Direct cell reprogramming is a stochastic process amenable to acceleration View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2009-12

AUTHORS

Jacob Hanna, Krishanu Saha, Bernardo Pando, Jeroen van Zon, Christopher J. Lengner, Menno P. Creyghton, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Rudolf Jaenisch

ABSTRACT

Direct reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be achieved by overexpression of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc transcription factors, but only a minority of donor somatic cells can be reprogrammed to pluripotency. Here we demonstrate that reprogramming by these transcription factors is a continuous stochastic process where almost all mouse donor cells eventually give rise to iPS cells on continued growth and transcription factor expression. Additional inhibition of the p53/p21 pathway or overexpression of Lin28 increased the cell division rate and resulted in an accelerated kinetics of iPS cell formation that was directly proportional to the increase in cell proliferation. In contrast, Nanog overexpression accelerated reprogramming in a predominantly cell-division-rate-independent manner. Quantitative analyses define distinct cell-division-rate-dependent and -independent modes for accelerating the stochastic course of reprogramming, and suggest that the number of cell divisions is a key parameter driving epigenetic reprogramming to pluripotency. More... »

PAGES

595

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2009-08. The Ink4/Arf locus is a barrier for iPS cell reprogramming in NATURE
  • 2006-06. Nanog promotes transfer of pluripotency after cell fusion in NATURE
  • 2008-08. A drug-inducible transgenic system for direct reprogramming of multiple somatic cell types in NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • 2009-08. A p53-mediated DNA damage response limits reprogramming to ensure iPS cell genomic integrity in NATURE
  • 2008-07. Induction of pluripotent stem cells by defined factors is greatly improved by small-molecule compounds in NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • 2009-07. A parallel circuit of LIF signalling pathways maintains pluripotency of mouse ES cells in NATURE
  • 2007-07. Generation of germline-competent induced pluripotent stem cells in NATURE
  • 2009-08. Immortalization eliminates a roadblock during cellular reprogramming into iPS cells in NATURE
  • 2009-02. Transgenic mice with defined combinations of drug-inducible reprogramming factors in NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • 2008-07-03. Dissecting direct reprogramming through integrative genomic analysis in NATURE
  • 2007-12. Nanog safeguards pluripotency and mediates germline development in NATURE
  • 2008-07. Mediators of reprogramming: transcription factors and transitions through mitosis in NATURE REVIEWS MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY
  • 2005-11. The KLF4 tumour suppressor is a transcriptional repressor of p53 that acts as a context-dependent oncogene in NATURE CELL BIOLOGY
  • 2009-08. Suppression of induced pluripotent stem cell generation by the p53–p21 pathway in NATURE
  • 2007-06-07. Developmental reprogramming after chromosome transfer into mitotic mouse zygotes in NATURE
  • 2009-07. Elite and stochastic models for induced pluripotent stem cell generation in NATURE
  • 2007-07. In vitro reprogramming of fibroblasts into a pluripotent ES-cell-like state in NATURE
  • 2009-09. Differentiation stage determines potential of hematopoietic cells for reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells in NATURE GENETICS
  • 2009-08. Linking the p53 tumour suppressor pathway to somatic cell reprogramming in NATURE
  • 2005-06. Stochasticity in gene expression: from theories to phenotypes in NATURE REVIEWS GENETICS
  • Journal

    TITLE

    Nature

    ISSUE

    7273

    VOLUME

    462

    Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature08592

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature08592

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030291386

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19898493


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0604", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Genetics", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Biological Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Animals", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Cell Differentiation", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Cell Division", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Cell Line", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Cellular Reprogramming", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Mice", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Mice, SCID", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Models, Biological", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Pluripotent Stem Cells", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Time Factors", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Transcription Factors", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "The Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research,"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hanna", 
            "givenName": "Jacob", 
            "id": "sg:person.0643150035.03", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0643150035.03"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "The Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research,"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Saha", 
            "givenName": "Krishanu", 
            "id": "sg:person.012365762257.45", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012365762257.45"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Department of Physics,"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Pando", 
            "givenName": "Bernardo", 
            "id": "sg:person.01036423651.74", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01036423651.74"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Massachusetts Institute of Technology", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.116068.8", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Physics,", 
                "Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "van Zon", 
            "givenName": "Jeroen", 
            "id": "sg:person.01102156676.23", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01102156676.23"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "The Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research,"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Lengner", 
            "givenName": "Christopher J.", 
            "id": "sg:person.0670634523.48", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0670634523.48"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "The Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research,"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Creyghton", 
            "givenName": "Menno P.", 
            "id": "sg:person.0763356252.49", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0763356252.49"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Massachusetts Institute of Technology", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.116068.8", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Physics,", 
                "Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "van Oudenaarden", 
            "givenName": "Alexander", 
            "id": "sg:person.0602714440.73", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0602714440.73"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Massachusetts Institute of Technology", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.116068.8", 
              "name": [
                "The Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research,", 
                "Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Jaenisch", 
            "givenName": "Rudolf", 
            "id": "sg:person.015376426517.48", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015376426517.48"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1152092", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000037346"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1160952", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000135069"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.1811609", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001073248"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001400503"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature04914", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001794355", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04914"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature04914", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001794355", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04914"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature04914", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001794355", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04914"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature05934", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002347899", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05934"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature05879", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003888215", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05879"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt1483", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004160248", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt1483"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.03.028", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004352286"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0403954101", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007359350"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.02286", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007988180"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2008.02.001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008490443"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.2004-0352", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008571687"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.2004-0352", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008571687"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08287", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009337647", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08287"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08287", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009337647", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08287"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1261/rna.1368009", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010248511"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2007.11.019", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010904856"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.015", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012430287"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.1520", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012799593", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.1520"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08285", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014153215", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08285"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08285", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014153215", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08285"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt1418", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014318073", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt1418"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2006.07.024", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014573758"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrg1615", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014958319", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg1615"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrg1615", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014958319", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg1615"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrg1615", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014958319", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg1615"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08235", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015108174", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08235"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08235", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015108174", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08235"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08113", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018327234", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08113"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08113", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018327234", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08113"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.050", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018463905"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature05944", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019109862", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05944"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08180", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019709562", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08180"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08180", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019709562", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08180"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature06403", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020501792", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06403"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.023", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022080492"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.90.10.4528", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025947292"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.200800189", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027143398"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.200800189", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027143398"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(03)00393-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033478972"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature07056", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037743725", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07056"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/sqb.2008.73.025", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040400361"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08311", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040491383", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08311"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08311", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040491383", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08311"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2009.04.015", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041412295"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2008.10.004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043032196"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08290", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045815818", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08290"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08290", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045815818", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08290"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.1715808", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046766764"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1151526", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048905674"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ng.428", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049600424", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.428"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.020", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049638413"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.020", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049638413"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ncb1314", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051068549", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ncb1314"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ncb1314", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051068549", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ncb1314"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrm2439", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051604438", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrm2439"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2009.07.039", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052718634"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2008.01.004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053248333"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2009-12", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2009-12-01", 
        "description": "Direct reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be achieved by overexpression of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc transcription factors, but only a minority of donor somatic cells can be reprogrammed to pluripotency. Here we demonstrate that reprogramming by these transcription factors is a continuous stochastic process where almost all mouse donor cells eventually give rise to iPS cells on continued growth and transcription factor expression. Additional inhibition of the p53/p21 pathway or overexpression of Lin28 increased the cell division rate and resulted in an accelerated kinetics of iPS cell formation that was directly proportional to the increase in cell proliferation. In contrast, Nanog overexpression accelerated reprogramming in a predominantly cell-division-rate-independent manner. Quantitative analyses define distinct cell-division-rate-dependent and -independent modes for accelerating the stochastic course of reprogramming, and suggest that the number of cell divisions is a key parameter driving epigenetic reprogramming to pluripotency.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08592", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isFundedItemOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2634391", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2699077", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2475097", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2526942", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }
        ], 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1018957", 
            "issn": [
              "0090-0028", 
              "1476-4687"
            ], 
            "name": "Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "7273", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "462"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Direct cell reprogramming is a stochastic process amenable to acceleration", 
        "pagination": "595", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "904d43b8ae9fc6ba320ed9824631a0332acf778294712972fd605383889555a8"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "19898493"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "0410462"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/nature08592"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1030291386"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08592", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030291386"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T09:38", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000346_0000000346/records_99832_00000002.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://www.nature.com/articles/nature08592"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature08592'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature08592'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature08592'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature08592'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    344 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      87 URIs      33 LITERALS      21 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08592 schema:about N03b536fa1d0d4f5c9b7c7b265ecf0bee
    2 N16f3c6ebb739458396fe5fc4698da13b
    3 N19937fa0abea4300b0d15d7153367018
    4 N240c9bfca6204bcb911c796fcf14e2e4
    5 N783880d64a4a422999708d5f6c1068b6
    6 N946787b40a0749feb2390b2a2088df0f
    7 Na60d3c6e34a84cdbacfbbd5d35ea9103
    8 Nb1ffcc92b3424ac6a8a43ba4e83306c0
    9 Nb52c08388c084dbd90086a598fe0dd18
    10 Nca2ce4022f774dc2941fc583ba111ec1
    11 Ne05b8186737445e9b4c74808e71e87be
    12 Nfbd59732cc144d91884d6bdf621af363
    13 anzsrc-for:06
    14 anzsrc-for:0604
    15 schema:author N9bc2e75c22614a48ab417e4be5f06ab7
    16 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1038/nature04914
    17 sg:pub.10.1038/nature05879
    18 sg:pub.10.1038/nature05934
    19 sg:pub.10.1038/nature05944
    20 sg:pub.10.1038/nature06403
    21 sg:pub.10.1038/nature07056
    22 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08113
    23 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08180
    24 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08235
    25 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08285
    26 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08287
    27 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08290
    28 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08311
    29 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.1520
    30 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt1418
    31 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt1483
    32 sg:pub.10.1038/ncb1314
    33 sg:pub.10.1038/ng.428
    34 sg:pub.10.1038/nrg1615
    35 sg:pub.10.1038/nrm2439
    36 https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.200800189
    37 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.020
    38 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2006.07.024
    39 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2007.11.019
    40 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.015
    41 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.03.028
    42 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.050
    43 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.001
    44 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.023
    45 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2009.07.039
    46 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2008.01.004
    47 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2008.02.001
    48 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2008.10.004
    49 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2009.04.015
    50 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(03)00393-3
    51 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0403954101
    52 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.90.10.4528
    53 https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.1715808
    54 https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.1811609
    55 https://doi.org/10.1101/sqb.2008.73.025
    56 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1151526
    57 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1152092
    58 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1160952
    59 https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.02286
    60 https://doi.org/10.1261/rna.1368009
    61 https://doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.2004-0352
    62 schema:datePublished 2009-12
    63 schema:datePublishedReg 2009-12-01
    64 schema:description Direct reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be achieved by overexpression of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc transcription factors, but only a minority of donor somatic cells can be reprogrammed to pluripotency. Here we demonstrate that reprogramming by these transcription factors is a continuous stochastic process where almost all mouse donor cells eventually give rise to iPS cells on continued growth and transcription factor expression. Additional inhibition of the p53/p21 pathway or overexpression of Lin28 increased the cell division rate and resulted in an accelerated kinetics of iPS cell formation that was directly proportional to the increase in cell proliferation. In contrast, Nanog overexpression accelerated reprogramming in a predominantly cell-division-rate-independent manner. Quantitative analyses define distinct cell-division-rate-dependent and -independent modes for accelerating the stochastic course of reprogramming, and suggest that the number of cell divisions is a key parameter driving epigenetic reprogramming to pluripotency.
    65 schema:genre research_article
    66 schema:inLanguage en
    67 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    68 schema:isPartOf Na3b9a8942cea484fb7cc100c2a6d8c53
    69 Nf784e14019714a9ca277ceb011ae5bf8
    70 sg:journal.1018957
    71 schema:name Direct cell reprogramming is a stochastic process amenable to acceleration
    72 schema:pagination 595
    73 schema:productId N2353a5b873404fdfa374863cd31af260
    74 N4cc8fd5e94474d6b90c69a858da98fb6
    75 N608807e2baa44ab28b247607ce6c0949
    76 N63736db792e246c6b5b57b59deb95e64
    77 Nd3cbb0b6b0eb454a9c050f0e6c27c0cd
    78 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030291386
    79 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08592
    80 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T09:38
    81 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    82 schema:sdPublisher Nb2757303eea8443581392c14e2ac4e42
    83 schema:url https://www.nature.com/articles/nature08592
    84 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    85 sgo:sdDataset articles
    86 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    87 N03b536fa1d0d4f5c9b7c7b265ecf0bee schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    88 schema:name Animals
    89 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    90 N0f771d0bf1704e53a7122f0ac3940801 rdf:first sg:person.01036423651.74
    91 rdf:rest N261f6f4e359c4fbaa86be472a481cf3b
    92 N16f3c6ebb739458396fe5fc4698da13b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    93 schema:name Cell Division
    94 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    95 N19937fa0abea4300b0d15d7153367018 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    96 schema:name Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
    97 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    98 N2353a5b873404fdfa374863cd31af260 schema:name readcube_id
    99 schema:value 904d43b8ae9fc6ba320ed9824631a0332acf778294712972fd605383889555a8
    100 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    101 N240c9bfca6204bcb911c796fcf14e2e4 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    102 schema:name Time Factors
    103 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    104 N24ad64df95fa4d90aae3e128ea1f855c schema:name The Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research,
    105 rdf:type schema:Organization
    106 N261f6f4e359c4fbaa86be472a481cf3b rdf:first sg:person.01102156676.23
    107 rdf:rest Nec199f3e9e394d5ab8b7c6e01c7516eb
    108 N2b90cd7a245b4c9ab341929e309c6a5a rdf:first sg:person.015376426517.48
    109 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    110 N3c0a01496abb4abebf7c24a42447ba61 schema:name Department of Physics,
    111 rdf:type schema:Organization
    112 N498e8e6b684c4459ad558c894869fc2a schema:name The Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research,
    113 rdf:type schema:Organization
    114 N4cc8fd5e94474d6b90c69a858da98fb6 schema:name pubmed_id
    115 schema:value 19898493
    116 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    117 N608807e2baa44ab28b247607ce6c0949 schema:name dimensions_id
    118 schema:value pub.1030291386
    119 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    120 N63736db792e246c6b5b57b59deb95e64 schema:name doi
    121 schema:value 10.1038/nature08592
    122 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    123 N783880d64a4a422999708d5f6c1068b6 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    124 schema:name Mice
    125 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    126 N946787b40a0749feb2390b2a2088df0f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    127 schema:name Pluripotent Stem Cells
    128 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    129 N9bc2e75c22614a48ab417e4be5f06ab7 rdf:first sg:person.0643150035.03
    130 rdf:rest Nbf4026e5fdda4fb78c8c62076588be4e
    131 Na3b9a8942cea484fb7cc100c2a6d8c53 schema:issueNumber 7273
    132 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    133 Na60d3c6e34a84cdbacfbbd5d35ea9103 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    134 schema:name Transcription Factors
    135 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    136 Nb1ffcc92b3424ac6a8a43ba4e83306c0 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    137 schema:name Cell Line
    138 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    139 Nb2757303eea8443581392c14e2ac4e42 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    140 rdf:type schema:Organization
    141 Nb4096b59222f4c42b34b14e65891d992 schema:name The Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research,
    142 rdf:type schema:Organization
    143 Nb52c08388c084dbd90086a598fe0dd18 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    144 schema:name Cell Differentiation
    145 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    146 Nb8ca87e3175a4920a0b71f57f9d6cc89 rdf:first sg:person.0763356252.49
    147 rdf:rest Nfa200f2cac19450e8eb59a2ffc373fc6
    148 Nbbbce82ff45342549826d733e6012a7b schema:name The Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research,
    149 rdf:type schema:Organization
    150 Nbf4026e5fdda4fb78c8c62076588be4e rdf:first sg:person.012365762257.45
    151 rdf:rest N0f771d0bf1704e53a7122f0ac3940801
    152 Nca2ce4022f774dc2941fc583ba111ec1 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    153 schema:name Cellular Reprogramming
    154 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    155 Nd3cbb0b6b0eb454a9c050f0e6c27c0cd schema:name nlm_unique_id
    156 schema:value 0410462
    157 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    158 Ne05b8186737445e9b4c74808e71e87be schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    159 schema:name Mice, SCID
    160 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    161 Nec199f3e9e394d5ab8b7c6e01c7516eb rdf:first sg:person.0670634523.48
    162 rdf:rest Nb8ca87e3175a4920a0b71f57f9d6cc89
    163 Nf784e14019714a9ca277ceb011ae5bf8 schema:volumeNumber 462
    164 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    165 Nfa200f2cac19450e8eb59a2ffc373fc6 rdf:first sg:person.0602714440.73
    166 rdf:rest N2b90cd7a245b4c9ab341929e309c6a5a
    167 Nfbd59732cc144d91884d6bdf621af363 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    168 schema:name Models, Biological
    169 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    170 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    171 schema:name Biological Sciences
    172 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    173 anzsrc-for:0604 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    174 schema:name Genetics
    175 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    176 sg:grant.2475097 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/nature08592
    177 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    178 sg:grant.2526942 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/nature08592
    179 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    180 sg:grant.2634391 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/nature08592
    181 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    182 sg:grant.2699077 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/nature08592
    183 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    184 sg:journal.1018957 schema:issn 0090-0028
    185 1476-4687
    186 schema:name Nature
    187 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    188 sg:person.01036423651.74 schema:affiliation N3c0a01496abb4abebf7c24a42447ba61
    189 schema:familyName Pando
    190 schema:givenName Bernardo
    191 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01036423651.74
    192 rdf:type schema:Person
    193 sg:person.01102156676.23 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.116068.8
    194 schema:familyName van Zon
    195 schema:givenName Jeroen
    196 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01102156676.23
    197 rdf:type schema:Person
    198 sg:person.012365762257.45 schema:affiliation N24ad64df95fa4d90aae3e128ea1f855c
    199 schema:familyName Saha
    200 schema:givenName Krishanu
    201 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012365762257.45
    202 rdf:type schema:Person
    203 sg:person.015376426517.48 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.116068.8
    204 schema:familyName Jaenisch
    205 schema:givenName Rudolf
    206 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015376426517.48
    207 rdf:type schema:Person
    208 sg:person.0602714440.73 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.116068.8
    209 schema:familyName van Oudenaarden
    210 schema:givenName Alexander
    211 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0602714440.73
    212 rdf:type schema:Person
    213 sg:person.0643150035.03 schema:affiliation N498e8e6b684c4459ad558c894869fc2a
    214 schema:familyName Hanna
    215 schema:givenName Jacob
    216 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0643150035.03
    217 rdf:type schema:Person
    218 sg:person.0670634523.48 schema:affiliation Nb4096b59222f4c42b34b14e65891d992
    219 schema:familyName Lengner
    220 schema:givenName Christopher J.
    221 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0670634523.48
    222 rdf:type schema:Person
    223 sg:person.0763356252.49 schema:affiliation Nbbbce82ff45342549826d733e6012a7b
    224 schema:familyName Creyghton
    225 schema:givenName Menno P.
    226 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0763356252.49
    227 rdf:type schema:Person
    228 sg:pub.10.1038/nature04914 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001794355
    229 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04914
    230 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    231 sg:pub.10.1038/nature05879 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003888215
    232 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05879
    233 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    234 sg:pub.10.1038/nature05934 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002347899
    235 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05934
    236 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    237 sg:pub.10.1038/nature05944 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019109862
    238 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05944
    239 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    240 sg:pub.10.1038/nature06403 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020501792
    241 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06403
    242 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    243 sg:pub.10.1038/nature07056 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037743725
    244 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07056
    245 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    246 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08113 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018327234
    247 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08113
    248 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    249 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08180 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019709562
    250 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08180
    251 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    252 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08235 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015108174
    253 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08235
    254 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    255 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08285 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014153215
    256 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08285
    257 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    258 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08287 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009337647
    259 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08287
    260 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    261 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08290 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045815818
    262 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08290
    263 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    264 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08311 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040491383
    265 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08311
    266 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    267 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt.1520 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012799593
    268 https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.1520
    269 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    270 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt1418 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014318073
    271 https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt1418
    272 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    273 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt1483 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004160248
    274 https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt1483
    275 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    276 sg:pub.10.1038/ncb1314 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051068549
    277 https://doi.org/10.1038/ncb1314
    278 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    279 sg:pub.10.1038/ng.428 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049600424
    280 https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.428
    281 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    282 sg:pub.10.1038/nrg1615 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014958319
    283 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg1615
    284 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    285 sg:pub.10.1038/nrm2439 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051604438
    286 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrm2439
    287 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    288 https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.200800189 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027143398
    289 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    290 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.020 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049638413
    291 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    292 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2006.07.024 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014573758
    293 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    294 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2007.11.019 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010904856
    295 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    296 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.015 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012430287
    297 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    298 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.03.028 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004352286
    299 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    300 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.050 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018463905
    301 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    302 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001400503
    303 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    304 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.023 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022080492
    305 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    306 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2009.07.039 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052718634
    307 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    308 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2008.01.004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053248333
    309 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    310 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2008.02.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008490443
    311 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    312 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2008.10.004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043032196
    313 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    314 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2009.04.015 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041412295
    315 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    316 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(03)00393-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033478972
    317 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    318 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0403954101 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007359350
    319 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    320 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.90.10.4528 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025947292
    321 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    322 https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.1715808 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046766764
    323 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    324 https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.1811609 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001073248
    325 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    326 https://doi.org/10.1101/sqb.2008.73.025 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040400361
    327 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    328 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1151526 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048905674
    329 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    330 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1152092 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000037346
    331 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    332 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1160952 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000135069
    333 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    334 https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.02286 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007988180
    335 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    336 https://doi.org/10.1261/rna.1368009 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010248511
    337 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    338 https://doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.2004-0352 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008571687
    339 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    340 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.116068.8 schema:alternateName Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    341 schema:name Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    342 Department of Physics,
    343 The Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research,
    344 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...