A method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1981-08

AUTHORS

C A Naranjo, U Busto, E M Sellers, P Sandor, I Ruiz, E A Roberts, E Janecek, C Domecq, D J Greenblatt

ABSTRACT

The estimation of the probability that a drug caused an adverse clinical event is usually based on clinical judgment. Lack of a method for establishing causality generates large between-raters and within-raters variability in assessment. Using the conventional categories and definitions of definite, probable, possible, and doubtful adverse drug reactions (ADRs), the between-raters agreement of two physicians and four pharmacists who independently assessed 63 randomly selected alleged ADRs was 38% to 63%, kappa (k, a chance-corrected index of agreement) varied from 0.21 to 0.40, and the intraclass correlation coefficient of reliability (R[est]) was 0.49. Six (testing) and 22 wk (retesting) later the same observers independently reanalyzed the 63 cases by assigning a weighted score (ADR probability scale) to each of the components that must be considered in establishing causal associations between drug(s) and adverse events (e.g., temporal sequence). The cases were randomized to minimize the influence of learning. The event was assigned a probability category from the total score. The between-raters reliability (range: percent agreement = 83% to 92%; κ = 0.69 to 0.86; r = 0.91 to 0.95; R(est) = 0.92) and within-raters reliability (range: percent agreement = 80% to 97%; κ = 0.64 to 0.95; r = 0.91 to 0.98) improved (p < 0.001). The between-raters reliability was maintained on retesting (range: r = 0.84 to 0.94; R(est) = 0.87). The between-raters reliability of three attending physicians who independently assessed 28 other prospectively collected cases of alleged ADRs was very high (range: r = 0.76 to 0.87; R(est) = 0.80). It was also shown that the ADR probability scale has consensual, content, and concurrent validity. This systematic method offers a sensitive way to monitor ADRs and may be applicable to postmarketing drug surveillance. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (1981) 30, 239–245; doi:10.1038/clpt.1981.154 More... »

PAGES

239-245

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1977-03. The ambiguity of adverse drug reactions in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/clpt.1981.154

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/clpt.1981.154

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040267576

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7249508


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1103", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Clinical Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Evaluation Studies as Topic", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Humans", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Methods", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Pharmacists", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Physicians", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Probability", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Random Allocation", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Toronto", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
              "name": [
                "Clinical Pharmacology Program, Addiction Research Foundation Clinical Institute", 
                "University of Toronto Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Naranjo", 
            "givenName": "C A", 
            "id": "sg:person.01226645005.29", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01226645005.29"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Toronto", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
              "name": [
                "Clinical Pharmacology Program, Addiction Research Foundation Clinical Institute", 
                "University of Toronto Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Busto", 
            "givenName": "U", 
            "id": "sg:person.01036404663.38", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01036404663.38"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Toronto", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
              "name": [
                "Clinical Pharmacology Program, Addiction Research Foundation Clinical Institute", 
                "University of Toronto Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Sellers", 
            "givenName": "E M", 
            "id": "sg:person.066174270.96", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.066174270.96"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Toronto", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
              "name": [
                "Clinical Pharmacology Program, Addiction Research Foundation Clinical Institute", 
                "University of Toronto Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Sandor", 
            "givenName": "P", 
            "id": "sg:person.0711274252.36", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0711274252.36"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Toronto", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
              "name": [
                "Clinical Pharmacology Program, Addiction Research Foundation Clinical Institute", 
                "University of Toronto Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Ruiz", 
            "givenName": "I", 
            "id": "sg:person.074530645.72", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.074530645.72"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Toronto", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
              "name": [
                "Clinical Pharmacology Program, Addiction Research Foundation Clinical Institute", 
                "University of Toronto Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Roberts", 
            "givenName": "E A", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Toronto", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
              "name": [
                "Clinical Pharmacology Program, Addiction Research Foundation Clinical Institute", 
                "University of Toronto Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Janecek", 
            "givenName": "E", 
            "id": "sg:person.01302114517.07", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01302114517.07"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Toronto", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
              "name": [
                "Clinical Pharmacology Program, Addiction Research Foundation Clinical Institute", 
                "University of Toronto Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Domecq", 
            "givenName": "C", 
            "id": "sg:person.055324245.49", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.055324245.49"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Toronto", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
              "name": [
                "Clinical Pharmacology Program, Addiction Research Foundation Clinical Institute", 
                "University of Toronto Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Greenblatt", 
            "givenName": "D J", 
            "id": "sg:person.01353142263.05", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01353142263.05"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1552-4604.1979.tb01649.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005125861"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/cpt1976195part1489", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006003488"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/cpt1979255part1493", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014958015"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/cpt1977213247", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015234845"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/cpt1979252154", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019661250"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00562895", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023387813", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00562895"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00562895", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023387813", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00562895"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1979.03300070029018", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042762025"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "1981-08", 
        "datePublishedReg": "1981-08-01", 
        "description": "The estimation of the probability that a drug caused an adverse clinical event is usually based on clinical judgment. Lack of a method for establishing causality generates large between-raters and within-raters variability in assessment. Using the conventional categories and definitions of definite, probable, possible, and doubtful adverse drug reactions (ADRs), the between-raters agreement of two physicians and four pharmacists who independently assessed 63 randomly selected alleged ADRs was 38% to 63%, kappa (k, a chance-corrected index of agreement) varied from 0.21 to 0.40, and the intraclass correlation coefficient of reliability (R[est]) was 0.49. Six (testing) and 22 wk (retesting) later the same observers independently reanalyzed the 63 cases by assigning a weighted score (ADR probability scale) to each of the components that must be considered in establishing causal associations between drug(s) and adverse events (e.g., temporal sequence). The cases were randomized to minimize the influence of learning. The event was assigned a probability category from the total score. The between-raters reliability (range: percent agreement = 83% to 92%; \u03ba = 0.69 to 0.86; r = 0.91 to 0.95; R(est) = 0.92) and within-raters reliability (range: percent agreement = 80% to 97%; \u03ba = 0.64 to 0.95; r = 0.91 to 0.98) improved (p < 0.001). The between-raters reliability was maintained on retesting (range: r = 0.84 to 0.94; R(est) = 0.87). The between-raters reliability of three attending physicians who independently assessed 28 other prospectively collected cases of alleged ADRs was very high (range: r = 0.76 to 0.87; R(est) = 0.80). It was also shown that the ADR probability scale has consensual, content, and concurrent validity. This systematic method offers a sensitive way to monitor ADRs and may be applicable to postmarketing drug surveillance. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (1981) 30, 239\u2013245; doi:10.1038/clpt.1981.154", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/clpt.1981.154", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1017409", 
            "issn": [
              "0009-9236", 
              "1532-6535"
            ], 
            "name": "Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "2", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "30"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "A method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions", 
        "pagination": "239-245", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "bfd1934a37060e4cbf6e70b554df488a34546f3caabf1beaafa5a51a83e712a1"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "7249508"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "0372741"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/clpt.1981.154"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1040267576"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/clpt.1981.154", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040267576"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T15:18", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8664_00000069.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/clpt.1981.154/abstract"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/clpt.1981.154'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/clpt.1981.154'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/clpt.1981.154'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/clpt.1981.154'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    179 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      44 URIs      29 LITERALS      17 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/clpt.1981.154 schema:about N24181a9369f24e5f98148a4e2e6dc49f
    2 N54895277906d4c1a98937b03985dc902
    3 N7d9e01c403344cd28354a100a3bd0011
    4 N7f1feec8e12d43408c702eb4edb06b08
    5 N866da3fa89e04b3f91a1a1b426a1616c
    6 N873c2ba8a22a416f81a58d141e006472
    7 N8b34f454c75b455bb8a29343db925f54
    8 Na017e548655946239760fc1411490fc8
    9 anzsrc-for:11
    10 anzsrc-for:1103
    11 schema:author Na70563f5eb274116af9d1ad2f9b38a2c
    12 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf00562895
    13 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1979.03300070029018
    14 https://doi.org/10.1002/cpt1976195part1489
    15 https://doi.org/10.1002/cpt1977213247
    16 https://doi.org/10.1002/cpt1979252154
    17 https://doi.org/10.1002/cpt1979255part1493
    18 https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1552-4604.1979.tb01649.x
    19 schema:datePublished 1981-08
    20 schema:datePublishedReg 1981-08-01
    21 schema:description The estimation of the probability that a drug caused an adverse clinical event is usually based on clinical judgment. Lack of a method for establishing causality generates large between-raters and within-raters variability in assessment. Using the conventional categories and definitions of definite, probable, possible, and doubtful adverse drug reactions (ADRs), the between-raters agreement of two physicians and four pharmacists who independently assessed 63 randomly selected alleged ADRs was 38% to 63%, kappa (k, a chance-corrected index of agreement) varied from 0.21 to 0.40, and the intraclass correlation coefficient of reliability (R[est]) was 0.49. Six (testing) and 22 wk (retesting) later the same observers independently reanalyzed the 63 cases by assigning a weighted score (ADR probability scale) to each of the components that must be considered in establishing causal associations between drug(s) and adverse events (e.g., temporal sequence). The cases were randomized to minimize the influence of learning. The event was assigned a probability category from the total score. The between-raters reliability (range: percent agreement = 83% to 92%; κ = 0.69 to 0.86; r = 0.91 to 0.95; R(est) = 0.92) and within-raters reliability (range: percent agreement = 80% to 97%; κ = 0.64 to 0.95; r = 0.91 to 0.98) improved (p < 0.001). The between-raters reliability was maintained on retesting (range: r = 0.84 to 0.94; R(est) = 0.87). The between-raters reliability of three attending physicians who independently assessed 28 other prospectively collected cases of alleged ADRs was very high (range: r = 0.76 to 0.87; R(est) = 0.80). It was also shown that the ADR probability scale has consensual, content, and concurrent validity. This systematic method offers a sensitive way to monitor ADRs and may be applicable to postmarketing drug surveillance. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (1981) 30, 239–245; doi:10.1038/clpt.1981.154
    22 schema:genre research_article
    23 schema:inLanguage en
    24 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    25 schema:isPartOf N69549f475cf64f8f858a593188752c6e
    26 Nc85de6ad81204ed79bb212bbe7c1f0c9
    27 sg:journal.1017409
    28 schema:name A method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions
    29 schema:pagination 239-245
    30 schema:productId N106a25cb70814c1aaa0104a9f803bc59
    31 N204f2f049db64d1087058a8968440abc
    32 N275a8d26ad0c448bb2f0b1cb37c9759a
    33 N3c1b6fc8aed54a5191bb0c0cced7a2b5
    34 Nb862d2679dd541e7aa3ba57d9a46695c
    35 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040267576
    36 https://doi.org/10.1038/clpt.1981.154
    37 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T15:18
    38 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    39 schema:sdPublisher Nb761aebfd36b4159b535218200852d96
    40 schema:url http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/clpt.1981.154/abstract
    41 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    42 sgo:sdDataset articles
    43 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    44 N106a25cb70814c1aaa0104a9f803bc59 schema:name nlm_unique_id
    45 schema:value 0372741
    46 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    47 N11d3d737976c42f89c7fd012b4b02738 rdf:first sg:person.01036404663.38
    48 rdf:rest Ndc1832adbe2044abb90a485573b15310
    49 N204f2f049db64d1087058a8968440abc schema:name pubmed_id
    50 schema:value 7249508
    51 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    52 N24181a9369f24e5f98148a4e2e6dc49f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    53 schema:name Evaluation Studies as Topic
    54 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    55 N275a8d26ad0c448bb2f0b1cb37c9759a schema:name dimensions_id
    56 schema:value pub.1040267576
    57 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    58 N321376906ddd4e748d8c1eda275793b4 rdf:first sg:person.01353142263.05
    59 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    60 N3c1b6fc8aed54a5191bb0c0cced7a2b5 schema:name readcube_id
    61 schema:value bfd1934a37060e4cbf6e70b554df488a34546f3caabf1beaafa5a51a83e712a1
    62 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    63 N54895277906d4c1a98937b03985dc902 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    64 schema:name Pharmacists
    65 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    66 N64285718af2245f5a1a32f05da457cd4 rdf:first sg:person.01302114517.07
    67 rdf:rest Nfa5fdeb7f6b9466b8a0e060753a63e37
    68 N69549f475cf64f8f858a593188752c6e schema:issueNumber 2
    69 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    70 N7d9e01c403344cd28354a100a3bd0011 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    71 schema:name Physicians
    72 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    73 N7f1feec8e12d43408c702eb4edb06b08 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    74 schema:name Random Allocation
    75 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    76 N866da3fa89e04b3f91a1a1b426a1616c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    77 schema:name Humans
    78 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    79 N873c2ba8a22a416f81a58d141e006472 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    80 schema:name Probability
    81 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    82 N8b34f454c75b455bb8a29343db925f54 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    83 schema:name Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
    84 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    85 N8fa9d9c534f148a2817e0fb30dd5ca4e rdf:first Nd5c192de221c4bea89106330d344a02e
    86 rdf:rest N64285718af2245f5a1a32f05da457cd4
    87 N943071ce73f14c1a989cd6e585bd3231 rdf:first sg:person.0711274252.36
    88 rdf:rest Nec5fbf53b627425fb764414d82e21622
    89 Na017e548655946239760fc1411490fc8 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    90 schema:name Methods
    91 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    92 Na70563f5eb274116af9d1ad2f9b38a2c rdf:first sg:person.01226645005.29
    93 rdf:rest N11d3d737976c42f89c7fd012b4b02738
    94 Nb761aebfd36b4159b535218200852d96 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    95 rdf:type schema:Organization
    96 Nb862d2679dd541e7aa3ba57d9a46695c schema:name doi
    97 schema:value 10.1038/clpt.1981.154
    98 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    99 Nc85de6ad81204ed79bb212bbe7c1f0c9 schema:volumeNumber 30
    100 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    101 Nd5c192de221c4bea89106330d344a02e schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33
    102 schema:familyName Roberts
    103 schema:givenName E A
    104 rdf:type schema:Person
    105 Ndc1832adbe2044abb90a485573b15310 rdf:first sg:person.066174270.96
    106 rdf:rest N943071ce73f14c1a989cd6e585bd3231
    107 Nec5fbf53b627425fb764414d82e21622 rdf:first sg:person.074530645.72
    108 rdf:rest N8fa9d9c534f148a2817e0fb30dd5ca4e
    109 Nfa5fdeb7f6b9466b8a0e060753a63e37 rdf:first sg:person.055324245.49
    110 rdf:rest N321376906ddd4e748d8c1eda275793b4
    111 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    112 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
    113 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    114 anzsrc-for:1103 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    115 schema:name Clinical Sciences
    116 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    117 sg:journal.1017409 schema:issn 0009-9236
    118 1532-6535
    119 schema:name Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
    120 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    121 sg:person.01036404663.38 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33
    122 schema:familyName Busto
    123 schema:givenName U
    124 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01036404663.38
    125 rdf:type schema:Person
    126 sg:person.01226645005.29 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33
    127 schema:familyName Naranjo
    128 schema:givenName C A
    129 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01226645005.29
    130 rdf:type schema:Person
    131 sg:person.01302114517.07 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33
    132 schema:familyName Janecek
    133 schema:givenName E
    134 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01302114517.07
    135 rdf:type schema:Person
    136 sg:person.01353142263.05 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33
    137 schema:familyName Greenblatt
    138 schema:givenName D J
    139 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01353142263.05
    140 rdf:type schema:Person
    141 sg:person.055324245.49 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33
    142 schema:familyName Domecq
    143 schema:givenName C
    144 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.055324245.49
    145 rdf:type schema:Person
    146 sg:person.066174270.96 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33
    147 schema:familyName Sellers
    148 schema:givenName E M
    149 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.066174270.96
    150 rdf:type schema:Person
    151 sg:person.0711274252.36 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33
    152 schema:familyName Sandor
    153 schema:givenName P
    154 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0711274252.36
    155 rdf:type schema:Person
    156 sg:person.074530645.72 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33
    157 schema:familyName Ruiz
    158 schema:givenName I
    159 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.074530645.72
    160 rdf:type schema:Person
    161 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00562895 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023387813
    162 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00562895
    163 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    164 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1979.03300070029018 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042762025
    165 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    166 https://doi.org/10.1002/cpt1976195part1489 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006003488
    167 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    168 https://doi.org/10.1002/cpt1977213247 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015234845
    169 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    170 https://doi.org/10.1002/cpt1979252154 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019661250
    171 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    172 https://doi.org/10.1002/cpt1979255part1493 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014958015
    173 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    174 https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1552-4604.1979.tb01649.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005125861
    175 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    176 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33 schema:alternateName University of Toronto
    177 schema:name Clinical Pharmacology Program, Addiction Research Foundation Clinical Institute
    178 University of Toronto Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology
    179 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...