Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2004-11

AUTHORS

Sheila K. Singh, Cynthia Hawkins, Ian D. Clarke, Jeremy A. Squire, Jane Bayani, Takuichiro Hide, R. Mark Henkelman, Michael D. Cusimano, Peter B. Dirks

ABSTRACT

The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis suggests that neoplastic clones are maintained exclusively by a rare fraction of cells with stem cell properties. Although the existence of CSCs in human leukaemia is established, little evidence exists for CSCs in solid tumours, except for breast cancer. Recently, we prospectively isolated a CD133+ cell subpopulation from human brain tumours that exhibited stem cell properties in vitro. However, the true measures of CSCs are their capacity for self renewal and exact recapitulation of the original tumour. Here we report the development of a xenograft assay that identified human brain tumour initiating cells that initiate tumours in vivo. Only the CD133+ brain tumour fraction contains cells that are capable of tumour initiation in NOD-SCID (non-obese diabetic, severe combined immunodeficient) mouse brains. Injection of as few as 100 CD133+ cells produced a tumour that could be serially transplanted and was a phenocopy of the patient's original tumour, whereas injection of 10(5) CD133- cells engrafted but did not cause a tumour. Thus, the identification of brain tumour initiating cells provides insights into human brain tumour pathogenesis, giving strong support for the CSC hypothesis as the basis for many solid tumours, and establishes a previously unidentified cellular target for more effective cancer therapies. More... »

PAGES

396

Journal

TITLE

Nature

ISSUE

7015

VOLUME

432

Author Affiliations

Related Patents

  • Mammalian Model For Amplification Of Cancer Stem Cells
  • Antibodies That Bind Specifically To Phosphorylated Β-Catenin
  • Novel Immunotherapy Against Several Tumors Including Neuronal And Brain Tumors
  • Differentially Expressed Microrna Molecules For The Treatment And Diagnosis Of Cancer
  • Methods Of Treating Cancer By Administering Anti-Gpr49 Antibodies
  • Methods For Identification And Use Of Agents Targeting Cancer Stem Cells
  • Immunotherapy Against Several Tumors Including Gastrointestinal And Gastric Cancer
  • Use Of Parvovirus For Eliminating Cancer Stem Cells (Cscs)
  • Oxabicycloheptanes And Oxabicycloheptenes, Their Preparation And Use
  • Compositions Comprising Agents That Inhibit Neuroplilin And Tolloid Like 2
  • Oxabicycloheptanes And Oxabicylcoheptenes, Their Preparation And Use
  • Differentiation Factor
  • Novel Immunotherapy Against Several Tumors Including Gastrointestinal And Gastric Cancer
  • Composition Of Tumor-Associated Peptides And Related Anti-Cancer Vaccine For The Treatment Of Gastric Cancer And Other Cancers
  • Cancer Treatment With Gamma-Secretase Inhibitors
  • Cd133 Epitopes
  • Cd133 Epitopes
  • Anti-Gpr49 Monoclonal Antibodies
  • Bisacodyl And Analogues As Drugs For Treating Cancer
  • Method For Determining Sensitivity To Decitabine Treatment
  • Oxabicycloheptanes And Oxabicycloheptenes, Their Preparation And Use
  • Composition Of Tumor-Associated Peptides And Related Anti-Cancer Vaccine For The Treatment Of Gastric Cancer And Other Cancers
  • Methods For Regulating Cell Mitosis By Inhibiting Serine/Threonine Phosphatase
  • Antiviral Therapies With Phospholipase D Inhibitors
  • Glioma Stem Cells And Methods For Obtaining Them
  • Isoform Selective Phospholipase D Inhibitors
  • Combination Treatment Op A G2 Checkpoint Inhibitor (Sb-218078) And A Chemotherapeutic Agent For Tumorigenic Cells In Solid Tumors
  • Use Of Microrna-199b-5p In Medical And Diagnostic Field
  • Manipulation Of Hairy And Enhancer Of Split 3 (Hes3) And Its Regulators/Mediators As An Anti-Cancer Strategy
  • Methods And Compositions For Diagnosing Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • System And Method For Diagnosis And Treatment
  • Manipulation Of Hairy And Split 3 (Hes3) And Its Regulators/Mediators As A New Anti-Cancer Strategy
  • Methods Of Inhibiting Solid Tumor Growth By Administering Gpr49 Antibodies
  • Hdac Inhibitors
  • Method For Screening Patient-Specific Anti-Cancer Agent Using Limiting Dilution Assay
  • Chitosan-Alginate Scaffold Cell Culture System And Related Methods
  • Method For Stimulating Dendritic Cells And Cell Product Thus Obtained For The Autologous Immunotherapy Of Solid Human Tumours
  • Monitoring Cancer Stem Cells
  • Cancer Vaccines And Vaccination Methods
  • Digestive System Cancer Stem Cells And Tests And Uses Therefor
  • Intracellular Cell Selection
  • Anti-Prominin-1 Antibody Having Adcc Activity Or Cdc Activity
  • Inhibition Of The Tumorigenic Potential Of Tumor Stem Cells By Lif And Bmps
  • Use Of Microrna-199b-5p In Medical And Diagnostic Field
  • Oxabicycloheptanes And Oxabicycloheptenes, Their Preparation And Use
  • Targeting Of Vegfr2
  • Cancer Stem Cell Isolation
  • Oxabicycloheptanes And Oxabicycloheptenes, Their Preparation And Use
  • Cancer Stem Cell-Specific Molecule
  • Novel Immunotherapy Against Several Tumors Including Neuronal And Brain Tumors
  • Stem Cell-Specific Promoters And Their Use
  • Use Of Parvovirus For Eliminating Cancer Stem Cells (Cscs)
  • Compositions Comprising Agents That Inhibit Neuropilin And Tolloid Like 2
  • Neuroprotective Agents For The Prevention And Treatment Of Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • Cancer Stem Cell Antigen Vaccines And Methods
  • Oxabicycloheptanes And Oxabicycloheptenes, Their Preparation And Use
  • Immunotherapy Against Several Tumors Including Gastrointestinal And Gastric Cancer
  • Immunotherapy Against Several Tumors Including Gastrointestinal And Gastric Cancer
  • Neuroprotective Agents For The Prevention And Treatment Of Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • Therapeutic Composition For Treatment Of Glioblastoma
  • Monitoring Cancer Stem Cells
  • Immunotherapy Against Several Tumors Including Gastrointestinal And Gastric Cancer
  • Cd133 Epitopes
  • Compositions And Methods For Treating And Diagnosing Pancreatic Cancer
  • Therapeutic Composition For Treatment Of Glioblastoma
  • Agent For Inhibiting Proliferation Of Neural Stem Cells
  • Neural Tumor Stem Cells And Methods Of Use Thereof
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Method For Treating A Brain Cancer With Ifenprodil
  • Cancer Vaccines And Vaccination Methods
  • Cd133 Epitopes
  • Oncolytic Virus
  • Compositions And Methods For Treating And Diagnosing Pancreatic Cancer
  • Hdac Inhibitors
  • Oxabicycloheptanes And Oxabicycloheptenes, Their Preparation And Use
  • Markers For Identifying Tumor Cells, Methods And Kit Thereof
  • Peripheral Zone Tumor Cells, Methods For Their Preparation And Use
  • Humanized Antibodies That Bind Lgr5
  • Glioma Stem Cells And Methods For Obtaining Them
  • Cancer Stem Cell-Targeted Cancer Therapy
  • Method Of Detecting Phosphorylation State Of Beta-Catenin
  • Cancer Stem Cell Antigen Vaccines And Methods
  • Cancer Vaccines And Vaccination Methods
  • Methods And Compositions Based On Diphtheria Toxin-Interleukin-3 Conjugates
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature03128

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature03128

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027226854

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15549107


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1112", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Oncology and Carcinogenesis", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "AC133 Antigen", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Animals", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Antigens, CD", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Brain", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Brain Neoplasms", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Cell Line, Tumor", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Cell Separation", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Cell Transplantation", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Glycoproteins", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Humans", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Immunohistochemistry", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Medulloblastoma", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Mice", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Mice, Inbred NOD", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Mice, SCID", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Models, Biological", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Neoplasm Transplantation", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Peptides", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Stem Cells", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Toronto", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
              "name": [
                "The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumor Research Centre, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada", 
                "Program in Developmental Biology, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada", 
                "Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Singh", 
            "givenName": "Sheila K.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01114136325.27", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01114136325.27"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Toronto", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
              "name": [
                "The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumor Research Centre, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada", 
                "Department of Pediatric Laboratory Medicine, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hawkins", 
            "givenName": "Cynthia", 
            "id": "sg:person.01303036367.96", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01303036367.96"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Toronto", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
              "name": [
                "The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumor Research Centre, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada", 
                "Program in Developmental Biology, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Clarke", 
            "givenName": "Ian D.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01243447612.06", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01243447612.06"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Toronto", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
              "name": [
                "Ontario Cancer Institute and University of Toronto, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 2M9, Canada"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Squire", 
            "givenName": "Jeremy A.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01200416665.17", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01200416665.17"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Toronto", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
              "name": [
                "Ontario Cancer Institute and University of Toronto, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 2M9, Canada"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Bayani", 
            "givenName": "Jane", 
            "id": "sg:person.0645001547.31", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0645001547.31"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Toronto", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
              "name": [
                "The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumor Research Centre, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada", 
                "Program in Developmental Biology, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hide", 
            "givenName": "Takuichiro", 
            "id": "sg:person.01176470711.66", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01176470711.66"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Toronto", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
              "name": [
                "Integrative Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Henkelman", 
            "givenName": "R. Mark", 
            "id": "sg:person.011043503041.53", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011043503041.53"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Toronto", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
              "name": [
                "Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada", 
                "Division of Neurosurgery, St Michael's Hospital and University of Toronto, 30 Bond Street, Toronto M5B 1W8, Canada"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Cusimano", 
            "givenName": "Michael D.", 
            "id": "sg:person.0604274656.33", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0604274656.33"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Toronto", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
              "name": [
                "The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumor Research Centre, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada", 
                "Program in Developmental Biology, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada", 
                "Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Dirks", 
            "givenName": "Peter B.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01363715242.65", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01363715242.65"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1533394100", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008011227"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrc1232", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009107668", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrc1232"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrc1232", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009107668", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrc1232"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/jnen/61.3.215", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010146838"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2036535100", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012172628"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0830967100", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013599707"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0530291100", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018724794"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/35102167", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021100179", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/35102167"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/35102167", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021100179", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/35102167"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.1143403", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022045585"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nm0797-730", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022333282", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nm0797-730"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-5379(83)90012-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025180343"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/367645a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028822583", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/367645a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.10094", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030472330"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2034201100", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034615647"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/35052535", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036220926", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/35052535"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/35052535", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036220926", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/35052535"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1053/plac.2001.0701", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040033482"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.can-04-1364", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040457475"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2004.06.011", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040634784"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.12.23.3675", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041142018"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(90)90662-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043517258"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0307618100", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043818400"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.97.26.14720", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046407009"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ni1080", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047014502", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ni1080"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ni1080", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047014502", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ni1080"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1535-6108(02)00046-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048877820"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3171/jns.2000.93.3.0437", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1071099687"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3171/jns.2000.93.3.0437", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1071099687"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3171/jns.2000.93.3.0437", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1071099687"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076575059", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083181326", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083232774", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2004-11", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2004-11-01", 
        "description": "The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis suggests that neoplastic clones are maintained exclusively by a rare fraction of cells with stem cell properties. Although the existence of CSCs in human leukaemia is established, little evidence exists for CSCs in solid tumours, except for breast cancer. Recently, we prospectively isolated a CD133+ cell subpopulation from human brain tumours that exhibited stem cell properties in vitro. However, the true measures of CSCs are their capacity for self renewal and exact recapitulation of the original tumour. Here we report the development of a xenograft assay that identified human brain tumour initiating cells that initiate tumours in vivo. Only the CD133+ brain tumour fraction contains cells that are capable of tumour initiation in NOD-SCID (non-obese diabetic, severe combined immunodeficient) mouse brains. Injection of as few as 100 CD133+ cells produced a tumour that could be serially transplanted and was a phenocopy of the patient's original tumour, whereas injection of 10(5) CD133- cells engrafted but did not cause a tumour. Thus, the identification of brain tumour initiating cells provides insights into human brain tumour pathogenesis, giving strong support for the CSC hypothesis as the basis for many solid tumours, and establishes a previously unidentified cellular target for more effective cancer therapies.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature03128", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1018957", 
            "issn": [
              "0090-0028", 
              "1476-4687"
            ], 
            "name": "Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "7015", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "432"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells", 
        "pagination": "396", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "81b2b355f7f6b251da2df92df43da8c1287df687f2193511d430cce9c95ff106"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "15549107"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "0410462"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/nature03128"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1027226854"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03128", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027226854"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T12:23", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000362_0000000362/records_87094_00000000.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://www.nature.com/articles/nature03128"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature03128'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature03128'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature03128'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature03128'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    291 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      75 URIs      40 LITERALS      28 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/nature03128 schema:about N07a2a5c278ac4c3e9926ad85a275aca6
    2 N0a9ba9cf97a14215aee69a3c0398e63c
    3 N1100ea9c84994d4e87c747570ed5d275
    4 N1cff3676cc224f15abc02fe06951862b
    5 N1e399ee8da8c4c8a8eed51fca01cec74
    6 N34a8df1611ac4e9a9206f733dfe7b9d4
    7 N37e9caddcc684135ab2b5e71dabe6c8b
    8 N3e48dd54795148cdb44b692548b80ca0
    9 N44bf572709bd4bb4908d689c744768b1
    10 N4ec5575e25c148a5a50594e784923f17
    11 N59191f201af54fbca9c8a0e73815db4e
    12 N629f87d9bae74effa8ebd302b2580324
    13 N6789eed5cc4e424e919bfc555797dc42
    14 Nb38d973a32d8481ab0c13b7b12524b95
    15 Nb8780e0472ad4d6a8908a858db2bd736
    16 Nbb83192c64a94d8d9c6eb82dd5d8f81b
    17 Nc2712f46fcce4dd8b0d3d51d6937246c
    18 Nc79d672112e94e51bdabf25f8b815b05
    19 Nef1d3557b288470493240e1f9f2f4f81
    20 anzsrc-for:11
    21 anzsrc-for:1112
    22 schema:author Nc3262243224e4fe0a0c93bb50e222980
    23 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1038/35052535
    24 sg:pub.10.1038/35102167
    25 sg:pub.10.1038/367645a0
    26 sg:pub.10.1038/ni1080
    27 sg:pub.10.1038/nm0797-730
    28 sg:pub.10.1038/nrc1232
    29 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076575059
    30 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083181326
    31 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083232774
    32 https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.10094
    33 https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(90)90662-x
    34 https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-5379(83)90012-3
    35 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2004.06.011
    36 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1535-6108(02)00046-6
    37 https://doi.org/10.1053/plac.2001.0701
    38 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0307618100
    39 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0530291100
    40 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0830967100
    41 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1533394100
    42 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2034201100
    43 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2036535100
    44 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.97.26.14720
    45 https://doi.org/10.1093/jnen/61.3.215
    46 https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.1143403
    47 https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.12.23.3675
    48 https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.can-04-1364
    49 https://doi.org/10.3171/jns.2000.93.3.0437
    50 schema:datePublished 2004-11
    51 schema:datePublishedReg 2004-11-01
    52 schema:description The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis suggests that neoplastic clones are maintained exclusively by a rare fraction of cells with stem cell properties. Although the existence of CSCs in human leukaemia is established, little evidence exists for CSCs in solid tumours, except for breast cancer. Recently, we prospectively isolated a CD133+ cell subpopulation from human brain tumours that exhibited stem cell properties in vitro. However, the true measures of CSCs are their capacity for self renewal and exact recapitulation of the original tumour. Here we report the development of a xenograft assay that identified human brain tumour initiating cells that initiate tumours in vivo. Only the CD133+ brain tumour fraction contains cells that are capable of tumour initiation in NOD-SCID (non-obese diabetic, severe combined immunodeficient) mouse brains. Injection of as few as 100 CD133+ cells produced a tumour that could be serially transplanted and was a phenocopy of the patient's original tumour, whereas injection of 10(5) CD133- cells engrafted but did not cause a tumour. Thus, the identification of brain tumour initiating cells provides insights into human brain tumour pathogenesis, giving strong support for the CSC hypothesis as the basis for many solid tumours, and establishes a previously unidentified cellular target for more effective cancer therapies.
    53 schema:genre research_article
    54 schema:inLanguage en
    55 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    56 schema:isPartOf N679e599d72c54d19ba55d3520e80a949
    57 Nd83a8840bec14e25a60618c91d357361
    58 sg:journal.1018957
    59 schema:name Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells
    60 schema:pagination 396
    61 schema:productId N403a039d9de84b179bd37bbfe254fa94
    62 Nb2bb17d16725479fbfaeade67a5db740
    63 Nb7d8893d2d9c4b8d9f0447f3686da957
    64 Nba951c64926946409c729bc6f8ba82dc
    65 Nde2c618153b94d0aada1b3f3bd574454
    66 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027226854
    67 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03128
    68 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T12:23
    69 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    70 schema:sdPublisher N666c26a07b28413dbec35c4052adb61f
    71 schema:url https://www.nature.com/articles/nature03128
    72 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    73 sgo:sdDataset articles
    74 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    75 N07a2a5c278ac4c3e9926ad85a275aca6 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    76 schema:name Animals
    77 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    78 N0a9ba9cf97a14215aee69a3c0398e63c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    79 schema:name Medulloblastoma
    80 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    81 N1100ea9c84994d4e87c747570ed5d275 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    82 schema:name Cell Separation
    83 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    84 N1cff3676cc224f15abc02fe06951862b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    85 schema:name Brain
    86 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    87 N1e399ee8da8c4c8a8eed51fca01cec74 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    88 schema:name Glycoproteins
    89 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    90 N34a8df1611ac4e9a9206f733dfe7b9d4 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    91 schema:name Humans
    92 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    93 N37e9caddcc684135ab2b5e71dabe6c8b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    94 schema:name AC133 Antigen
    95 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    96 N3e48dd54795148cdb44b692548b80ca0 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    97 schema:name Mice, Inbred NOD
    98 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    99 N403a039d9de84b179bd37bbfe254fa94 schema:name doi
    100 schema:value 10.1038/nature03128
    101 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    102 N44bf572709bd4bb4908d689c744768b1 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    103 schema:name Mice
    104 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    105 N4ec5575e25c148a5a50594e784923f17 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    106 schema:name Cell Line, Tumor
    107 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    108 N4f49ac8c0af64968b56b7e64ce40bacd rdf:first sg:person.01243447612.06
    109 rdf:rest N5d70a65e168141edaee229718ec22661
    110 N59191f201af54fbca9c8a0e73815db4e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    111 schema:name Brain Neoplasms
    112 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    113 N5b780efedc1346e59917228eb3e3a9ec rdf:first sg:person.01303036367.96
    114 rdf:rest N4f49ac8c0af64968b56b7e64ce40bacd
    115 N5d70a65e168141edaee229718ec22661 rdf:first sg:person.01200416665.17
    116 rdf:rest Nee52f0ecb9314e3896ce80576939519a
    117 N629f87d9bae74effa8ebd302b2580324 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    118 schema:name Stem Cells
    119 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    120 N6498e97beba14bbf929d0eb219119f4f rdf:first sg:person.011043503041.53
    121 rdf:rest Nfc095b2826624171b0340e20bab79a32
    122 N666c26a07b28413dbec35c4052adb61f schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    123 rdf:type schema:Organization
    124 N6789eed5cc4e424e919bfc555797dc42 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    125 schema:name Immunohistochemistry
    126 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    127 N679e599d72c54d19ba55d3520e80a949 schema:issueNumber 7015
    128 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    129 N8dc78cb7c99b402d986450bff20e6319 rdf:first sg:person.01176470711.66
    130 rdf:rest N6498e97beba14bbf929d0eb219119f4f
    131 N8ea31492fa9f4c92958a412c365d7965 rdf:first sg:person.01363715242.65
    132 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    133 Nb2bb17d16725479fbfaeade67a5db740 schema:name readcube_id
    134 schema:value 81b2b355f7f6b251da2df92df43da8c1287df687f2193511d430cce9c95ff106
    135 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    136 Nb38d973a32d8481ab0c13b7b12524b95 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    137 schema:name Cell Transplantation
    138 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    139 Nb7d8893d2d9c4b8d9f0447f3686da957 schema:name nlm_unique_id
    140 schema:value 0410462
    141 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    142 Nb8780e0472ad4d6a8908a858db2bd736 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    143 schema:name Models, Biological
    144 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    145 Nba951c64926946409c729bc6f8ba82dc schema:name dimensions_id
    146 schema:value pub.1027226854
    147 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    148 Nbb83192c64a94d8d9c6eb82dd5d8f81b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    149 schema:name Peptides
    150 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    151 Nc2712f46fcce4dd8b0d3d51d6937246c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    152 schema:name Mice, SCID
    153 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    154 Nc3262243224e4fe0a0c93bb50e222980 rdf:first sg:person.01114136325.27
    155 rdf:rest N5b780efedc1346e59917228eb3e3a9ec
    156 Nc79d672112e94e51bdabf25f8b815b05 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    157 schema:name Antigens, CD
    158 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    159 Nd83a8840bec14e25a60618c91d357361 schema:volumeNumber 432
    160 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    161 Nde2c618153b94d0aada1b3f3bd574454 schema:name pubmed_id
    162 schema:value 15549107
    163 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    164 Nee52f0ecb9314e3896ce80576939519a rdf:first sg:person.0645001547.31
    165 rdf:rest N8dc78cb7c99b402d986450bff20e6319
    166 Nef1d3557b288470493240e1f9f2f4f81 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    167 schema:name Neoplasm Transplantation
    168 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    169 Nfc095b2826624171b0340e20bab79a32 rdf:first sg:person.0604274656.33
    170 rdf:rest N8ea31492fa9f4c92958a412c365d7965
    171 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    172 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
    173 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    174 anzsrc-for:1112 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    175 schema:name Oncology and Carcinogenesis
    176 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    177 sg:journal.1018957 schema:issn 0090-0028
    178 1476-4687
    179 schema:name Nature
    180 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    181 sg:person.011043503041.53 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33
    182 schema:familyName Henkelman
    183 schema:givenName R. Mark
    184 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011043503041.53
    185 rdf:type schema:Person
    186 sg:person.01114136325.27 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33
    187 schema:familyName Singh
    188 schema:givenName Sheila K.
    189 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01114136325.27
    190 rdf:type schema:Person
    191 sg:person.01176470711.66 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33
    192 schema:familyName Hide
    193 schema:givenName Takuichiro
    194 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01176470711.66
    195 rdf:type schema:Person
    196 sg:person.01200416665.17 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33
    197 schema:familyName Squire
    198 schema:givenName Jeremy A.
    199 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01200416665.17
    200 rdf:type schema:Person
    201 sg:person.01243447612.06 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33
    202 schema:familyName Clarke
    203 schema:givenName Ian D.
    204 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01243447612.06
    205 rdf:type schema:Person
    206 sg:person.01303036367.96 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33
    207 schema:familyName Hawkins
    208 schema:givenName Cynthia
    209 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01303036367.96
    210 rdf:type schema:Person
    211 sg:person.01363715242.65 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33
    212 schema:familyName Dirks
    213 schema:givenName Peter B.
    214 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01363715242.65
    215 rdf:type schema:Person
    216 sg:person.0604274656.33 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33
    217 schema:familyName Cusimano
    218 schema:givenName Michael D.
    219 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0604274656.33
    220 rdf:type schema:Person
    221 sg:person.0645001547.31 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33
    222 schema:familyName Bayani
    223 schema:givenName Jane
    224 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0645001547.31
    225 rdf:type schema:Person
    226 sg:pub.10.1038/35052535 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036220926
    227 https://doi.org/10.1038/35052535
    228 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    229 sg:pub.10.1038/35102167 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021100179
    230 https://doi.org/10.1038/35102167
    231 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    232 sg:pub.10.1038/367645a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028822583
    233 https://doi.org/10.1038/367645a0
    234 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    235 sg:pub.10.1038/ni1080 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047014502
    236 https://doi.org/10.1038/ni1080
    237 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    238 sg:pub.10.1038/nm0797-730 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022333282
    239 https://doi.org/10.1038/nm0797-730
    240 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    241 sg:pub.10.1038/nrc1232 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009107668
    242 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrc1232
    243 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    244 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076575059 schema:CreativeWork
    245 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083181326 schema:CreativeWork
    246 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083232774 schema:CreativeWork
    247 https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.10094 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030472330
    248 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    249 https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(90)90662-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043517258
    250 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    251 https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-5379(83)90012-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025180343
    252 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    253 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2004.06.011 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040634784
    254 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    255 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1535-6108(02)00046-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048877820
    256 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    257 https://doi.org/10.1053/plac.2001.0701 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040033482
    258 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    259 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0307618100 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043818400
    260 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    261 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0530291100 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018724794
    262 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    263 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0830967100 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013599707
    264 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    265 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1533394100 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008011227
    266 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    267 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2034201100 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034615647
    268 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    269 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2036535100 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012172628
    270 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    271 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.97.26.14720 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046407009
    272 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    273 https://doi.org/10.1093/jnen/61.3.215 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010146838
    274 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    275 https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.1143403 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022045585
    276 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    277 https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.12.23.3675 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041142018
    278 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    279 https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.can-04-1364 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040457475
    280 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    281 https://doi.org/10.3171/jns.2000.93.3.0437 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1071099687
    282 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    283 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33 schema:alternateName University of Toronto
    284 schema:name Department of Pediatric Laboratory Medicine, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada
    285 Division of Neurosurgery, St Michael's Hospital and University of Toronto, 30 Bond Street, Toronto M5B 1W8, Canada
    286 Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada
    287 Integrative Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada
    288 Ontario Cancer Institute and University of Toronto, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 2M9, Canada
    289 Program in Developmental Biology, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada
    290 The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumor Research Centre, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada
    291 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...