172/jci17991
66 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003130
67 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000456
68 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000906
69 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002638
70 https://doi.org/10.3201/eid0706.010604
71 schema:datePublished 2013-09
72 schema:datePublishedReg 2013-09-01
73 schema:description Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, is lethal owing to the actions of two exotoxins: anthrax lethal toxin (LT) and oedema toxin (ET). The key tissue targets responsible for the lethal effects of these toxins are unknown. Here we generated cell-type-specific anthrax toxin receptor capillary morphogenesis protein-2 (CMG2)-null mice and cell-type-specific CMG2-expressing mice and challenged them with the toxins. Our results show that lethality induced by LT and ET occurs through damage to distinct cell types; whereas targeting cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells is required for LT-induced mortality, ET-induced lethality occurs mainly through its action in hepatocytes. Notably, and in contradiction to what has been previously postulated, targeting of endothelial cells by either toxin does not seem to contribute significantly to lethality. Our findings demonstrate that B. anthracis has evolved to use LT and ET to induce host lethality by coordinately damaging two distinct vital systems.
74 schema:genre research_article
75 schema:inLanguage en
76 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
77 schema:isPartOf N24647cfe6146488dac4542a8ef4abd6b
78 N4c08b14f4b7841548e89bf36d6f0556e
79 sg:journal.1018957
80 schema:name Key tissue targets responsible for anthrax-toxin-induced lethality
81 schema:pagination 63
82 schema:productId N0856f7914a4c4e7dbb2f393eda502e80
83 N428d25613f7b409ea497dbf2e666cd44
84 N527bf1b0948f4e0099e303297945feda
85 Nb04a9b8b8a3b4c72b8db97ef94394350
86 Nd4f34c7c272a4f8d938fa86c47519f50
87 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001404301
88 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12510
89 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T18:07
90 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
91 schema:sdPublisher Nc9da3cc584994a1d9ff17562348a7345
92 schema:url https://www.nature.com/articles/nature12510
93 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
94 sgo:sdDataset articles
95 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
96 N05e3d6b4d9064da784433e0aa1a7ff1e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
97 schema:name Substrate Specificity
98 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
99 N0856f7914a4c4e7dbb2f393eda502e80 schema:name doi
100 schema:value 10.1038/nature12510
101 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
102 N0a7e3222884d46778e917b46b6b226bd schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
103 schema:name Receptors, Peptide
104 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
105 N13b988f0dafc42bf8e671fff204790ba rdf:first sg:person.01151172562.95
106 rdf:rest Nb0511135d04c4d2f8129c2e3d747f66e
107 N201dfae6379a4409967dbfece552a0bf rdf:first sg:person.01073324074.84
108 rdf:rest Nd69eac16e8c94b7aa73fd25cd48a09c6
109 N235309d108ac4397ab9a1466b582bd86 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
110 schema:name Male
111 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
112 N24647cfe6146488dac4542a8ef4abd6b schema:issueNumber 7465
113 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
114 N36e8922072614d688a92cf1844b526b4 rdf:first sg:person.016472676324.55
115 rdf:rest N13b988f0dafc42bf8e671fff204790ba
116 N3caf203a3b254b0a9143bf2a505be19f rdf:first sg:person.01132255131.02
117 rdf:rest Ndf4504c8c9d04ed392713f2562e67225
118 N428d25613f7b409ea497dbf2e666cd44 schema:name dimensions_id
119 schema:value pub.1001404301
120 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
121 N4890b7cadc4047aca179a71d978decbd schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
122 schema:name Bacterial Toxins
123 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
124 N4c08b14f4b7841548e89bf36d6f0556e schema:volumeNumber 501
125 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
126 N527bf1b0948f4e0099e303297945feda schema:name readcube_id
127 schema:value 06b07535088a3074034026484aa72fce2acd864c037912581843c6a53c0c227a
128 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
129 N56a0e6eae916464c8f5605bfaf758187 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
130 schema:name Mice, Transgenic
131 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
132 N60e0d33bc9ce46ba9d2b5b2a57592bb7 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
133 schema:name Endothelial Cells
134 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
135 N71d1b3336809498dbb574dca81488ace schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
136 schema:name Intestines
137 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
138 N7ae12155d41c4ab597a94d6eb0ca8bb3 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
139 schema:name Hepatocytes
140 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
141 N7c9cd8c7840d42e6aec7818804b4f84e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
142 schema:name Bacillus anthracis
143 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
144 N8364c16b9fa744418ef79411e7681351 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
145 schema:name Liver
146 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
147 N93ffbac36c3a441bb3d001e3dbe2fc49 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
148 schema:name Antigens, Bacterial
149 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
150 N983509338adb4e5a95786cda83b76a40 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
151 schema:name Myocytes, Cardiac
152 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
153 N9c45b8a51947461aaaddcafad3756892 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
154 schema:name Edema
155 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
156 N9d2dad70e9e0491782db499592dcadf8 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
157 schema:name Female
158 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
159 N9f1e1f57c002452092b7ee9271949250 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
160 schema:name Animals
161 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
162 Na89800758ab042ad9aa28e690f79f318 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
163 schema:name Epithelial Cells
164 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
165 Na9d6fae528d44abb80a2b5a2f56ddbdc rdf:first sg:person.0622534725.92
166 rdf:rest N201dfae6379a4409967dbfece552a0bf
167 Nb04a9b8b8a3b4c72b8db97ef94394350 schema:name pubmed_id
168 schema:value 23995686
169 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
170 Nb0511135d04c4d2f8129c2e3d747f66e rdf:first sg:person.010320513717.65
171 rdf:rest rdf:nil
172 Nb068145427a54c59af2af5e01a737558 rdf:first sg:person.010177172207.11
173 rdf:rest Na9d6fae528d44abb80a2b5a2f56ddbdc
174 Nb28aa70ac3d948f8ad6e015d6c3201d2 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
175 schema:name Muscle, Smooth, Vascular
176 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
177 Nbd6359b17dd745c79c4faa2d93633b32 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
178 schema:name Organ Specificity
179 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
180 Nc5614421e38044b5aa64f56287912024 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
181 schema:name Anthrax
182 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
183 Nc9da3cc584994a1d9ff17562348a7345 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
184 rdf:type schema:Organization
185 Nd4f34c7c272a4f8d938fa86c47519f50 schema:name nlm_unique_id
186 schema:value 0410462
187 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
188 Nd69eac16e8c94b7aa73fd25cd48a09c6 rdf:first sg:person.0645605767.03
189 rdf:rest N3caf203a3b254b0a9143bf2a505be19f
190 Ndcb6b078033749e88fafcffa11aafa1c rdf:first sg:person.01137304423.20
191 rdf:rest Nb068145427a54c59af2af5e01a737558
192 Ndcdce6bef3594828bef08d9a13fcea22 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
193 schema:name Survival Analysis
194 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
195 Ndf4504c8c9d04ed392713f2562e67225 rdf:first sg:person.01336574177.41
196 rdf:rest N36e8922072614d688a92cf1844b526b4
197 Nec940f8d3d0f42a9a87ea474a3420406 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
198 schema:name Disease Resistance
199 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
200 Nee2b749cfb2b407295fa779629953484 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
201 schema:name Mice
202 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
203 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
204 schema:name Biological Sciences
205 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
206 anzsrc-for:0601 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
207 schema:name Biochemistry and Cell Biology
208 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
209 sg:grant.2683860 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/nature12510
210 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
211 sg:grant.2723248 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/nature12510
212 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
213 sg:grant.2726622 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/nature12510
214 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
215 sg:journal.1018957 schema:issn 0090-0028
216 1476-4687
217 schema:name Nature
218 rdf:type schema:Periodical
219 sg:person.010177172207.11 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419681.3
220 schema:familyName Zhang
221 schema:givenName Yi
222 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010177172207.11
223 rdf:type schema:Person
224 sg:person.010320513717.65 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419681.3
225 schema:familyName Leppla
226 schema:givenName Stephen H.
227 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010320513717.65
228 rdf:type schema:Person
229 sg:person.01073324074.84 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.279885.9
230 schema:familyName Liu
231 schema:givenName Jie
232 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01073324074.84
233 rdf:type schema:Person
234 sg:person.01132255131.02 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419681.3
235 schema:familyName Fattah
236 schema:givenName Rasem J.
237 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01132255131.02
238 rdf:type schema:Person
239 sg:person.01137304423.20 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419681.3
240 schema:familyName Liu
241 schema:givenName Shihui
242 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01137304423.20
243 rdf:type schema:Person
244 sg:person.01151172562.95 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.279885.9
245 schema:familyName Finkel
246 schema:givenName Toren
247 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01151172562.95
248 rdf:type schema:Person
249 sg:person.01336574177.41 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419681.3
250 schema:familyName Wein
251 schema:givenName Alexander N.
252 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01336574177.41
253 rdf:type schema:Person
254 sg:person.016472676324.55 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.279885.9
255 schema:familyName Yu
256 schema:givenName Zu-Xi
257 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016472676324.55
258 rdf:type schema:Person
259 sg:person.0622534725.92 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419681.3
260 schema:familyName Moayeri
261 schema:givenName Mahtab
262 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0622534725.92
263 rdf:type schema:Person
264 sg:person.0645605767.03 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419681.3
265 schema:familyName Crown
266 schema:givenName Devorah
267 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0645605767.03
268 rdf:type schema:Person
269 sg:pub.10.1038/labinvest.2010.5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017564887
270 https://doi.org/10.1038/labinvest.2010.5
271 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
272 sg:pub.10.1038/n35101999 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013838376
273 https://doi.org/10.1038/n35101999
274 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
275 sg:pub.10.1038/nature09446 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019149631
276 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09446
277 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
278 sg:pub.10.1385/1-59259-969-9:503 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002317345
279 https://doi.org/10.1385/1-59259-969-9:503
280 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
281 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077171401 schema:CreativeWork
282 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077191740 schema:CreativeWork
283 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077826574 schema:CreativeWork
284 https://doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.10091 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018164513
285 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
286 https://doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.20643 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052054244
287 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
288 https://doi.org/10.1002/gene.20112 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033295627
289 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
290 https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1998.9040 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048538964
291 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
292 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2010.10.004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026957598
293 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
294 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2011.09.014 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028210647
295 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
296 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2009.07.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018563860
297 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
298 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2011.08.016 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053618348
299 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
300 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2011.05.016 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029910194
301 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
302 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2008.08.011 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008962376
303 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
304 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9440(10)61218-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045609427
305 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
306 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9440(10)62496-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012400804
307 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
308 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9440(10)63697-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001363910
309 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
310 https://doi.org/10.1042/0264-6021:3520739 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056715190
311 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
312 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0431098100 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011115393
313 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
314 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0712195105 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037961542
315 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
316 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0905409106 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002154689
317 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
318 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.102650499 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049853561
319 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
320 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1120755109 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008343004
321 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
322 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1206933109 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044970784
323 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
324 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.79.10.3162 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047349678
325 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
326 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.274.1.305 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027059198
327 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
328 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m210321200 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041940882
329 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
330 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m301154200 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011616089
331 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
332 https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddm076 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045992192
333 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
334 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-5822.2006.00738.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036877652
335 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
336 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-5822.2006.00845.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021080713
337 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
338 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.280.5364.734 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062560949
339 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
340 https://doi.org/10.1128/cvi.00023-06 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032792545
341 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
342 https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.74.1.682-693.2006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044752646
343 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
344 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.176.16.5188-5192.1994 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062722979
345 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
346 https://doi.org/10.1172/jci119509 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024979688
347 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
348 https://doi.org/10.1172/jci17991 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053460996
349 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
350 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003130 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043779194
351 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
352 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000456 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032958644
353 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
354 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000906 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028934921
355 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
356 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002638 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025419022
357 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
358 https://doi.org/10.3201/eid0706.010604 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013263249
359 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
360 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.279885.9 schema:alternateName National Heart Lung and Blood Institute
361 schema:name Center for Molecular Medicine, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
362 Pathology Core Facility, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
363 rdf:type schema:Organization
364 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419681.3 schema:alternateName National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
365 schema:name Microbial Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
366 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...