Evidence for several waves of global transmission in the seventh cholera pandemic View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2011-09

AUTHORS

Ankur Mutreja, Dong Wook Kim, Nicholas R. Thomson, Thomas R. Connor, Je Hee Lee, Samuel Kariuki, Nicholas J. Croucher, Seon Young Choi, Simon R. Harris, Michael Lebens, Swapan Kumar Niyogi, Eun Jin Kim, T. Ramamurthy, Jongsik Chun, James L. N. Wood, John D. Clemens, Cecil Czerkinsky, G. Balakrish Nair, Jan Holmgren, Julian Parkhill, Gordon Dougan

ABSTRACT

Vibrio cholerae is a globally important pathogen that is endemic in many areas of the world and causes 3-5 million reported cases of cholera every year. Historically, there have been seven acknowledged cholera pandemics; recent outbreaks in Zimbabwe and Haiti are included in the seventh and ongoing pandemic. Only isolates in serogroup O1 (consisting of two biotypes known as 'classical' and 'El Tor') and the derivative O139 can cause epidemic cholera. It is believed that the first six cholera pandemics were caused by the classical biotype, but El Tor has subsequently spread globally and replaced the classical biotype in the current pandemic. Detailed molecular epidemiological mapping of cholera has been compromised by a reliance on sub-genomic regions such as mobile elements to infer relationships, making El Tor isolates associated with the seventh pandemic seem superficially diverse. To understand the underlying phylogeny of the lineage responsible for the current pandemic, we identified high-resolution markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) in 154 whole-genome sequences of globally and temporally representative V. cholerae isolates. Using this phylogeny, we show here that the seventh pandemic has spread from the Bay of Bengal in at least three independent but overlapping waves with a common ancestor in the 1950s, and identify several transcontinental transmission events. Additionally, we show how the acquisition of the SXT family of antibiotic resistance elements has shaped pandemic spread, and show that this family was first acquired at least ten years before its discovery in V. cholerae. More... »

PAGES

462

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature10392

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10392

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013206766

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21866102


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1108", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical Microbiology", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Cholera", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Genome, Bacterial", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Haiti", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Humans", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Likelihood Functions", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Molecular Epidemiology", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Pandemics", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Phylogeny", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Vibrio cholerae", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Zimbabwe", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Wellcome Sanger Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10306.34", 
          "name": [
            "Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Mutreja", 
        "givenName": "Ankur", 
        "id": "sg:person.0707267170.31", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0707267170.31"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Hanyang University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.49606.3d", 
          "name": [
            "International Vaccine Institute, SNU Research Park, Bongchun 7 dong, Kwanak, Seoul 151-919, Korea", 
            "Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Hanyang University, Kyeonggi-do 426-791, Korea"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kim", 
        "givenName": "Dong Wook", 
        "id": "sg:person.013411540120.27", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013411540120.27"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Wellcome Sanger Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10306.34", 
          "name": [
            "Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Thomson", 
        "givenName": "Nicholas R.", 
        "id": "sg:person.0630111303.57", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0630111303.57"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Wellcome Sanger Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10306.34", 
          "name": [
            "Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Connor", 
        "givenName": "Thomas R.", 
        "id": "sg:person.011521017502.76", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011521017502.76"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Seoul National University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.31501.36", 
          "name": [
            "International Vaccine Institute, SNU Research Park, Bongchun 7 dong, Kwanak, Seoul 151-919, Korea", 
            "Seoul National University, 1\u2009Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Lee", 
        "givenName": "Je Hee", 
        "id": "sg:person.0661335170.44", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0661335170.44"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "name": [
            "Centre for Microbiology Research, KEMRI at Kenyatta Hosp Compound, Off Ngong RoadPO Box 43640-00100, Kenya"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kariuki", 
        "givenName": "Samuel", 
        "id": "sg:person.014011320674.07", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014011320674.07"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Wellcome Sanger Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10306.34", 
          "name": [
            "Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Croucher", 
        "givenName": "Nicholas J.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01355254423.20", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01355254423.20"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Seoul National University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.31501.36", 
          "name": [
            "International Vaccine Institute, SNU Research Park, Bongchun 7 dong, Kwanak, Seoul 151-919, Korea", 
            "Seoul National University, 1\u2009Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Choi", 
        "givenName": "Seon Young", 
        "id": "sg:person.0722102011.82", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0722102011.82"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Wellcome Sanger Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10306.34", 
          "name": [
            "Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Harris", 
        "givenName": "Simon R.", 
        "id": "sg:person.014130257112.00", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014130257112.00"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Gothenburg", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8761.8", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Microbiology and Immunology and University of Gothenburg Vaccine Research Institute, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Box 435, 40530 G\u00f6teborg, Sweden"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Lebens", 
        "givenName": "Michael", 
        "id": "sg:person.01313373624.49", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01313373624.49"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419566.9", 
          "name": [
            "National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, P-33, CIT Scheme XM, Beliaghata, Kolkata 700 010, India"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Niyogi", 
        "givenName": "Swapan Kumar", 
        "id": "sg:person.014231441354.73", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014231441354.73"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "International Vaccine Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.30311.30", 
          "name": [
            "International Vaccine Institute, SNU Research Park, Bongchun 7 dong, Kwanak, Seoul 151-919, Korea"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kim", 
        "givenName": "Eun Jin", 
        "id": "sg:person.0657540152.94", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0657540152.94"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419566.9", 
          "name": [
            "National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, P-33, CIT Scheme XM, Beliaghata, Kolkata 700 010, India"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Ramamurthy", 
        "givenName": "T.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01103313610.37", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01103313610.37"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Seoul National University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.31501.36", 
          "name": [
            "Seoul National University, 1\u2009Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Chun", 
        "givenName": "Jongsik", 
        "id": "sg:person.01346257366.26", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01346257366.26"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Cambridge", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
          "name": [
            "University of Cambridge, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Wood", 
        "givenName": "James L. N.", 
        "id": "sg:person.014646546432.00", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014646546432.00"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "International Vaccine Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.30311.30", 
          "name": [
            "International Vaccine Institute, SNU Research Park, Bongchun 7 dong, Kwanak, Seoul 151-919, Korea"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Clemens", 
        "givenName": "John D.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01001762452.22", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01001762452.22"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "International Vaccine Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.30311.30", 
          "name": [
            "International Vaccine Institute, SNU Research Park, Bongchun 7 dong, Kwanak, Seoul 151-919, Korea"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Czerkinsky", 
        "givenName": "Cecil", 
        "id": "sg:person.0703573202.09", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0703573202.09"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419566.9", 
          "name": [
            "National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, P-33, CIT Scheme XM, Beliaghata, Kolkata 700 010, India"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Nair", 
        "givenName": "G. Balakrish", 
        "id": "sg:person.016660505432.21", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016660505432.21"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Gothenburg", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8761.8", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Microbiology and Immunology and University of Gothenburg Vaccine Research Institute, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Box 435, 40530 G\u00f6teborg, Sweden"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Holmgren", 
        "givenName": "Jan", 
        "id": "sg:person.0776121352.88", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0776121352.88"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Wellcome Sanger Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10306.34", 
          "name": [
            "Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Parkhill", 
        "givenName": "Julian", 
        "id": "sg:person.01273656103.87", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01273656103.87"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Wellcome Sanger Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10306.34", 
          "name": [
            "Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Dougan", 
        "givenName": "Gordon", 
        "id": "sg:person.01335735615.31", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01335735615.31"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa1012928", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002240176"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2003.09.003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004671937"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2003.09.003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004671937"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btn529", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007839786"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2009.10.003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010094914"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2148-7-214", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010584451", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-7-214"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-2836(05)80360-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013618994"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1198545", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017237439"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/35020000", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021753571", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/35020000"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/35020000", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021753571", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/35020000"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s12275-009-0292-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028542682", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s12275-009-0292-6"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s12275-009-0292-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028542682", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s12275-009-0292-6"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100131", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032683702"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1182395", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034116171"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040088", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037373684"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040088", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037373684"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000786", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039209289"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000775", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039686399"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2958.1999.01330.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040119435"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000206", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041675878"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jcm.02040-08", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046402853"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btl446", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046470836"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btp347", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046846875"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/315807", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048087260"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0907787106", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048599635"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2105-9-539", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049532772", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-9-539"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2105-9-539", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049532772", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-9-539"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/239137a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049585769", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/239137a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2006.00518.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050777223"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.074492.107", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051720574"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.27172-0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060397112"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075238023", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078302391", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082528836", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2011-09", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2011-09-01", 
    "description": "Vibrio cholerae is a globally important pathogen that is endemic in many areas of the world and causes 3-5 million reported cases of cholera every year. Historically, there have been seven acknowledged cholera pandemics; recent outbreaks in Zimbabwe and Haiti are included in the seventh and ongoing pandemic. Only isolates in serogroup O1 (consisting of two biotypes known as 'classical' and 'El Tor') and the derivative O139 can cause epidemic cholera. It is believed that the first six cholera pandemics were caused by the classical biotype, but El Tor has subsequently spread globally and replaced the classical biotype in the current pandemic. Detailed molecular epidemiological mapping of cholera has been compromised by a reliance on sub-genomic regions such as mobile elements to infer relationships, making El Tor isolates associated with the seventh pandemic seem superficially diverse. To understand the underlying phylogeny of the lineage responsible for the current pandemic, we identified high-resolution markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) in 154 whole-genome sequences of globally and temporally representative V. cholerae isolates. Using this phylogeny, we show here that the seventh pandemic has spread from the Bay of Bengal in at least three independent but overlapping waves with a common ancestor in the 1950s, and identify several transcontinental transmission events. Additionally, we show how the acquisition of the SXT family of antibiotic resistance elements has shaped pandemic spread, and show that this family was first acquired at least ten years before its discovery in V. cholerae.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature10392", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isFundedItemOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.3632136", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }
    ], 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1018957", 
        "issn": [
          "0090-0028", 
          "1476-4687"
        ], 
        "name": "Nature", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "7365", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "477"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Evidence for several waves of global transmission in the seventh cholera pandemic", 
    "pagination": "462", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "3ee9ffdc7db563c58b4aef074fdeaea940c1246a79f441bc26093713ed608eb9"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "21866102"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "0410462"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1038/nature10392"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1013206766"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10392", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013206766"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T18:57", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8678_00000434.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://www.nature.com/articles/nature10392"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature10392'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature10392'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature10392'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature10392'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

366 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      69 URIs      32 LITERALS      20 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1038/nature10392 schema:about N0e641fbc1b9840ad9168b40efe49a742
2 N110369acd5c9491e978c5313202ff909
3 N2aaf5f98167744ed9718b3537ab6182f
4 N437d163b79eb4906ad37e17eb71cef45
5 N448bf96a737d48cda0d76bb088b9d2cc
6 N518e317d63b14a6285bc8a0bae9e15d7
7 N6a5144bbea9a43efa94c43f42f8fde9b
8 N84b3b5f932c44fc09352b0ac136df2e7
9 N8a9eec45330f48b59ee0d8b1bec200a6
10 Na896c74c09df45d1bf80c6bc12cd74ab
11 Nc98b5cdea55d4878b9864296763c62a1
12 anzsrc-for:11
13 anzsrc-for:1108
14 schema:author Ndcff51c0628249109814b96adad18f40
15 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s12275-009-0292-6
16 sg:pub.10.1038/239137a0
17 sg:pub.10.1038/35020000
18 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2105-9-539
19 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2148-7-214
20 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075238023
21 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078302391
22 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082528836
23 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2003.09.003
24 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2009.10.003
25 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-2836(05)80360-2
26 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2958.1999.01330.x
27 https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa1012928
28 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0907787106
29 https://doi.org/10.1086/315807
30 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btl446
31 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btn529
32 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btp347
33 https://doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.27172-0
34 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.074492.107
35 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2006.00518.x
36 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1182395
37 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1198545
38 https://doi.org/10.1128/jcm.02040-08
39 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040088
40 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000775
41 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000786
42 https://doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000206
43 https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100131
44 schema:datePublished 2011-09
45 schema:datePublishedReg 2011-09-01
46 schema:description Vibrio cholerae is a globally important pathogen that is endemic in many areas of the world and causes 3-5 million reported cases of cholera every year. Historically, there have been seven acknowledged cholera pandemics; recent outbreaks in Zimbabwe and Haiti are included in the seventh and ongoing pandemic. Only isolates in serogroup O1 (consisting of two biotypes known as 'classical' and 'El Tor') and the derivative O139 can cause epidemic cholera. It is believed that the first six cholera pandemics were caused by the classical biotype, but El Tor has subsequently spread globally and replaced the classical biotype in the current pandemic. Detailed molecular epidemiological mapping of cholera has been compromised by a reliance on sub-genomic regions such as mobile elements to infer relationships, making El Tor isolates associated with the seventh pandemic seem superficially diverse. To understand the underlying phylogeny of the lineage responsible for the current pandemic, we identified high-resolution markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) in 154 whole-genome sequences of globally and temporally representative V. cholerae isolates. Using this phylogeny, we show here that the seventh pandemic has spread from the Bay of Bengal in at least three independent but overlapping waves with a common ancestor in the 1950s, and identify several transcontinental transmission events. Additionally, we show how the acquisition of the SXT family of antibiotic resistance elements has shaped pandemic spread, and show that this family was first acquired at least ten years before its discovery in V. cholerae.
47 schema:genre research_article
48 schema:inLanguage en
49 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
50 schema:isPartOf N4f701d07859b4692abf553be9a2ba464
51 N55e99554313f4fd0a20cbbb145483838
52 sg:journal.1018957
53 schema:name Evidence for several waves of global transmission in the seventh cholera pandemic
54 schema:pagination 462
55 schema:productId N30a0f35abd844e34bf8f6d68ed562cd4
56 N679c17a15d274c95b05af50b8958f93d
57 Nb6e7297f82b344fe95321f1eabf95f81
58 Ne5305317521b44a7a054d9272158a69c
59 Necd751dde0414d4baef3266d0ef04596
60 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013206766
61 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10392
62 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T18:57
63 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
64 schema:sdPublisher N9a426352404c471eb539c0b67d9b56b8
65 schema:url https://www.nature.com/articles/nature10392
66 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
67 sgo:sdDataset articles
68 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
69 N05739228018e40aebd39ba91711db48b rdf:first sg:person.0657540152.94
70 rdf:rest N45aa79ccadec4424946fab32a68832bc
71 N05ccb7386fac425293b3bc4a0ced79d1 rdf:first sg:person.0630111303.57
72 rdf:rest N7f160399227146d4857d565006f2cc0e
73 N0a4c80b5abf843aa8d6b7e701d7ccf58 rdf:first sg:person.014130257112.00
74 rdf:rest N4a0eaf1b55254852b44b2566c58e1598
75 N0e641fbc1b9840ad9168b40efe49a742 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
76 schema:name Genome, Bacterial
77 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
78 N10749b8ee0d242e0beff8f873c667400 rdf:first sg:person.01273656103.87
79 rdf:rest N954edf42dc364f218111b6d3043cae65
80 N110369acd5c9491e978c5313202ff909 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
81 schema:name Vibrio cholerae
82 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
83 N12a3f2cde9ae42bd87a603e8b6551da4 rdf:first sg:person.01001762452.22
84 rdf:rest N633b737abba44e5ebd030da3e292eaf1
85 N16da398aff7942c8b23b7be3aeea2bec rdf:first sg:person.01346257366.26
86 rdf:rest Na27c6111d7074ed5a1affe35a50922c3
87 N2aaf5f98167744ed9718b3537ab6182f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
88 schema:name Haiti
89 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
90 N30a0f35abd844e34bf8f6d68ed562cd4 schema:name doi
91 schema:value 10.1038/nature10392
92 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
93 N437d163b79eb4906ad37e17eb71cef45 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
94 schema:name Humans
95 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
96 N448bf96a737d48cda0d76bb088b9d2cc schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
97 schema:name Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
98 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
99 N45aa79ccadec4424946fab32a68832bc rdf:first sg:person.01103313610.37
100 rdf:rest N16da398aff7942c8b23b7be3aeea2bec
101 N4a0eaf1b55254852b44b2566c58e1598 rdf:first sg:person.01313373624.49
102 rdf:rest Nc681ede9badc473ead355e2259c36a5f
103 N4f701d07859b4692abf553be9a2ba464 schema:issueNumber 7365
104 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
105 N518e317d63b14a6285bc8a0bae9e15d7 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
106 schema:name Cholera
107 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
108 N55e99554313f4fd0a20cbbb145483838 schema:volumeNumber 477
109 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
110 N572c9bca48264268b60de65fe2c2fc46 rdf:first sg:person.0661335170.44
111 rdf:rest Nca4b253c6cdb455488891daa658cf49a
112 N633b737abba44e5ebd030da3e292eaf1 rdf:first sg:person.0703573202.09
113 rdf:rest N64d79e833d874e418cde262c2654c7ea
114 N64d79e833d874e418cde262c2654c7ea rdf:first sg:person.016660505432.21
115 rdf:rest Ne05212cc5ad4403399c3a60826ff81e2
116 N679c17a15d274c95b05af50b8958f93d schema:name dimensions_id
117 schema:value pub.1013206766
118 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
119 N6a5144bbea9a43efa94c43f42f8fde9b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
120 schema:name Molecular Epidemiology
121 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
122 N7f160399227146d4857d565006f2cc0e rdf:first sg:person.011521017502.76
123 rdf:rest N572c9bca48264268b60de65fe2c2fc46
124 N811bab11c5f644d2807628587d0d1eba schema:name Centre for Microbiology Research, KEMRI at Kenyatta Hosp Compound, Off Ngong RoadPO Box 43640-00100, Kenya
125 rdf:type schema:Organization
126 N84b3b5f932c44fc09352b0ac136df2e7 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
127 schema:name Likelihood Functions
128 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
129 N8a9eec45330f48b59ee0d8b1bec200a6 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
130 schema:name Phylogeny
131 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
132 N954edf42dc364f218111b6d3043cae65 rdf:first sg:person.01335735615.31
133 rdf:rest rdf:nil
134 N97f8a5451add4af887a0c7e0f1a84dac rdf:first sg:person.013411540120.27
135 rdf:rest N05ccb7386fac425293b3bc4a0ced79d1
136 N9a426352404c471eb539c0b67d9b56b8 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
137 rdf:type schema:Organization
138 Na27c6111d7074ed5a1affe35a50922c3 rdf:first sg:person.014646546432.00
139 rdf:rest N12a3f2cde9ae42bd87a603e8b6551da4
140 Na896c74c09df45d1bf80c6bc12cd74ab schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
141 schema:name Zimbabwe
142 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
143 Nb6e7297f82b344fe95321f1eabf95f81 schema:name pubmed_id
144 schema:value 21866102
145 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
146 Nbffec5c0a2d44329a5df25d988748478 rdf:first sg:person.0722102011.82
147 rdf:rest N0a4c80b5abf843aa8d6b7e701d7ccf58
148 Nc681ede9badc473ead355e2259c36a5f rdf:first sg:person.014231441354.73
149 rdf:rest N05739228018e40aebd39ba91711db48b
150 Nc98b5cdea55d4878b9864296763c62a1 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
151 schema:name Pandemics
152 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
153 Nca4b253c6cdb455488891daa658cf49a rdf:first sg:person.014011320674.07
154 rdf:rest Ned7f4e924fc1487889ef13a10f55bcb7
155 Ndcff51c0628249109814b96adad18f40 rdf:first sg:person.0707267170.31
156 rdf:rest N97f8a5451add4af887a0c7e0f1a84dac
157 Ne05212cc5ad4403399c3a60826ff81e2 rdf:first sg:person.0776121352.88
158 rdf:rest N10749b8ee0d242e0beff8f873c667400
159 Ne5305317521b44a7a054d9272158a69c schema:name nlm_unique_id
160 schema:value 0410462
161 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
162 Necd751dde0414d4baef3266d0ef04596 schema:name readcube_id
163 schema:value 3ee9ffdc7db563c58b4aef074fdeaea940c1246a79f441bc26093713ed608eb9
164 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
165 Ned7f4e924fc1487889ef13a10f55bcb7 rdf:first sg:person.01355254423.20
166 rdf:rest Nbffec5c0a2d44329a5df25d988748478
167 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
168 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
169 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
170 anzsrc-for:1108 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
171 schema:name Medical Microbiology
172 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
173 sg:grant.3632136 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/nature10392
174 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
175 sg:journal.1018957 schema:issn 0090-0028
176 1476-4687
177 schema:name Nature
178 rdf:type schema:Periodical
179 sg:person.01001762452.22 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.30311.30
180 schema:familyName Clemens
181 schema:givenName John D.
182 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01001762452.22
183 rdf:type schema:Person
184 sg:person.01103313610.37 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419566.9
185 schema:familyName Ramamurthy
186 schema:givenName T.
187 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01103313610.37
188 rdf:type schema:Person
189 sg:person.011521017502.76 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10306.34
190 schema:familyName Connor
191 schema:givenName Thomas R.
192 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011521017502.76
193 rdf:type schema:Person
194 sg:person.01273656103.87 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10306.34
195 schema:familyName Parkhill
196 schema:givenName Julian
197 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01273656103.87
198 rdf:type schema:Person
199 sg:person.01313373624.49 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8761.8
200 schema:familyName Lebens
201 schema:givenName Michael
202 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01313373624.49
203 rdf:type schema:Person
204 sg:person.01335735615.31 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10306.34
205 schema:familyName Dougan
206 schema:givenName Gordon
207 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01335735615.31
208 rdf:type schema:Person
209 sg:person.013411540120.27 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.49606.3d
210 schema:familyName Kim
211 schema:givenName Dong Wook
212 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013411540120.27
213 rdf:type schema:Person
214 sg:person.01346257366.26 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.31501.36
215 schema:familyName Chun
216 schema:givenName Jongsik
217 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01346257366.26
218 rdf:type schema:Person
219 sg:person.01355254423.20 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10306.34
220 schema:familyName Croucher
221 schema:givenName Nicholas J.
222 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01355254423.20
223 rdf:type schema:Person
224 sg:person.014011320674.07 schema:affiliation N811bab11c5f644d2807628587d0d1eba
225 schema:familyName Kariuki
226 schema:givenName Samuel
227 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014011320674.07
228 rdf:type schema:Person
229 sg:person.014130257112.00 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10306.34
230 schema:familyName Harris
231 schema:givenName Simon R.
232 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014130257112.00
233 rdf:type schema:Person
234 sg:person.014231441354.73 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419566.9
235 schema:familyName Niyogi
236 schema:givenName Swapan Kumar
237 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014231441354.73
238 rdf:type schema:Person
239 sg:person.014646546432.00 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0
240 schema:familyName Wood
241 schema:givenName James L. N.
242 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014646546432.00
243 rdf:type schema:Person
244 sg:person.016660505432.21 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419566.9
245 schema:familyName Nair
246 schema:givenName G. Balakrish
247 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016660505432.21
248 rdf:type schema:Person
249 sg:person.0630111303.57 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10306.34
250 schema:familyName Thomson
251 schema:givenName Nicholas R.
252 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0630111303.57
253 rdf:type schema:Person
254 sg:person.0657540152.94 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.30311.30
255 schema:familyName Kim
256 schema:givenName Eun Jin
257 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0657540152.94
258 rdf:type schema:Person
259 sg:person.0661335170.44 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.31501.36
260 schema:familyName Lee
261 schema:givenName Je Hee
262 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0661335170.44
263 rdf:type schema:Person
264 sg:person.0703573202.09 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.30311.30
265 schema:familyName Czerkinsky
266 schema:givenName Cecil
267 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0703573202.09
268 rdf:type schema:Person
269 sg:person.0707267170.31 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10306.34
270 schema:familyName Mutreja
271 schema:givenName Ankur
272 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0707267170.31
273 rdf:type schema:Person
274 sg:person.0722102011.82 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.31501.36
275 schema:familyName Choi
276 schema:givenName Seon Young
277 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0722102011.82
278 rdf:type schema:Person
279 sg:person.0776121352.88 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8761.8
280 schema:familyName Holmgren
281 schema:givenName Jan
282 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0776121352.88
283 rdf:type schema:Person
284 sg:pub.10.1007/s12275-009-0292-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028542682
285 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12275-009-0292-6
286 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
287 sg:pub.10.1038/239137a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049585769
288 https://doi.org/10.1038/239137a0
289 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
290 sg:pub.10.1038/35020000 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021753571
291 https://doi.org/10.1038/35020000
292 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
293 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2105-9-539 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049532772
294 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-9-539
295 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
296 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2148-7-214 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010584451
297 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-7-214
298 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
299 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075238023 schema:CreativeWork
300 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078302391 schema:CreativeWork
301 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082528836 schema:CreativeWork
302 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2003.09.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004671937
303 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
304 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2009.10.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010094914
305 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
306 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-2836(05)80360-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013618994
307 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
308 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2958.1999.01330.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040119435
309 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
310 https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa1012928 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002240176
311 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
312 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0907787106 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048599635
313 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
314 https://doi.org/10.1086/315807 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048087260
315 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
316 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btl446 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046470836
317 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
318 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btn529 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007839786
319 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
320 https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btp347 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046846875
321 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
322 https://doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.27172-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060397112
323 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
324 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.074492.107 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051720574
325 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
326 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2006.00518.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050777223
327 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
328 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1182395 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034116171
329 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
330 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1198545 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017237439
331 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
332 https://doi.org/10.1128/jcm.02040-08 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046402853
333 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
334 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040088 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037373684
335 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
336 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000775 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039686399
337 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
338 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000786 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039209289
339 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
340 https://doi.org/10.3201/eid0602.000206 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041675878
341 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
342 https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100131 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032683702
343 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
344 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10306.34 schema:alternateName Wellcome Sanger Institute
345 schema:name Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK
346 rdf:type schema:Organization
347 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.30311.30 schema:alternateName International Vaccine Institute
348 schema:name International Vaccine Institute, SNU Research Park, Bongchun 7 dong, Kwanak, Seoul 151-919, Korea
349 rdf:type schema:Organization
350 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.31501.36 schema:alternateName Seoul National University
351 schema:name International Vaccine Institute, SNU Research Park, Bongchun 7 dong, Kwanak, Seoul 151-919, Korea
352 Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea
353 rdf:type schema:Organization
354 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419566.9 schema:alternateName National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases
355 schema:name National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, P-33, CIT Scheme XM, Beliaghata, Kolkata 700 010, India
356 rdf:type schema:Organization
357 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.49606.3d schema:alternateName Hanyang University
358 schema:name Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Hanyang University, Kyeonggi-do 426-791, Korea
359 International Vaccine Institute, SNU Research Park, Bongchun 7 dong, Kwanak, Seoul 151-919, Korea
360 rdf:type schema:Organization
361 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0 schema:alternateName University of Cambridge
362 schema:name University of Cambridge, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK
363 rdf:type schema:Organization
364 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8761.8 schema:alternateName University of Gothenburg
365 schema:name Department of Microbiology and Immunology and University of Gothenburg Vaccine Research Institute, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Box 435, 40530 Göteborg, Sweden
366 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...