DNA shuffling method for generating highly recombined genes and evolved enzymes View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2001-04

AUTHORS

Wayne M. Coco, William E. Levinson, Michael J. Crist, Harm J. Hektor, Aldis Darzins, Philip T. Pienkos, Charles H. Squires, Daniel J. Monticello

ABSTRACT

We introduce a method of in vitro recombination or "DNA shuffling" to generate libraries of evolved enzymes. The approach relies on the ordering, trimming, and joining of randomly cleaved parental DNA fragments annealed to a transient polynucleotide scaffold. We generated chimeric libraries averaging 14.0 crossovers per gene, a several-fold higher level of recombination than observed for other methods. We also observed an unprecedented four crossovers per gene in regions of 10 or fewer bases of sequence identity. These properties allow generation of chimeras unavailable by other methods. We detected no unshuffled parental clones or duplicated "sibling" chimeras, and relatively few inactive clones. We demonstrated the method by molecular breeding of a monooxygenase for increased rate and extent of biodesulfurization on complex substrates, as well as for 20-fold faster conversion of a nonnatural substrate. This method represents a conceptually distinct and improved alternative to sexual PCR for gene family shuffling. More... »

PAGES

nbt0401_354

Journal

TITLE

Nature Biotechnology

ISSUE

4

VOLUME

19

Related Patents

  • Methods Of Generating Variant Proteins With Increased Host String Content
  • Microorganisms For The Production Of 1,4-Butanediol
  • Cytokine Polypeptides
  • Flavivirus And Alphavirus Recombinant Antigen Libraries
  • Crystal Structures Of Heterodimeric Fc Domains
  • Microorganisms For Producing Butadiene And Methods Related Thereto
  • Microorganisms And Methods For Enhancing The Availability Of Reducing Equivalents In The Presence Of Methanol, And For Producing Succinate Related Thereto
  • Organisms For The Production Of 1,3-Butanediol
  • Microorganisms And Methods For The Co-Production Of Isopropanol And 1,4-Butanediol
  • Alkaline Proteases And Detergents And Cleaners Comprising These Alkaline Proteases
  • Lipase Genes
  • Microorganisms And Methods For The Biosynthesis Of Aromatics, 2,4-Pentadienoate And 1,3-Butadiene
  • Methods And Organisms For Converting Synthesis Gas Or Other Gaseous Carbon Sources And Methanol To 1,3-Butanediol
  • Compositions And Methods For The Biosynthesis Of 1,4-Butanediol And Its Precursors
  • Alkaline Protease From Bacillus Sp. (Dsm 14392) And Washing And Cleaning Products Comprising Said Alkaline Protease
  • Co-Stimulatory Polypeptides
  • Microorganisms And Methods For The Biosynthesis Of Adipate, Hexamethylenediamine And 6-Aminocaproic Acid
  • Methods And Organisms For Converting Synthesis Gas Or Other Gaseous Carbon Sources And Methanol To 1,3-Butanediol
  • Microorganisms And Methods For The Coproduction 1,4-Butanediol And Gamma-Butyrolactone
  • Semi-Synthetic Terephthalic Acid Via Microorganisms That Produce Muconic Acid
  • Microorganisms For The Production Of Methacrylic Acid
  • Microorganisms And Methods For Production Of 4-Hydroxybutyrate, 1,4-Butanediol And Related Compounds
  • Immunoglobulin Insertions, Deletions, And Substitutions
  • Immunoglobulins Insertions, Deletions, And Substitutions
  • Microorganisms And Methods For Enhancing The Availability Of Reducing Equivalents In The Presence Of Methanol, And For Producing 1,2-Propanediol, N-Propanol, 1,3-Propanediol, Or Glycerol Related Thereto
  • Microorganisms And Methods For Conversion Of Syngas And Other Carbon Sources To Useful Products
  • Methods Of Rna Amplification In The Presence Of Dna
  • Methods And Compositions For Transcription-Based Nucleic Acid Amplification
  • Microorganisms For The Production Of Adipic Acid And Other Compounds
  • Alkaline Protease And Washing And Cleaning Products Containing Said Novel Alkaline Protease
  • Integrated Systems And Methods For Diversity Generation And Screening
  • Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Methods And Compositions
  • Methods And Organisms For Utilizing Synthesis Gas Or Other Gaseous Carbon Sources And Methanol
  • Microorganisms And Methods For The Biosynthesis Of Butadiene
  • Microorganisms For The Production Of 1,4-Butanediol
  • Microorganisms And Methods For The Biosynthesis Of Propylene
  • Crystal Structures Of Heterodimeric Fc Domains
  • Microorganisms And Methods For The Biosynthesis Of Butadiene
  • Semi-Synthetic Terephthalic Acid Via Microorganisms That Produce Muconic Acid
  • Microorganisms And Methods For Enhancing The Availability Of Reducing Equivalents In The Presence Of Methanol, For Producing Methacrylic Acid
  • System And Method For Editing And Manipulating Dna
  • Microorganisms And Methods For The Biosynthesis Of Adipate, Hexamethylenediamine And 6-Aminocaproic Acid
  • Multi-Site Mutagenesis
  • Programmable Iterated Elongation: A Method For Manufacturing Synthetic Genes And Combinatorial Dna And Protein Libraries
  • Integrated System For Diversity Generation And Screening
  • Methods For Generating Double Stranded Dna Comprising A 3′ Single Stranded Portion And Uses Of These Complexes For Recombination
  • Haplotyping Method For Multiple Distal Nucleotide Polymorphisms
  • Method For The Production Of Sulphur-Containing Fine Chemicals By Fermentation
  • Alkaline Protease From Bacillus Gibsonii (Dsm 14393) And Washing And Cleaning Products Comprising Said Alkaline Protease
  • Alkaline Protease From Bacillus Gibsonii (Dsm 14391) And Washing And Cleaning Products Comprising Said Alkaline Protease
  • Nucleic Acid Amplification Procedure Using Rna And Dna Composite Primers
  • Methods For In Vitro Joining And Combinatorial Assembly Of Nucleic Acid Molecules
  • Process Of Separating Components Of A Fermentation Broth
  • Stable Fungal Cel6 Enzyme Variants
  • Microorganisms And Methods For The Biosynthesis Of Butadiene
  • Microorganisms And Methods For The Production Of Caprolactone
  • Compositions And Methods For The Biosynthesis Of 1,4-Butanediol And Its Precursors
  • Methods For The Synthesis Of Olefins And Derivatives
  • Microorganisms And Methods For Carbon-Efficient Biosynthesis Of Mek And 2-Butanol
  • Methods And Compositions For Generation Of Multiple Copies Of Nucleic Acid Sequences And Methods Of Detection Thereof
  • Microorganisms For The Production Of 1,4-Butanediol And Related Methods
  • Compositions And Methods For The Biosynthesis Of 1,4-Butanediol And Its Precursors
  • Methods And Compositions For Amplification Of Rna Sequences
  • Method For The Production Of Sulpher-Containing Fine Chemicals By Fermentation
  • Microorganisms And Methods For Producing Alkenes
  • Microorganisms And Methods For The Coproduction 1,4-Butanediol And Gamma-Butyrolactone
  • Nucleic Acid Amplification Procedure Using Rna And Dna Composite Primers
  • Microorganisms And Methods For The Biosynthesis Of Fumarate, Malate, And Acrylate
  • Methods Of Generating Variant Antibodies With Increased Host String Content
  • Process For Obtaining Recombined Nucleotide Sequences In Vitro, Libraries Of Sequences And Sequences Thus Obtained
  • Methods And Organisms For Utilizing Synthesis Gas Or Other Gaseous Carbon Sources And Methanol
  • Microorganisms For Producing Propylene And Methods Related Thereto
  • Microorganisms And Methods For The Coproduction 1,4-Butanediol And Gamma-Butyrolactone
  • Co-Stimulatory Polypeptides
  • Libraries Of Genetic Packages Comprising Novel Hc Cdr3 Designs
  • Optimization Of Immunomodulatory Properties Of Genetic Vaccines
  • Microorganisms And Methods For The Biosynthesis Of Aromatics, 2,4-Pentadienoate And 1,3-Butadiene
  • Microorganisms For Producing Butadiene And Methods Related Thereto
  • Microorganisms And Methods For The Production Of Caprolactone
  • Organisms For The Production Of 1,3-Butanediol
  • Organisms For The Production Of 1,3-Butanediol
  • Chimeric Promoters
  • Organisms For The Production Of 1,3-Butanediol
  • Synthetic Immunoglobulin Domains With Binding Properties Engineered In Regions Of The Molecule Different From The Complementarity Determining Regions
  • Microbial Organisms Comprising Exogenous Nucleic Acids Encoding Reductive Tca Pathway Enzymes
  • Microorganisms For The Production Of 1,4-Butanediol, 4-Hydroxybutanal, 4-Hydroxybutyryl-Coa, Putrescine And Related Compounds, And Methods Related Thereto
  • Polynucleotides Encoding Flavivirus And Alphavirus Multivalent Antigenic Polypeptides
  • Process For In Vitro Creation Of Recombinant Polynucleotide Sequences By Oriented Ligation
  • Antigen Library Immunization
  • Microorganisms And Methods For The Biosynthesis Of Fumarate, Malate, And Acrylate
  • Process For Obtaining Recombined Nucleotide Sequences In Vitro, Libraries Of Sequences And Sequences Thus Obtained
  • Methods And Organisms For The Growth-Coupled Production Of 1,4-Butanediol
  • Cytotoxic Immunoglobulin
  • Microorganisms For The Production Of 1,4-Butanediol
  • Real-Time Sequencing Method For Single Molecule
  • Compositions And Methods For The Biosynthesis Of 1,4-Butanediol And Its Precursors
  • Global Amplification Using A Randomly Primed Composite Primer
  • Microorganisms And Methods For Enhancing The Availability Of Reducing Equivalents In The Presence Of Methanol, And For Producing 1,4-Butanediol Related Thereto
  • Microorganisms And Methods For The Production Of Caprolactone
  • Display Of Binding Agents
  • Microorganisms And Methods For Enhancing The Availability Of Reducing Equivalents In The Presence Of Methanol, And For Producing 3-Hydroxyisobutyrate Or Methacrylic Acid Related Thereto
  • Global Amplification Using A Randomly Primed Composite Primer
  • R-Hydroxynitrile Lyase (R-Hnl) Random Variants And Their Use For Preparing Optically Pure, Sterically Hindered Cyanohydrins
  • Methods And Organisms For Utilizing Synthesis Gas Or Other Gaseous Carbon Sources And Methanol
  • Microorganisms For The Production Of Adipic Acid And Other Compounds
  • Methods, Kits And Compositions For Single Primer Linear Isothermal Amplification Of Nucleic Acid Sequences
  • Methods And Compositions For Generation Of Multiple Copies Of Nucleic Acid Sequences And Methods Of Detection Thereof
  • Nucleic Acid Shuffling
  • Primary Alcohol Producing Organisms
  • Microorganisms For The Production Of Adipic Acid And Other Compounds
  • Alkaline Proteases And Detergents And Cleaners Comprising These Alkaline Proteases
  • Microorganisms And Methods For The Biosynthesis Of Fumarate, Malate, And Acrylate
  • Methods And Organisms For Utilizing Synthesis Gas Or Other Gaseous Carbon Sources And Methanol
  • Methods For Increasing Product Yields
  • Microorganisms For The Production Of 1,4-Butanediol, 4-Hydroxybutanal, 4-Hydroxybutyryl-Coa, Putrescine And Related Compounds, And Methods Related Thereto
  • Microorganisms For The Production Of 1,4-Butanediol
  • Compositions And Methods For The Biosynthesis Of 1,4-Butanediol And Its Precursors
  • Lipase Genes
  • Gene Shuffling Methods
  • Libraries Of Genetic Packages Comprising Novel Hc Cdr1, Cdr2, And Cdr3 And Novel Lc Cdr1, Cdr2, And Cdr3 Designs
  • Methods And Organisms For The Growth-Coupled Production Of 1,4-Butanediol
  • Compositions For Amplification Of Rna Sequences Using Composite Primers
  • Synthetic Immunoglobulin Domains With Binding Properties Engineered In Regions Of The Molecule Different From The Complementarity Determining Regions
  • Organisms For The Production Of Isopropanol, N-Butanol, And Isobutanol
  • Primary Alcohol Producing Organisms
  • Microorganisms For The Production Of 1,4-Butanediol And Related Methods
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/86744

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/86744

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039665695

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11283594


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0604", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Genetics", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Biological Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Alleles", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Amino Acid Sequence", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Crossing Over, Genetic", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "DNA, Complementary", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Gene Library", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Genetic Techniques", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Molecular Sequence Data", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Mutagenesis", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Mutation", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Nocardia", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Polymerase Chain Reaction", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Recombination, Genetic", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Rhodococcus", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Sequence Homology, Amino Acid", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Substrate Specificity", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Enchira Biotechnology Corporation, 4200 Research Forest Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77381."
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Coco", 
            "givenName": "Wayne M.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01142356437.65", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01142356437.65"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Enchira Biotechnology Corporation, 4200 Research Forest Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77381."
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Levinson", 
            "givenName": "William E.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01002321025.83", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01002321025.83"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Enchira Biotechnology Corporation, 4200 Research Forest Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77381."
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Crist", 
            "givenName": "Michael J.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01050434225.02", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01050434225.02"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Enchira Biotechnology Corporation, 4200 Research Forest Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77381."
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hektor", 
            "givenName": "Harm J.", 
            "id": "sg:person.0615542714.00", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0615542714.00"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Enchira Biotechnology Corporation, 4200 Research Forest Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77381."
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Darzins", 
            "givenName": "Aldis", 
            "id": "sg:person.01044137143.32", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01044137143.32"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Enchira Biotechnology Corporation, 4200 Research Forest Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77381."
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Pienkos", 
            "givenName": "Philip T.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01107723262.02", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01107723262.02"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Enchira Biotechnology Corporation, 4200 Research Forest Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77381."
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Squires", 
            "givenName": "Charles H.", 
            "id": "sg:person.0611765511.47", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0611765511.47"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Enchira Biotechnology Corporation, 4200 Research Forest Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77381."
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Monticello", 
            "givenName": "Daniel J.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01362745117.73", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01362745117.73"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/34663", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002810105", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/34663"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/34663", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002810105", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/34663"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/24.14.3071", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003566596"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/26.15.3536", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004632020"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/24.15.3071", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005412787"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/26.2.681", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006249974"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1119(94)00886-w", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010585474"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.1.1.5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014070222"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt0398-258", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017776064", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt0398-258"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1367-5931(99)80044-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020995916"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/jmbi.1997.1252", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025648494"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.91.22.10747", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030966093"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/370389a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030993177", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/370389a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1119(99)00547-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031240797"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0968-0896(99)00143-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037682926"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt0798-663", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038669944", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt0798-663"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/25.6.1307", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041593849"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/18.4.999", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041872624"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/7003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042088583", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/7003"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/7003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042088583", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/7003"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/23.15.3067", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042139638"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016672300026392", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053975873"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016672300026392", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053975873"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016672300025532", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054010120"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016672300025532", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054010120"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00049a029", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055158795"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1099/00221287-143-9-2961", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060369618"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.7683443", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062648393"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.176.21.6707-6716.1994", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062723227"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.178.19.5699-5705.1996", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062725228"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074592478", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080352502", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082420225", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082849877", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083169948", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083310070", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2001-04", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2001-04-01", 
        "description": "We introduce a method of in vitro recombination or \"DNA shuffling\" to generate libraries of evolved enzymes. The approach relies on the ordering, trimming, and joining of randomly cleaved parental DNA fragments annealed to a transient polynucleotide scaffold. We generated chimeric libraries averaging 14.0 crossovers per gene, a several-fold higher level of recombination than observed for other methods. We also observed an unprecedented four crossovers per gene in regions of 10 or fewer bases of sequence identity. These properties allow generation of chimeras unavailable by other methods. We detected no unshuffled parental clones or duplicated \"sibling\" chimeras, and relatively few inactive clones. We demonstrated the method by molecular breeding of a monooxygenase for increased rate and extent of biodesulfurization on complex substrates, as well as for 20-fold faster conversion of a nonnatural substrate. This method represents a conceptually distinct and improved alternative to sexual PCR for gene family shuffling.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/86744", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1115214", 
            "issn": [
              "1087-0156", 
              "1546-1696"
            ], 
            "name": "Nature Biotechnology", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "4", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "19"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "DNA shuffling method for generating highly recombined genes and evolved enzymes", 
        "pagination": "nbt0401_354", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "bcf3217a385870df0f58c7ad8fdb35dedc03828099f150e16557fde1bffbd3bf"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "11283594"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "9604648"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/86744"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1039665695"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/86744", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039665695"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T12:22", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000362_0000000362/records_87083_00000001.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "http://www.nature.com/articles/nbt0401_354"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/86744'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/86744'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/86744'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/86744'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    290 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      77 URIs      37 LITERALS      25 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/86744 schema:about N10674daee5324550b2ca1e5464639c75
    2 N12b0375e0ac24ae18a512d8dce5c0b73
    3 N26d4783cb7de4b11947f6c634af66023
    4 N418cb456678f44e18199b383b1c8a84a
    5 N5f2bbd6dff484b60847829a0ba2974f7
    6 N877bf3966d164842a79ba20ea7204cff
    7 N8d952d19591c458889115783a59e2b66
    8 N901da227dcec4f0bb20a8861785fc185
    9 N92bbe18301904a0fb7c2903310ddb734
    10 N977745f3fcfd4709a688b59b7b94b914
    11 N9adfc41ada8b4c0a8893714188bd1f0d
    12 Nb037475c18744271bc82727d969b623f
    13 Ne0fd708fcd1548ab84877df8530353d9
    14 Ne4e7088d7b77418385aac0125459bc1d
    15 Nf288f83db56842bf90a7a21289f85bde
    16 Nf6208e3204a14de391cda92a3638c6fe
    17 anzsrc-for:06
    18 anzsrc-for:0604
    19 schema:author N55c83bde0485418b9f6d2b15e8e228f4
    20 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1038/34663
    21 sg:pub.10.1038/370389a0
    22 sg:pub.10.1038/7003
    23 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt0398-258
    24 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt0798-663
    25 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074592478
    26 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080352502
    27 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082420225
    28 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082849877
    29 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083169948
    30 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083310070
    31 https://doi.org/10.1006/jmbi.1997.1252
    32 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1119(94)00886-w
    33 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1119(99)00547-8
    34 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0968-0896(99)00143-1
    35 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1367-5931(99)80044-1
    36 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016672300025532
    37 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016672300026392
    38 https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00049a029
    39 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.91.22.10747
    40 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/18.4.999
    41 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/23.15.3067
    42 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/24.14.3071
    43 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/24.15.3071
    44 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/25.6.1307
    45 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/26.15.3536
    46 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/26.2.681
    47 https://doi.org/10.1099/00221287-143-9-2961
    48 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.1.1.5
    49 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.7683443
    50 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.176.21.6707-6716.1994
    51 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.178.19.5699-5705.1996
    52 schema:datePublished 2001-04
    53 schema:datePublishedReg 2001-04-01
    54 schema:description We introduce a method of in vitro recombination or "DNA shuffling" to generate libraries of evolved enzymes. The approach relies on the ordering, trimming, and joining of randomly cleaved parental DNA fragments annealed to a transient polynucleotide scaffold. We generated chimeric libraries averaging 14.0 crossovers per gene, a several-fold higher level of recombination than observed for other methods. We also observed an unprecedented four crossovers per gene in regions of 10 or fewer bases of sequence identity. These properties allow generation of chimeras unavailable by other methods. We detected no unshuffled parental clones or duplicated "sibling" chimeras, and relatively few inactive clones. We demonstrated the method by molecular breeding of a monooxygenase for increased rate and extent of biodesulfurization on complex substrates, as well as for 20-fold faster conversion of a nonnatural substrate. This method represents a conceptually distinct and improved alternative to sexual PCR for gene family shuffling.
    55 schema:genre research_article
    56 schema:inLanguage en
    57 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    58 schema:isPartOf N28f408ac5f074a69abda3d117208cb0b
    59 N5e843ee113fc497bbf2b97a3a2cb0e18
    60 sg:journal.1115214
    61 schema:name DNA shuffling method for generating highly recombined genes and evolved enzymes
    62 schema:pagination nbt0401_354
    63 schema:productId N4f759401f5394571949a9477b800eaaf
    64 N5778a789c5d549299fbb8ee789c4a59f
    65 N64021832ac0e4be3a2fde50692362d2e
    66 N903ace330a7a4ffeb0e2b0e6ff0a3047
    67 Nc28835cda65d4be0a129a70ccd4fb5a6
    68 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039665695
    69 https://doi.org/10.1038/86744
    70 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T12:22
    71 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    72 schema:sdPublisher N0ed6b7738e0a453bacca6c8acf180124
    73 schema:url http://www.nature.com/articles/nbt0401_354
    74 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    75 sgo:sdDataset articles
    76 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    77 N0ed6b7738e0a453bacca6c8acf180124 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    78 rdf:type schema:Organization
    79 N10674daee5324550b2ca1e5464639c75 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    80 schema:name Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
    81 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    82 N11d3b62ea62b4d0d82f3a30087f3be8f schema:name Enchira Biotechnology Corporation, 4200 Research Forest Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77381.
    83 rdf:type schema:Organization
    84 N12b0375e0ac24ae18a512d8dce5c0b73 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    85 schema:name Rhodococcus
    86 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    87 N26d4783cb7de4b11947f6c634af66023 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    88 schema:name Polymerase Chain Reaction
    89 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    90 N28f408ac5f074a69abda3d117208cb0b schema:issueNumber 4
    91 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    92 N33f0048e48d748269ca462c96b5ce20b rdf:first sg:person.01002321025.83
    93 rdf:rest Nbea68698f0c342e0b049dd300b247023
    94 N418cb456678f44e18199b383b1c8a84a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    95 schema:name Nocardia
    96 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    97 N4f759401f5394571949a9477b800eaaf schema:name doi
    98 schema:value 10.1038/86744
    99 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    100 N55c83bde0485418b9f6d2b15e8e228f4 rdf:first sg:person.01142356437.65
    101 rdf:rest N33f0048e48d748269ca462c96b5ce20b
    102 N5778a789c5d549299fbb8ee789c4a59f schema:name readcube_id
    103 schema:value bcf3217a385870df0f58c7ad8fdb35dedc03828099f150e16557fde1bffbd3bf
    104 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    105 N5e843ee113fc497bbf2b97a3a2cb0e18 schema:volumeNumber 19
    106 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    107 N5f2bbd6dff484b60847829a0ba2974f7 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    108 schema:name Alleles
    109 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    110 N6372327ebb48415cab96cff53f9cd59c rdf:first sg:person.01107723262.02
    111 rdf:rest Nf0eb108434a14bdc8d36bd805a846b99
    112 N64021832ac0e4be3a2fde50692362d2e schema:name dimensions_id
    113 schema:value pub.1039665695
    114 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    115 N644e8e15ccd54673aeefb0e414144a66 schema:name Enchira Biotechnology Corporation, 4200 Research Forest Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77381.
    116 rdf:type schema:Organization
    117 N68ea14131c5345b48ae1067e07c19ee9 rdf:first sg:person.01362745117.73
    118 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    119 N6d5e5a1a593b47d7917131ec6677f17d schema:name Enchira Biotechnology Corporation, 4200 Research Forest Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77381.
    120 rdf:type schema:Organization
    121 N6fdd0b9dacd846b8881ae09d2f6db328 schema:name Enchira Biotechnology Corporation, 4200 Research Forest Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77381.
    122 rdf:type schema:Organization
    123 N877bf3966d164842a79ba20ea7204cff schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    124 schema:name Substrate Specificity
    125 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    126 N89061a6a09d14e7494842cb1d77ef1f8 rdf:first sg:person.01044137143.32
    127 rdf:rest N6372327ebb48415cab96cff53f9cd59c
    128 N8d952d19591c458889115783a59e2b66 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    129 schema:name Crossing Over, Genetic
    130 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    131 N901da227dcec4f0bb20a8861785fc185 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    132 schema:name DNA, Complementary
    133 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    134 N903ace330a7a4ffeb0e2b0e6ff0a3047 schema:name pubmed_id
    135 schema:value 11283594
    136 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    137 N92bbe18301904a0fb7c2903310ddb734 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    138 schema:name Gene Library
    139 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    140 N977745f3fcfd4709a688b59b7b94b914 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    141 schema:name Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
    142 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    143 N9a8983c589b54678905a882a585b5dcb schema:name Enchira Biotechnology Corporation, 4200 Research Forest Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77381.
    144 rdf:type schema:Organization
    145 N9adfc41ada8b4c0a8893714188bd1f0d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    146 schema:name Molecular Sequence Data
    147 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    148 Na0eb3bfa7659412690268791824dd2e8 schema:name Enchira Biotechnology Corporation, 4200 Research Forest Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77381.
    149 rdf:type schema:Organization
    150 Na2a1d4202fb44cbf9b07afab53830542 rdf:first sg:person.0615542714.00
    151 rdf:rest N89061a6a09d14e7494842cb1d77ef1f8
    152 Nb037475c18744271bc82727d969b623f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    153 schema:name Recombination, Genetic
    154 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    155 Nb05cfd0cdc024ad6a50ec0be02934039 schema:name Enchira Biotechnology Corporation, 4200 Research Forest Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77381.
    156 rdf:type schema:Organization
    157 Nbdd8a6f525044419b85a661b3ad1b39d schema:name Enchira Biotechnology Corporation, 4200 Research Forest Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77381.
    158 rdf:type schema:Organization
    159 Nbea68698f0c342e0b049dd300b247023 rdf:first sg:person.01050434225.02
    160 rdf:rest Na2a1d4202fb44cbf9b07afab53830542
    161 Nc28835cda65d4be0a129a70ccd4fb5a6 schema:name nlm_unique_id
    162 schema:value 9604648
    163 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    164 Ne0fd708fcd1548ab84877df8530353d9 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    165 schema:name Amino Acid Sequence
    166 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    167 Ne4e7088d7b77418385aac0125459bc1d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    168 schema:name Genetic Techniques
    169 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    170 Nf0eb108434a14bdc8d36bd805a846b99 rdf:first sg:person.0611765511.47
    171 rdf:rest N68ea14131c5345b48ae1067e07c19ee9
    172 Nf288f83db56842bf90a7a21289f85bde schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    173 schema:name Mutagenesis
    174 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    175 Nf6208e3204a14de391cda92a3638c6fe schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    176 schema:name Mutation
    177 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    178 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    179 schema:name Biological Sciences
    180 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    181 anzsrc-for:0604 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    182 schema:name Genetics
    183 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    184 sg:journal.1115214 schema:issn 1087-0156
    185 1546-1696
    186 schema:name Nature Biotechnology
    187 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    188 sg:person.01002321025.83 schema:affiliation N9a8983c589b54678905a882a585b5dcb
    189 schema:familyName Levinson
    190 schema:givenName William E.
    191 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01002321025.83
    192 rdf:type schema:Person
    193 sg:person.01044137143.32 schema:affiliation Nbdd8a6f525044419b85a661b3ad1b39d
    194 schema:familyName Darzins
    195 schema:givenName Aldis
    196 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01044137143.32
    197 rdf:type schema:Person
    198 sg:person.01050434225.02 schema:affiliation N6fdd0b9dacd846b8881ae09d2f6db328
    199 schema:familyName Crist
    200 schema:givenName Michael J.
    201 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01050434225.02
    202 rdf:type schema:Person
    203 sg:person.01107723262.02 schema:affiliation Nb05cfd0cdc024ad6a50ec0be02934039
    204 schema:familyName Pienkos
    205 schema:givenName Philip T.
    206 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01107723262.02
    207 rdf:type schema:Person
    208 sg:person.01142356437.65 schema:affiliation N644e8e15ccd54673aeefb0e414144a66
    209 schema:familyName Coco
    210 schema:givenName Wayne M.
    211 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01142356437.65
    212 rdf:type schema:Person
    213 sg:person.01362745117.73 schema:affiliation Na0eb3bfa7659412690268791824dd2e8
    214 schema:familyName Monticello
    215 schema:givenName Daniel J.
    216 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01362745117.73
    217 rdf:type schema:Person
    218 sg:person.0611765511.47 schema:affiliation N6d5e5a1a593b47d7917131ec6677f17d
    219 schema:familyName Squires
    220 schema:givenName Charles H.
    221 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0611765511.47
    222 rdf:type schema:Person
    223 sg:person.0615542714.00 schema:affiliation N11d3b62ea62b4d0d82f3a30087f3be8f
    224 schema:familyName Hektor
    225 schema:givenName Harm J.
    226 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0615542714.00
    227 rdf:type schema:Person
    228 sg:pub.10.1038/34663 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002810105
    229 https://doi.org/10.1038/34663
    230 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    231 sg:pub.10.1038/370389a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030993177
    232 https://doi.org/10.1038/370389a0
    233 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    234 sg:pub.10.1038/7003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042088583
    235 https://doi.org/10.1038/7003
    236 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    237 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt0398-258 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017776064
    238 https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt0398-258
    239 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    240 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt0798-663 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038669944
    241 https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt0798-663
    242 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    243 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074592478 schema:CreativeWork
    244 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080352502 schema:CreativeWork
    245 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082420225 schema:CreativeWork
    246 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082849877 schema:CreativeWork
    247 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083169948 schema:CreativeWork
    248 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083310070 schema:CreativeWork
    249 https://doi.org/10.1006/jmbi.1997.1252 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025648494
    250 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    251 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1119(94)00886-w schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010585474
    252 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    253 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1119(99)00547-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031240797
    254 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    255 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0968-0896(99)00143-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037682926
    256 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    257 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1367-5931(99)80044-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020995916
    258 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    259 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016672300025532 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054010120
    260 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    261 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016672300026392 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053975873
    262 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    263 https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00049a029 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055158795
    264 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    265 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.91.22.10747 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030966093
    266 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    267 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/18.4.999 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041872624
    268 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    269 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/23.15.3067 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042139638
    270 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    271 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/24.14.3071 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003566596
    272 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    273 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/24.15.3071 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005412787
    274 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    275 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/25.6.1307 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041593849
    276 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    277 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/26.15.3536 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004632020
    278 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    279 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/26.2.681 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006249974
    280 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    281 https://doi.org/10.1099/00221287-143-9-2961 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060369618
    282 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    283 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.1.1.5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014070222
    284 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    285 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.7683443 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062648393
    286 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    287 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.176.21.6707-6716.1994 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062723227
    288 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    289 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.178.19.5699-5705.1996 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062725228
    290 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...