A test of general relativity using radio links with the Cassini spacecraft View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2003-09

AUTHORS

B. Bertotti, L. Iess, P. Tortora

ABSTRACT

According to general relativity, photons are deflected and delayed by the curvature of space-time produced by any mass. The bending and delay are proportional to gamma + 1, where the parameter gamma is unity in general relativity but zero in the newtonian model of gravity. The quantity gamma - 1 measures the degree to which gravity is not a purely geometric effect and is affected by other fields; such fields may have strongly influenced the early Universe, but would have now weakened so as to produce tiny--but still detectable--effects. Several experiments have confirmed to an accuracy of approximately 0.1% the predictions for the deflection and delay of photons produced by the Sun. Here we report a measurement of the frequency shift of radio photons to and from the Cassini spacecraft as they passed near the Sun. Our result, gamma = 1 + (2.1 +/- 2.3) x 10(-5), agrees with the predictions of standard general relativity with a sensitivity that approaches the level at which, theoretically, deviations are expected in some cosmological models. More... »

PAGES

374

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2003-03. String theory, cosmology and varying constants in ASTROPHYSICS AND SPACE SCIENCE
  • 1998-02. Solar Coronal Plasma in Doppler Measurements in SOLAR PHYSICS
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature01997

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature01997

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046274415

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14508481


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0201", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Astronomical and Space Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/02", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Physical Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Pavia", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8982.b", 
              "name": [
                "Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universit\u00e0 di Pavia, Via U. Bassi 6, I-27100, Pavia, Italy"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Bertotti", 
            "givenName": "B.", 
            "id": "sg:person.011535570551.51", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011535570551.51"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Sapienza University of Rome", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7841.a", 
              "name": [
                "Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale ed Astronautica, Universit\u00e0 di Roma \u201cLa Sapienza\u201d, Via Eudossiana 16, I-00184, Roma, Italy"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Iess", 
            "givenName": "L.", 
            "id": "sg:person.011372243314.96", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011372243314.96"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Bologna", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.6292.f", 
              "name": [
                "II Facolt\u00e0 di Ingegneria, Universit\u00e0 di Bologna, Via Fontanelle 40, I-47100, Forl\u00ec, Italy"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Tortora", 
            "givenName": "P.", 
            "id": "sg:person.0645014770.60", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0645014770.60"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1088/0264-9381/9/3/016", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002505049"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04840.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009865945"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.66.046007", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009986942"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.66.046007", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009986942"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022596316014", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020631946", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022596316014"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(94)90143-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029494955"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(94)90143-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029494955"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04843.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033023618"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1004938717700", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034579164", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1004938717700"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04841.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034592740"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04842.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036901454"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.1920.0009", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039205448"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1088/0264-9381/16/5/303", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052471386"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2807658", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057869630"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/183144", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058512655"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.75.1439", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060811563"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.75.1439", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060811563"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511564246", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1098665448"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2003-09", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2003-09-01", 
        "description": "According to general relativity, photons are deflected and delayed by the curvature of space-time produced by any mass. The bending and delay are proportional to gamma + 1, where the parameter gamma is unity in general relativity but zero in the newtonian model of gravity. The quantity gamma - 1 measures the degree to which gravity is not a purely geometric effect and is affected by other fields; such fields may have strongly influenced the early Universe, but would have now weakened so as to produce tiny--but still detectable--effects. Several experiments have confirmed to an accuracy of approximately 0.1% the predictions for the deflection and delay of photons produced by the Sun. Here we report a measurement of the frequency shift of radio photons to and from the Cassini spacecraft as they passed near the Sun. Our result, gamma = 1 + (2.1 +/- 2.3) x 10(-5), agrees with the predictions of standard general relativity with a sensitivity that approaches the level at which, theoretically, deviations are expected in some cosmological models.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature01997", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1018957", 
            "issn": [
              "0090-0028", 
              "1476-4687"
            ], 
            "name": "Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "6956", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "425"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "A test of general relativity using radio links with the Cassini spacecraft", 
        "pagination": "374", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "dc6de7d608e752819677a5762355e36b9c457e1fc15050d12e845e65f4ecee38"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "14508481"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "0410462"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/nature01997"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1046274415"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01997", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046274415"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T12:25", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000362_0000000362/records_87106_00000001.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://www.nature.com/articles/nature01997"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature01997'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature01997'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature01997'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nature01997'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    136 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      44 URIs      21 LITERALS      9 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/nature01997 schema:about anzsrc-for:02
    2 anzsrc-for:0201
    3 schema:author Nf3c4ea9e9a5a4d65b226fc3118e7a62f
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1023/a:1004938717700
    5 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022596316014
    6 https://doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(94)90143-0
    7 https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511564246
    8 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04840.x
    9 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04841.x
    10 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04842.x
    11 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04843.x
    12 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2807658
    13 https://doi.org/10.1086/183144
    14 https://doi.org/10.1088/0264-9381/16/5/303
    15 https://doi.org/10.1088/0264-9381/9/3/016
    16 https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.1920.0009
    17 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.66.046007
    18 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.75.1439
    19 schema:datePublished 2003-09
    20 schema:datePublishedReg 2003-09-01
    21 schema:description According to general relativity, photons are deflected and delayed by the curvature of space-time produced by any mass. The bending and delay are proportional to gamma + 1, where the parameter gamma is unity in general relativity but zero in the newtonian model of gravity. The quantity gamma - 1 measures the degree to which gravity is not a purely geometric effect and is affected by other fields; such fields may have strongly influenced the early Universe, but would have now weakened so as to produce tiny--but still detectable--effects. Several experiments have confirmed to an accuracy of approximately 0.1% the predictions for the deflection and delay of photons produced by the Sun. Here we report a measurement of the frequency shift of radio photons to and from the Cassini spacecraft as they passed near the Sun. Our result, gamma = 1 + (2.1 +/- 2.3) x 10(-5), agrees with the predictions of standard general relativity with a sensitivity that approaches the level at which, theoretically, deviations are expected in some cosmological models.
    22 schema:genre research_article
    23 schema:inLanguage en
    24 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    25 schema:isPartOf N1a141a6824784031a8186911fc7c2bbd
    26 Nd00e522d795c49f2bc81e73fdca3b8a6
    27 sg:journal.1018957
    28 schema:name A test of general relativity using radio links with the Cassini spacecraft
    29 schema:pagination 374
    30 schema:productId N00e123840e3f4e12819da899a0c6dcdb
    31 N3a1ee5b737d648c0950ece5fa2b1fcc6
    32 N59798cd2438b4a2694f2cf4a95bf3faa
    33 Nd139c3b23ed34b17ab3534016846b7a3
    34 Nefaa7ae2f5644b2e83299b82612344cd
    35 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046274415
    36 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01997
    37 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T12:25
    38 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    39 schema:sdPublisher N9e493671dac54a6284e4200247fbea55
    40 schema:url https://www.nature.com/articles/nature01997
    41 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    42 sgo:sdDataset articles
    43 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    44 N00e123840e3f4e12819da899a0c6dcdb schema:name pubmed_id
    45 schema:value 14508481
    46 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    47 N1a141a6824784031a8186911fc7c2bbd schema:issueNumber 6956
    48 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    49 N294f28f77d084ecb9f33d5688f8ae2d7 rdf:first sg:person.0645014770.60
    50 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    51 N30b346c5b58b4726b7d94755818d3ce2 rdf:first sg:person.011372243314.96
    52 rdf:rest N294f28f77d084ecb9f33d5688f8ae2d7
    53 N3a1ee5b737d648c0950ece5fa2b1fcc6 schema:name nlm_unique_id
    54 schema:value 0410462
    55 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    56 N59798cd2438b4a2694f2cf4a95bf3faa schema:name readcube_id
    57 schema:value dc6de7d608e752819677a5762355e36b9c457e1fc15050d12e845e65f4ecee38
    58 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    59 N9e493671dac54a6284e4200247fbea55 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    60 rdf:type schema:Organization
    61 Nd00e522d795c49f2bc81e73fdca3b8a6 schema:volumeNumber 425
    62 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    63 Nd139c3b23ed34b17ab3534016846b7a3 schema:name dimensions_id
    64 schema:value pub.1046274415
    65 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    66 Nefaa7ae2f5644b2e83299b82612344cd schema:name doi
    67 schema:value 10.1038/nature01997
    68 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    69 Nf3c4ea9e9a5a4d65b226fc3118e7a62f rdf:first sg:person.011535570551.51
    70 rdf:rest N30b346c5b58b4726b7d94755818d3ce2
    71 anzsrc-for:02 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    72 schema:name Physical Sciences
    73 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    74 anzsrc-for:0201 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    75 schema:name Astronomical and Space Sciences
    76 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    77 sg:journal.1018957 schema:issn 0090-0028
    78 1476-4687
    79 schema:name Nature
    80 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    81 sg:person.011372243314.96 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7841.a
    82 schema:familyName Iess
    83 schema:givenName L.
    84 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011372243314.96
    85 rdf:type schema:Person
    86 sg:person.011535570551.51 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8982.b
    87 schema:familyName Bertotti
    88 schema:givenName B.
    89 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011535570551.51
    90 rdf:type schema:Person
    91 sg:person.0645014770.60 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.6292.f
    92 schema:familyName Tortora
    93 schema:givenName P.
    94 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0645014770.60
    95 rdf:type schema:Person
    96 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1004938717700 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034579164
    97 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1004938717700
    98 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    99 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022596316014 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020631946
    100 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022596316014
    101 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    102 https://doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(94)90143-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029494955
    103 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    104 https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511564246 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1098665448
    105 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    106 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04840.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009865945
    107 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    108 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04841.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034592740
    109 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    110 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04842.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036901454
    111 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    112 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04843.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033023618
    113 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    114 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2807658 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057869630
    115 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    116 https://doi.org/10.1086/183144 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058512655
    117 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    118 https://doi.org/10.1088/0264-9381/16/5/303 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052471386
    119 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    120 https://doi.org/10.1088/0264-9381/9/3/016 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002505049
    121 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    122 https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.1920.0009 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039205448
    123 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    124 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.66.046007 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009986942
    125 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    126 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.75.1439 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060811563
    127 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    128 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.6292.f schema:alternateName University of Bologna
    129 schema:name II Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Bologna, Via Fontanelle 40, I-47100, Forlì, Italy
    130 rdf:type schema:Organization
    131 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7841.a schema:alternateName Sapienza University of Rome
    132 schema:name Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale ed Astronautica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Via Eudossiana 16, I-00184, Roma, Italy
    133 rdf:type schema:Organization
    134 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8982.b schema:alternateName University of Pavia
    135 schema:name Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Università di Pavia, Via U. Bassi 6, I-27100, Pavia, Italy
    136 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...