Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase–tRNAPyl structure reveals the molecular basis of orthogonality View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2009-02

AUTHORS

Kayo Nozawa, Patrick O’Donoghue, Sarath Gundllapalli, Yuhei Araiso, Ryuichiro Ishitani, Takuya Umehara, Dieter Söll, Osamu Nureki

ABSTRACT

Pyrrolysine (Pyl), the 22nd natural amino acid, is genetically encoded by UAG and inserted into proteins by the unique suppressor tRNA(Pyl) (ref. 1). The Methanosarcinaceae produce Pyl and express Pyl-containing methyltransferases that allow growth on methylamines. Homologous methyltransferases and the Pyl biosynthetic and coding machinery are also found in two bacterial species. Pyl coding is maintained by pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS), which catalyses the formation of Pyl-tRNA(Pyl) (refs 4, 5). Pyl is not a recent addition to the genetic code. PylRS was already present in the last universal common ancestor; it then persisted in organisms that utilize methylamines as energy sources. Recent protein engineering efforts added non-canonical amino acids to the genetic code. This technology relies on the directed evolution of an 'orthogonal' tRNA synthetase-tRNA pair in which an engineered aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) specifically and exclusively acylates the orthogonal tRNA with a non-canonical amino acid. For Pyl the natural evolutionary process developed such a system some 3 billion years ago. When transformed into Escherichia coli, Methanosarcina barkeri PylRS and tRNA(Pyl) function as an orthogonal pair in vivo. Here we show that Desulfitobacterium hafniense PylRS-tRNA(Pyl) is an orthogonal pair in vitro and in vivo, and present the crystal structure of this orthogonal pair. The ancient emergence of PylRS-tRNA(Pyl) allowed the evolution of unique structural features in both the protein and the tRNA. These structural elements manifest an intricate, specialized aaRS-tRNA interaction surface that is highly distinct from those observed in any other known aaRS-tRNA complex; it is this general property that underlies the molecular basis of orthogonality. More... »

PAGES

1163

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature07611

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature07611

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050344096

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19118381


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