Severity and Outcomes of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding With Bloody Vs. Coffee-Grounds Hematemesis View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2018-03

AUTHORS

Loren Laine, Stig B Laursen, Liam Zakko, Harry R Dalton, Jing H Ngu, Michael Schultz, Adrian J Stanley

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Numerous reviews indicate bloody hematemesis signifies more severe bleeding than coffee-grounds hematemesis. We assessed severity and outcomes related to bleeding symptoms in a prospective study. METHODS: Consecutive patients presenting with hematemesis or melena were categorized as bloody emesis (N=1209), coffee-grounds emesis without bloody emesis (N=701), or melena without hematemesis (N=1069). We assessed bleeding severity (pulse, blood pressure) and predictors of outcome (hemoglobin, risk stratification scores) at presentation, and outcomes of bleeding episodes. The primary outcome was a composite of transfusion, intervention, or mortality. RESULTS: Bloody and coffee-grounds emesis were similar in pulse ≥100 beats/min (35 vs. 37%), systolic blood pressure ≤100 mm Hg (12 vs. 12%), and hemoglobin ≤100 g/l (25 vs. 27%). Risk stratification scores were lower with bloody emesis. The composite end point was 34.7 vs. 38.2% for bloody vs. coffee-grounds emesis; mortality was 6.6 vs. 9.3%. Hemostatic intervention was more common (19.4 vs. 14.4%) with bloody emesis (due to a higher frequency of varices necessitating endoscopic therapy), as was rebleeding (7.8 vs. 4.5%). Outcomes were worse with hematemesis plus melena vs. isolated hematemesis for bloody (composite: 62.4 vs. 25.6%; hemostatic intervention: 36.5 vs. 13.8%) and coffee-grounds emesis (composite: 59.1 vs. 27.1%; hemostatic intervention: 26.4 vs. 8.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Bloody emesis is not associated with more severe bleeding episodes at presentation or higher mortality than coffee-grounds emesis, but is associated with modestly higher rates of hemostatic intervention and rebleeding. Outcomes with hematemesis are worsened with concurrent melena. The presence of bloody emesis plus melena potentially could be considered in decisions regarding timing of endoscopy. More... »

PAGES

358

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2012-03. Management of Patients With Ulcer Bleeding in THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY
  • 1994-04. Prognostic factors in upper gastrointestinal bleeding in DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES
  • 1998-03. Early Indicators of Prognosis in Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage in THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY
  • 2010-03. Methodology for Randomized Trials of Patients With Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Recommendations From an International Consensus Conference in THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY
  • 2009-08. Endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal bleeding: how urgent is it? in NATURE REVIEWS GASTROENTEROLOGY & HEPATOLOGY
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    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/ajg.2018.5

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    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2018.5

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    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100689357

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29380820


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    29 schema:description OBJECTIVES: Numerous reviews indicate bloody hematemesis signifies more severe bleeding than coffee-grounds hematemesis. We assessed severity and outcomes related to bleeding symptoms in a prospective study. METHODS: Consecutive patients presenting with hematemesis or melena were categorized as bloody emesis (N=1209), coffee-grounds emesis without bloody emesis (N=701), or melena without hematemesis (N=1069). We assessed bleeding severity (pulse, blood pressure) and predictors of outcome (hemoglobin, risk stratification scores) at presentation, and outcomes of bleeding episodes. The primary outcome was a composite of transfusion, intervention, or mortality. RESULTS: Bloody and coffee-grounds emesis were similar in pulse ≥100 beats/min (35 vs. 37%), systolic blood pressure ≤100 mm Hg (12 vs. 12%), and hemoglobin ≤100 g/l (25 vs. 27%). Risk stratification scores were lower with bloody emesis. The composite end point was 34.7 vs. 38.2% for bloody vs. coffee-grounds emesis; mortality was 6.6 vs. 9.3%. Hemostatic intervention was more common (19.4 vs. 14.4%) with bloody emesis (due to a higher frequency of varices necessitating endoscopic therapy), as was rebleeding (7.8 vs. 4.5%). Outcomes were worse with hematemesis plus melena vs. isolated hematemesis for bloody (composite: 62.4 vs. 25.6%; hemostatic intervention: 36.5 vs. 13.8%) and coffee-grounds emesis (composite: 59.1 vs. 27.1%; hemostatic intervention: 26.4 vs. 8.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Bloody emesis is not associated with more severe bleeding episodes at presentation or higher mortality than coffee-grounds emesis, but is associated with modestly higher rates of hemostatic intervention and rebleeding. Outcomes with hematemesis are worsened with concurrent melena. The presence of bloody emesis plus melena potentially could be considered in decisions regarding timing of endoscopy.
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