The current standard measure of cardiorespiratory fitness introduces confounding by body mass: the DR's EXTRA study View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2012-08

AUTHORS

K Savonen, B Krachler, M Hassinen, P Komulainen, V Kiviniemi, T A Lakka, R Rauramaa

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cardiorespiratory fitness is currently estimated by dividing maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) by body weight (per-weight standard). However, the statistically correct way to neutralize the effect of weight on VO(2max) in a given population is adjustment for body weight by regression techniques (adjusted standard). Our objective is to quantify the bias introduced by the per-weight standard in a population distributed across different categories of body mass. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Baseline measures from participants of the Dose-Responses to Exercise Training Study (DR's EXTRA), 635 men (body mass index (BMI): 19-47 kg m⁻²) and 638 women (BMI: 16-49 kg m⁻²) aged 57-78 years who performed oral glucose tolerance tests and maximal exercise stress tests with direct measurement of VO(2max). We compare the increase in VO(2max) implied by the per-weight standard with the real increase of VO(2max) per kg body weight. A linear logistic regression model estimates odds for abnormal glucose metabolism (either impaired fasting glycemia or impaired glucose tolerance or Type 2 diabetes) of the least-fit versus most-fit quartile according to both per-weight standard and adjusted standard. RESULTS: The per-weight standard implies an increase of VO(2max) with 20.9 ml min⁻¹ in women and 26.4 ml min⁻¹ in men per additional kg body weight. The true increase per kg is only 7.0 ml min⁻¹ (95% confidence interval: 5.3-8.8) and 8.0 ml min⁻¹ (95% confidence interval: 5.3-10.7), respectively. Risk for abnormal glucose metabolism in the least-fit quartile of the population is overestimated by 52% if the per-weight standard is used. CONCLUSIONS: In comparisons across different categories of body mass, the per-weight standard systematically underestimates cardiorespiratory fitness in obese subjects. Use of the per-weight standard markedly inflates associations between poor fitness and co-morbidities of obesity. More... »

PAGES

1135

References to SciGraph publications

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http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/ijo.2011.212

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2011.212

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001592977

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22105518


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44 schema:description OBJECTIVE: Cardiorespiratory fitness is currently estimated by dividing maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) by body weight (per-weight standard). However, the statistically correct way to neutralize the effect of weight on VO(2max) in a given population is adjustment for body weight by regression techniques (adjusted standard). Our objective is to quantify the bias introduced by the per-weight standard in a population distributed across different categories of body mass. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Baseline measures from participants of the Dose-Responses to Exercise Training Study (DR's EXTRA), 635 men (body mass index (BMI): 19-47 kg m⁻²) and 638 women (BMI: 16-49 kg m⁻²) aged 57-78 years who performed oral glucose tolerance tests and maximal exercise stress tests with direct measurement of VO(2max). We compare the increase in VO(2max) implied by the per-weight standard with the real increase of VO(2max) per kg body weight. A linear logistic regression model estimates odds for abnormal glucose metabolism (either impaired fasting glycemia or impaired glucose tolerance or Type 2 diabetes) of the least-fit versus most-fit quartile according to both per-weight standard and adjusted standard. RESULTS: The per-weight standard implies an increase of VO(2max) with 20.9 ml min⁻¹ in women and 26.4 ml min⁻¹ in men per additional kg body weight. The true increase per kg is only 7.0 ml min⁻¹ (95% confidence interval: 5.3-8.8) and 8.0 ml min⁻¹ (95% confidence interval: 5.3-10.7), respectively. Risk for abnormal glucose metabolism in the least-fit quartile of the population is overestimated by 52% if the per-weight standard is used. CONCLUSIONS: In comparisons across different categories of body mass, the per-weight standard systematically underestimates cardiorespiratory fitness in obese subjects. Use of the per-weight standard markedly inflates associations between poor fitness and co-morbidities of obesity.
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