Graphene-based composite materials View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2006-07

AUTHORS

Sasha Stankovich, Dmitriy A. Dikin, Geoffrey H. B. Dommett, Kevin M. Kohlhaas, Eric J. Zimney, Eric A. Stach, Richard D. Piner, SonBinh T. Nguyen, Rodney S. Ruoff

ABSTRACT

Graphene sheets--one-atom-thick two-dimensional layers of sp2-bonded carbon--are predicted to have a range of unusual properties. Their thermal conductivity and mechanical stiffness may rival the remarkable in-plane values for graphite (approximately 3,000 W m(-1) K(-1) and 1,060 GPa, respectively); their fracture strength should be comparable to that of carbon nanotubes for similar types of defects; and recent studies have shown that individual graphene sheets have extraordinary electronic transport properties. One possible route to harnessing these properties for applications would be to incorporate graphene sheets in a composite material. The manufacturing of such composites requires not only that graphene sheets be produced on a sufficient scale but that they also be incorporated, and homogeneously distributed, into various matrices. Graphite, inexpensive and available in large quantity, unfortunately does not readily exfoliate to yield individual graphene sheets. Here we present a general approach for the preparation of graphene-polymer composites via complete exfoliation of graphite and molecular-level dispersion of individual, chemically modified graphene sheets within polymer hosts. A polystyrene-graphene composite formed by this route exhibits a percolation threshold of approximately 0.1 volume per cent for room-temperature electrical conductivity, the lowest reported value for any carbon-based composite except for those involving carbon nanotubes; at only 1 volume per cent, this composite has a conductivity of approximately 0.1 S m(-1), sufficient for many electrical applications. Our bottom-up chemical approach of tuning the graphene sheet properties provides a path to a broad new class of graphene-based materials and their use in a variety of applications. More... »

PAGES

282

Journal

TITLE

Nature

ISSUE

7100

VOLUME

442

Related Patents

  • Functional Graphene-Polymer Nanocomposites For Gas Barrier Applications
  • Resin Plating Method Using Graphene Thin Layer
  • Polymer Composition Comprising Graphene
  • Thermoplastic And/Or Elastomeric Composite Material Containing Carbon Nanotubes And Graphenes
  • Graphene Nanoplatelets- Or Graphite Nanoplatelets-Based Nanocomposites For Reducing Electromagnetic Interferences
  • Graphene Formation
  • Semiconductive Polyolefin Composition Comprising Conductive Filler
  • System For Detecting Rare Cells
  • Conducting Polymer/Graphene-Based Material Composites, And Methods For Preparing The Composites
  • Graphene Solutions
  • Composite Structured Organic Films
  • Polymer Composition Comprising Graphene
  • Crystalline Graphene And Method Of Making Crystalline Graphene
  • Titania-Graphene Anode Electrode Paper
  • Process For Preparing Structured Organic Films (Sofs) Via A Pre-Sof
  • Compositions Comprising Free-Standing Two-Dimensional Nanocrystals
  • Self Assembled Multi-Layer Nanocomposite Of Graphene And Metal Oxide Materials
  • Structured Organic Films
  • Oxidized Graphite And Carbon Fiber
  • Graphene Deposition And Graphenated Substrates
  • Graphene Solutions
  • Amphiphilic Nanoparticle, Composition Comprising Same And Method Of Controlling Oil Spill Using Amphiphilic Nanoparticle
  • Imaging Members Comprising Structured Organic Films
  • Method For Producing Graphene Nanolayers
  • Solvent-Based Methods For Production Of Graphene Nanoribbons
  • Fluorinated Structured Organic Film Photoreceptor Layers Containing Fluorinated Secondary Components
  • Ink Jet Faceplate Coatings Comprising Structured Organic Films
  • Methods Of Flash Reduction And Patterning Of Graphite Oxide And Its Polymer Composites
  • Sorting Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials By Thickness
  • Polyimide Nanocomposite And Method For Preparing Same
  • Sorting Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials By Thickness
  • Methods For Producing Functionalized Graphenes
  • Graphene Nanoplatelets- Or Graphite Nanoplatelets-Based Nanocomposites For Reducing Electromagnetic Interferences
  • Dispersion Method For Particles In Nanocomposites And Method Of Forming Nanocomposites
  • Production Of Graphene Nanoplatelets By Oxidative Anhydrous Acidic Media
  • Functional Graphene-Polymer Nanocomposites For Gas Barrier Applications
  • Resin Composition For Surface Treatment Of Steel Sheet And Surface-Treated Steel Sheet Using The Same
  • Method For Production Of Selective Or Laminar Coatings In Plastic Electronics
  • Composite Polymer Film With Graphene Nanosheets As Highly Effective Barrier Property Enhancers
  • Hybrid Anode Compositions For Lithium Ion Batteries
  • Nano Graphene Platelet-Base Composite Anode Compositions For Lithium Ion Batteries
  • Compositions Comprising Free-Standing Two-Dimensional Nanocrystals
  • Method For Producing An Assembly Of Carbon Nanotubes And Graphene
  • Continuous Extraction Technique For The Purification Of Carbon Nanomaterials
  • Reductive-Expansion Synthesis Of Graphene
  • Self Assembled Multi-Layer Nanocomposite Of Graphene And Metal Oxide Materials
  • The Method Of Graphene Oxide Chemical Reduction
  • Capped Structured Organic Film Compositions
  • Nanocomposite Of Graphene And Metal Oxide Materials
  • Amphiphilic Nanosheets And Methods Of Making The Same
  • Amphiphilic Nanosheets And Methods Of Making The Same
  • Stabilized Graphene Oxide Platelets And Polymeric Nanocomposites Comprising Them
  • Sorting Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials By Thickness
  • Polymer Graphite Nanocomposites
  • Graphene Quantum Dots, Their Composites And Preparation Of The Same
  • Graphene Formation
  • Melt Formulation Process For Preparing Structured Organic Films
  • Method For Fabricating Graphene Sheets Or Graphene Particles Using Supercritical Fluid
  • Application Of Porous Structured Organic Films For Gas Separation
  • Methods For Preparing Structured Organic Film Micro-Features By Inkjet Printing
  • Imaging Devices Comprising Structured Organic Films
  • Imaging Members For Ink-Based Digital Printing Comprising Structured Organic Films
  • Graphite Microfluids
  • Fluorinated Structured Organic Film Photoreceptor Layers
  • Dispersible And Conductive Nano Graphene Platelets
  • Synthesis Of Magnetic Carbon Nanoribbons And Magnetic Functionalized Carbon Nanoribbons
  • Nanocomposite Of Graphene And Metal Oxide Materials
  • Graphene Composite Nanofiber And Preparation Method Thereof
  • Application Of Porous Structured Organic Films For Gas Storage
  • Mixed Solvent Process For Preparing Structured Organic Films
  • High Mobility Periodic Structured Organic Films
  • Resin Composition For Surface Treatment Of Steel Sheet And Surface-Treated Steel Sheet Using The Same
  • Gas Diffusion Substrate
  • Fluorinated Structured Organic Film Compositions
  • Nanocomposite Of Graphene And Metal Oxide Materials
  • High-Throughput Imaging Of Graphene Based Sheets By Fluorescence Quenching Microscopy And Applications Of Same
  • Sorting Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials By Thickness
  • Lithium Ion Batteries With Titania/Graphene Anodes
  • Graphene Solutions
  • Graphene Composite Electrode And Method Of Making Thereof
  • Imaging Members Comprising Capped Structured Organic Film Compositions
  • Electricity Insulating Materials With Field Strength-Dependent Throughput Resistance
  • Method For Preparing Graphene Sheets From Turbostratic Graphitic Structure And Graphene Sheets Prepared Thereby
  • Gnp-Based Polymeric Nanocomposites For Reducing Electromagnetic Interferences
  • Continuous Extraction Technique For The Purification Of Carbon Nanomaterials
  • Direct Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Graphene On Dielectric Surfaces
  • Oxidized Flaked Graphite Derivative, Resin Composite Material Thereof, And Process For Producing Said Resin Composite Material
  • Structured Organic Films Having An Added Functionality
  • A Method For Preparing Polymer/Oxygen-Free Graphene Composites Using Electrochemical Process
  • Process For Preparing Structured Organic Films (Sofs) Via A Pre-Sof
  • Polyimide Nanocomposite And Method For Preparing Same
  • Functional Graphene-Rubber Nanocomposites
  • Nanocomposite Of Graphene And Metal Oxide Materials
  • Mesoporous Metal Oxide Graphene Nanocomposite Materials
  • Exfoliation Of Graphene By Multilayer Coextrusion
  • Polyimide Nanocomposite And Method For Preparing Same
  • Exfoliated Graphite Oxide Derivative, Resin Composite Material Thereof, And Process For Producing Said Resin Composite Material
  • Synthesis And Applications Of Graphene Based Nanomaterials
  • Compositions Comprising Free-Standing Two-Dimensional Nanocrystals
  • Multiscale Carbon Nanotube-Fiber Reinforcements For Composites
  • Nanocomposite Of Graphene And Metal Oxide Materials
  • Microfluidic Device And Method For Detecting Rare Cells
  • Method Of Fabricating A Continuous Nanofiber
  • Nanocomposites For Absorption Tunable Sandscreens
  • Method Of Forming A Film Of Graphite Oxide Single Layers, And Applications Of Same
  • Graphene Hydrogel And Method For Using The Same
  • Composites Comprising Rigid-Rod Polymers And Graphene Nanoparticles And Process For Making The Same
  • Thermoplastic And/Or Elastomeric Composite Based On Carbon Nanotubes And Graphenes
  • Sorting Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials By Thickness
  • Supercritical Fluid Process For Producing Nano Graphene Platelets
  • Method For Producing Graphene Solutions, Graphene Alkali Metal Salts, And Graphene Composite Materials
  • Functional Graphene-Rubber Nanocomposites
  • Graphene Compositions
  • Multiscale Carbon Nanotube-Fiber Reinforcements For Composites
  • Foams Of Graphene, Method Of Making And Materials Made Thereof
  • Graphene Polymer Composite
  • Graphene Deposition And Graphenated Substrates
  • Robust Photoreceptor Surface Layer
  • Porous Structured Organic Film Compositions
  • Structured Organic Films
  • Graphene Polymer Composite
  • Functional Graphene-Polymer Nanocomposites For Gas Barrier Applications
  • Self Assembled Multi-Layer Nanocomposite Of Graphene And Metal Oxide Materials
  • Titania-Graphene Anode Electrode Paper
  • Oxidized Flaked Graphite Derivative, Resin Composite Material Thereof, And Process For Producing Said Resin Composite Material
  • Process For Producing Dispersible And Conductive Nano Graphene Platelets From Non-Oxidized Graphitic Materials
  • Electronic Devices Comprising Structured Organic Films
  • Mesoporous Metal Oxide Graphene Nanocomposite Materials
  • Mixed Nano-Filament Electrode Materials For Lithium Ion Batteries
  • Periodic Structured Organic Films
  • Dissolution Of Graphite, Graphite And Graphene Nanoribbons In Superacid Solutions And Manipulation Thereof
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature04969

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature04969

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029345003

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16855586


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0912", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Materials Engineering", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/09", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Engineering", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Department of Mechanical Engineering,"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Stankovich", 
            "givenName": "Sasha", 
            "id": "sg:person.011032742777.25", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011032742777.25"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Department of Mechanical Engineering,"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Dikin", 
            "givenName": "Dmitriy A.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01061400323.51", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01061400323.51"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Department of Mechanical Engineering,"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Dommett", 
            "givenName": "Geoffrey H. B.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01103625507.25", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01103625507.25"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Department of Mechanical Engineering,"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kohlhaas", 
            "givenName": "Kevin M.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01226117227.02", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01226117227.02"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Department of Mechanical Engineering,"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Zimney", 
            "givenName": "Eric J.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01274232427.44", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01274232427.44"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Purdue University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.169077.e", 
              "name": [
                "School of Materials Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, 501 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Stach", 
            "givenName": "Eric A.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01151407644.49", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01151407644.49"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Department of Mechanical Engineering,"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Piner", 
            "givenName": "Richard D.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01133264575.29", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01133264575.29"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Northwestern University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.16753.36", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3111, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Nguyen", 
            "givenName": "SonBinh T.", 
            "id": "sg:person.016103763577.26", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016103763577.26"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Department of Mechanical Engineering,"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Ruoff", 
            "givenName": "Rodney S.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01143405465.27", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01143405465.27"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.287.5453.637", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000780793"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature04233", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001061831", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04233"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature04233", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001061831", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04233"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature04233", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001061831", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04233"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.19960080806", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004784021"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/00018730110113644", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007622624"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature04235", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009714128", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04235"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature04235", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009714128", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04235"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature04235", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009714128", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04235"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0008-6223(99)00037-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010036885"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0009-2614(98)00144-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013435279"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1039/b512799h", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016221609"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1102896", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019008412"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2004.10.009", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021765848"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203211595", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025360260"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/b:jmsc.0000021439.18202.ea", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025822311", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/b:jmsc.0000021439.18202.ea"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2004.07.003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026535493"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.synthmet.2003.10.023", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026705883"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/cm981085u", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027099600"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/cm981085u", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027099600"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2003.08.005", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027431858"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jp9731821", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028578535"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jp9731821", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028578535"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2006.06.004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034922335"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jp040650f", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041254699"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jp040650f", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041254699"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0266-3538(03)00067-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042268355"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0266-3538(03)00067-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042268355"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.94.176803", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046029861"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.94.176803", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046029861"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2004.08.025", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047914719"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1039/b501805f", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050146489"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/polb.20597", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051583132"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/polb.20597", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051583132"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1369-7021(04)00506-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051869511"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0008-6223(04)00444-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054577329"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/la000442o", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056139108"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/la000442o", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056139108"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1616976", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057726266"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physreve.52.819", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060718819"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physreve.52.819", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060718819"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2006-07", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2006-07-01", 
        "description": "Graphene sheets--one-atom-thick two-dimensional layers of sp2-bonded carbon--are predicted to have a range of unusual properties. Their thermal conductivity and mechanical stiffness may rival the remarkable in-plane values for graphite (approximately 3,000 W m(-1) K(-1) and 1,060 GPa, respectively); their fracture strength should be comparable to that of carbon nanotubes for similar types of defects; and recent studies have shown that individual graphene sheets have extraordinary electronic transport properties. One possible route to harnessing these properties for applications would be to incorporate graphene sheets in a composite material. The manufacturing of such composites requires not only that graphene sheets be produced on a sufficient scale but that they also be incorporated, and homogeneously distributed, into various matrices. Graphite, inexpensive and available in large quantity, unfortunately does not readily exfoliate to yield individual graphene sheets. Here we present a general approach for the preparation of graphene-polymer composites via complete exfoliation of graphite and molecular-level dispersion of individual, chemically modified graphene sheets within polymer hosts. A polystyrene-graphene composite formed by this route exhibits a percolation threshold of approximately 0.1 volume per cent for room-temperature electrical conductivity, the lowest reported value for any carbon-based composite except for those involving carbon nanotubes; at only 1 volume per cent, this composite has a conductivity of approximately 0.1 S m(-1), sufficient for many electrical applications. Our bottom-up chemical approach of tuning the graphene sheet properties provides a path to a broad new class of graphene-based materials and their use in a variety of applications.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature04969", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1018957", 
            "issn": [
              "0090-0028", 
              "1476-4687"
            ], 
            "name": "Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "7100", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "442"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Graphene-based composite materials", 
        "pagination": "282", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "8bcb778e2efaa7e60264b7ab3e829cf0f4193474eb980d3f79150db9066a58dc"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "16855586"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "0410462"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/nature04969"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1029345003"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04969", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029345003"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T13:00", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000365_0000000365/records_71707_00000001.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://www.nature.com/articles/nature04969"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature04969'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature04969'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature04969'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature04969'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    232 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      58 URIs      21 LITERALS      9 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/nature04969 schema:about anzsrc-for:09
    2 anzsrc-for:0912
    3 schema:author N5aa57ed23b404b408e2c97a5796bc51e
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1023/b:jmsc.0000021439.18202.ea
    5 sg:pub.10.1038/nature04233
    6 sg:pub.10.1038/nature04235
    7 https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.19960080806
    8 https://doi.org/10.1002/polb.20597
    9 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2004.07.003
    10 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2004.08.025
    11 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2004.10.009
    12 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2006.06.004
    13 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2003.08.005
    14 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.synthmet.2003.10.023
    15 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0008-6223(04)00444-0
    16 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0008-6223(99)00037-8
    17 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0009-2614(98)00144-4
    18 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0266-3538(03)00067-8
    19 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1369-7021(04)00506-1
    20 https://doi.org/10.1021/cm981085u
    21 https://doi.org/10.1021/jp040650f
    22 https://doi.org/10.1021/jp9731821
    23 https://doi.org/10.1021/la000442o
    24 https://doi.org/10.1039/b501805f
    25 https://doi.org/10.1039/b512799h
    26 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1616976
    27 https://doi.org/10.1080/00018730110113644
    28 https://doi.org/10.1103/physreve.52.819
    29 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.94.176803
    30 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1102896
    31 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.287.5453.637
    32 https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203211595
    33 schema:datePublished 2006-07
    34 schema:datePublishedReg 2006-07-01
    35 schema:description Graphene sheets--one-atom-thick two-dimensional layers of sp2-bonded carbon--are predicted to have a range of unusual properties. Their thermal conductivity and mechanical stiffness may rival the remarkable in-plane values for graphite (approximately 3,000 W m(-1) K(-1) and 1,060 GPa, respectively); their fracture strength should be comparable to that of carbon nanotubes for similar types of defects; and recent studies have shown that individual graphene sheets have extraordinary electronic transport properties. One possible route to harnessing these properties for applications would be to incorporate graphene sheets in a composite material. The manufacturing of such composites requires not only that graphene sheets be produced on a sufficient scale but that they also be incorporated, and homogeneously distributed, into various matrices. Graphite, inexpensive and available in large quantity, unfortunately does not readily exfoliate to yield individual graphene sheets. Here we present a general approach for the preparation of graphene-polymer composites via complete exfoliation of graphite and molecular-level dispersion of individual, chemically modified graphene sheets within polymer hosts. A polystyrene-graphene composite formed by this route exhibits a percolation threshold of approximately 0.1 volume per cent for room-temperature electrical conductivity, the lowest reported value for any carbon-based composite except for those involving carbon nanotubes; at only 1 volume per cent, this composite has a conductivity of approximately 0.1 S m(-1), sufficient for many electrical applications. Our bottom-up chemical approach of tuning the graphene sheet properties provides a path to a broad new class of graphene-based materials and their use in a variety of applications.
    36 schema:genre research_article
    37 schema:inLanguage en
    38 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    39 schema:isPartOf N9d010fe058a1417db5674b6f08d87b03
    40 Nf23b3c0557664f39b935d0d3535206e6
    41 sg:journal.1018957
    42 schema:name Graphene-based composite materials
    43 schema:pagination 282
    44 schema:productId N7252a96106614484be2d886ac34d87a3
    45 N9d0421e417a3455d9a45792848a5c1ad
    46 Na1cec6f5f8984dd8b95b6937a7f8b83b
    47 Nb743e10718e3462083436deb8d5592d6
    48 Ne34bdac9aeb74f43bd79a8071e742fd2
    49 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029345003
    50 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04969
    51 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T13:00
    52 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    53 schema:sdPublisher N9f0104591c944a2bbe4419c764a9f503
    54 schema:url https://www.nature.com/articles/nature04969
    55 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    56 sgo:sdDataset articles
    57 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    58 N2008c92fb7724f629854acf1e61e6efe schema:name Department of Mechanical Engineering,
    59 rdf:type schema:Organization
    60 N25156c201cce40138e17c7e522935df9 schema:name Department of Mechanical Engineering,
    61 rdf:type schema:Organization
    62 N268bf08bfac54837875458a023f3f2fc rdf:first sg:person.01133264575.29
    63 rdf:rest N70b4b6d6b99e4298a74bc6497050ee98
    64 N548e956826e24511988570dec5e7949d rdf:first sg:person.01226117227.02
    65 rdf:rest N5dafee8590784ae79b46941a76c76198
    66 N5aa57ed23b404b408e2c97a5796bc51e rdf:first sg:person.011032742777.25
    67 rdf:rest N8b461a9ecd504822b841687460215349
    68 N5dafee8590784ae79b46941a76c76198 rdf:first sg:person.01274232427.44
    69 rdf:rest Nc46f61a1afb249f2ab8cda486bd87b13
    70 N63f8d7c3baf04ca695f877f37b0b817f rdf:first sg:person.01143405465.27
    71 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    72 N70b4b6d6b99e4298a74bc6497050ee98 rdf:first sg:person.016103763577.26
    73 rdf:rest N63f8d7c3baf04ca695f877f37b0b817f
    74 N7252a96106614484be2d886ac34d87a3 schema:name doi
    75 schema:value 10.1038/nature04969
    76 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    77 N8b461a9ecd504822b841687460215349 rdf:first sg:person.01061400323.51
    78 rdf:rest Ndfb5972d4fda474496cd9df637a1d211
    79 N930f5171eab140bc9f712fd30f831453 schema:name Department of Mechanical Engineering,
    80 rdf:type schema:Organization
    81 N9d010fe058a1417db5674b6f08d87b03 schema:issueNumber 7100
    82 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    83 N9d0421e417a3455d9a45792848a5c1ad schema:name nlm_unique_id
    84 schema:value 0410462
    85 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    86 N9f0104591c944a2bbe4419c764a9f503 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    87 rdf:type schema:Organization
    88 Na1cec6f5f8984dd8b95b6937a7f8b83b schema:name pubmed_id
    89 schema:value 16855586
    90 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    91 Nb743e10718e3462083436deb8d5592d6 schema:name dimensions_id
    92 schema:value pub.1029345003
    93 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    94 Nba7f458d5f7e4063b3bb3abaf06bd72b schema:name Department of Mechanical Engineering,
    95 rdf:type schema:Organization
    96 Nc46f61a1afb249f2ab8cda486bd87b13 rdf:first sg:person.01151407644.49
    97 rdf:rest N268bf08bfac54837875458a023f3f2fc
    98 Nc97772ca9afa4524922a56613538968c schema:name Department of Mechanical Engineering,
    99 rdf:type schema:Organization
    100 Ncea7caf3d110412397b5b2510c365671 schema:name Department of Mechanical Engineering,
    101 rdf:type schema:Organization
    102 Nd03b98759aa248df9b591876a41cec6b schema:name Department of Mechanical Engineering,
    103 rdf:type schema:Organization
    104 Ndfb5972d4fda474496cd9df637a1d211 rdf:first sg:person.01103625507.25
    105 rdf:rest N548e956826e24511988570dec5e7949d
    106 Ne34bdac9aeb74f43bd79a8071e742fd2 schema:name readcube_id
    107 schema:value 8bcb778e2efaa7e60264b7ab3e829cf0f4193474eb980d3f79150db9066a58dc
    108 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    109 Nf23b3c0557664f39b935d0d3535206e6 schema:volumeNumber 442
    110 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    111 anzsrc-for:09 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    112 schema:name Engineering
    113 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    114 anzsrc-for:0912 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    115 schema:name Materials Engineering
    116 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    117 sg:journal.1018957 schema:issn 0090-0028
    118 1476-4687
    119 schema:name Nature
    120 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    121 sg:person.01061400323.51 schema:affiliation Nd03b98759aa248df9b591876a41cec6b
    122 schema:familyName Dikin
    123 schema:givenName Dmitriy A.
    124 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01061400323.51
    125 rdf:type schema:Person
    126 sg:person.011032742777.25 schema:affiliation N2008c92fb7724f629854acf1e61e6efe
    127 schema:familyName Stankovich
    128 schema:givenName Sasha
    129 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011032742777.25
    130 rdf:type schema:Person
    131 sg:person.01103625507.25 schema:affiliation Nc97772ca9afa4524922a56613538968c
    132 schema:familyName Dommett
    133 schema:givenName Geoffrey H. B.
    134 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01103625507.25
    135 rdf:type schema:Person
    136 sg:person.01133264575.29 schema:affiliation N25156c201cce40138e17c7e522935df9
    137 schema:familyName Piner
    138 schema:givenName Richard D.
    139 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01133264575.29
    140 rdf:type schema:Person
    141 sg:person.01143405465.27 schema:affiliation Nba7f458d5f7e4063b3bb3abaf06bd72b
    142 schema:familyName Ruoff
    143 schema:givenName Rodney S.
    144 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01143405465.27
    145 rdf:type schema:Person
    146 sg:person.01151407644.49 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.169077.e
    147 schema:familyName Stach
    148 schema:givenName Eric A.
    149 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01151407644.49
    150 rdf:type schema:Person
    151 sg:person.01226117227.02 schema:affiliation Ncea7caf3d110412397b5b2510c365671
    152 schema:familyName Kohlhaas
    153 schema:givenName Kevin M.
    154 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01226117227.02
    155 rdf:type schema:Person
    156 sg:person.01274232427.44 schema:affiliation N930f5171eab140bc9f712fd30f831453
    157 schema:familyName Zimney
    158 schema:givenName Eric J.
    159 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01274232427.44
    160 rdf:type schema:Person
    161 sg:person.016103763577.26 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.16753.36
    162 schema:familyName Nguyen
    163 schema:givenName SonBinh T.
    164 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016103763577.26
    165 rdf:type schema:Person
    166 sg:pub.10.1023/b:jmsc.0000021439.18202.ea schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025822311
    167 https://doi.org/10.1023/b:jmsc.0000021439.18202.ea
    168 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    169 sg:pub.10.1038/nature04233 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001061831
    170 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04233
    171 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    172 sg:pub.10.1038/nature04235 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009714128
    173 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04235
    174 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    175 https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.19960080806 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004784021
    176 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    177 https://doi.org/10.1002/polb.20597 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051583132
    178 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    179 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2004.07.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026535493
    180 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    181 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2004.08.025 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047914719
    182 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    183 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2004.10.009 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021765848
    184 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    185 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2006.06.004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034922335
    186 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    187 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2003.08.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027431858
    188 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    189 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.synthmet.2003.10.023 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026705883
    190 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    191 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0008-6223(04)00444-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054577329
    192 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    193 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0008-6223(99)00037-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010036885
    194 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    195 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0009-2614(98)00144-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013435279
    196 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    197 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0266-3538(03)00067-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042268355
    198 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    199 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1369-7021(04)00506-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051869511
    200 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    201 https://doi.org/10.1021/cm981085u schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027099600
    202 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    203 https://doi.org/10.1021/jp040650f schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041254699
    204 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    205 https://doi.org/10.1021/jp9731821 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028578535
    206 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    207 https://doi.org/10.1021/la000442o schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056139108
    208 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    209 https://doi.org/10.1039/b501805f schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050146489
    210 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    211 https://doi.org/10.1039/b512799h schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016221609
    212 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    213 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1616976 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057726266
    214 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    215 https://doi.org/10.1080/00018730110113644 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007622624
    216 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    217 https://doi.org/10.1103/physreve.52.819 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060718819
    218 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    219 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.94.176803 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046029861
    220 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    221 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1102896 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019008412
    222 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    223 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.287.5453.637 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000780793
    224 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    225 https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203211595 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025360260
    226 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    227 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.16753.36 schema:alternateName Northwestern University
    228 schema:name Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3111, USA
    229 rdf:type schema:Organization
    230 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.169077.e schema:alternateName Purdue University
    231 schema:name School of Materials Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, 501 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA
    232 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...