Large-scale synthesis of carbon nanotubes View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1992-07-16

AUTHORS

T. W. Ebbesen, P. M. Ajayan

ABSTRACT

INTEREST in carbon fibres1,2 has been stimulated greatly by the recent discovery of hollow graphitic tubules of nanometre dimensions3. There has been much speculation about the properties and potential application of these nanotubes4–8. Theoretical studies predict that their electronic properties will depend on their diameter and degree of helicity4,5. Experimental tests of these ideas has been hampered, however, by the lack of macroscopic quantities of the material. Here we report the synthesis of graphitic nanotubes in gram quantities. We use a variant of the standard arc-discharge technique for fullerene synthesis under a helium atmosphere. Under certain conditions, a carbonaceous deposit forms on one of the graphite rods, consisting of a macroscopic (diameter of about 5 mm) cylinder in which the core comprises pure nanotubes and nanoscale particles in high yield. The purity and yield depend sensitively on the gas pressure in the reaction vessel. Preliminary measurements of the conductivity of the bulk nanotube material indicate a conductivity of about 100 S cm–11. More... »

PAGES

220-222

References to SciGraph publications

Journal

TITLE

Nature

ISSUE

6383

VOLUME

358

Related Patents

  • Electrical Current-Induced Structural Changes And Chemical Functionalization Of Carbon Nanotubes
  • Devices Containing A Carbon Nanotube
  • Polymerization Initated At Sidewalls Of Carbon Nanotubes
  • Molecular Nanowires From Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes
  • Method For Producing Encapsulated Nanoparticles And Carbon Nanotubes Using Catalytic Disproportionation Of Carbon Monoxide And The Nanoencapsulates And Nanotubes Formed Thereby
  • Concentric Gate Nanotube Transistor Devices
  • Method And Apparatus For Producing Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes
  • Electron-Emitting Device, Electron Source And Image-Forming Apparatus, And Method For Manufacturing Electron Emitting Device
  • Method And Apparatus For Synthesizing Filamentary Structures
  • Carbon Nanostructures And Methods Of Making And Using The Same
  • Production Of Fullerenic Soot In Flames
  • Carbon Nanotubes On A Substrate
  • Synthesis Of Carbon Nanotubes Filled With Palladium Nanoparticles Using Arc Discharge In Solution
  • Method For Making Carbon Nanotubes
  • Structure And A Process For Its Production
  • Method Of Making Functionalized Nanotubes
  • Cathode Material For Fluoride-Based Conversion Electrodes, Method For The Production Thereof And Use Thereof
  • Carbon Nanotube Device, Manufacturing Method Of Carbon Nanotube Device, And Electron Emitting Device
  • Methods For Synthesis Of Semiconductor Nanocrystals And Thermoelectric Compositions
  • Method Of Purifying Carbon Nanotubes
  • Catalyst Used To Form Carbon Fiber, Method Of Making The Same And Electron Emitting Device, Electron Source, Image Forming Apparatus, Secondary Battery And Body For Storing Hydrogen
  • Growth Of And Defect Reduction In Nanoscale Materials
  • Purifaction Of Pentafluoroethanes
  • Preparation Of Carbide Nanorods
  • Method For Producing Electron-Emitting Device And Electron-Emitting Apparatus
  • Electron-Emitting Device, Electron Source, Image Forming Apparatus, And Electron-Emitting Apparatus
  • Plasma Display Panel
  • Fullerene Composite
  • Nanotube Transistor Integrated Circuit Layout
  • Electron-Emitting Device, Electron-Emitting Apparatus, Image Display Apparatus, And Light-Emitting Apparatus
  • Methods Of Attaching Or Grafting Carbon Nanotubes To Silicon Surfaces And Composite Structures Derived Therefrom
  • Carbon Nanotube Structures, Carbon Nanotube Devices Using The Same And Method For Manufacturing Carbon Nanotube Structures
  • Removing Undesirable Nanotubes During Nanotube Device Fabrication
  • Ropes Of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes
  • Method Of Forming Carbon Fibers
  • Catalytic Growth Of Single- And Double-Wall Carbon Nanotubes From Metal Particles
  • Method And Device For Producing Higher Fullerenes And Nanotubes
  • Process For Making Fullerene Fibers
  • Carbon Nanostructures Encapsulating Palladium
  • Nanoscale Conductive Connectors And Method For Making Same
  • Particle Separation
  • Carbon Nanotube High Frequency Transistor Technology
  • Carbon Composition, And Composite Material And Dispersion Comprising Said Composition
  • Ropes Comprised Of Single-Walled And Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
  • Electron Emitting Device, Electron Source, And Image Forming Apparatus
  • Electron-Emitting Device, Electron Source, Image-Forming Apparatus, And Method For Producing Electron-Emitting Device And Electron-Emitting Apparatus
  • Electronic Device Having Catalyst Used To Form Carbon Fiber According To Raman Spectrum Characteristics
  • Method For Making Nanotubes And Nanoparticles
  • Manufacture Method For Electron-Emitting Device, Electron Source, Light-Emitting Apparatus, And Image Forming Apparatus
  • Electron-Emitting Device, Electron Source, Image-Forming Apparatus, And Method For Producing Electron-Emitting Device And Electron-Emitting Apparatus
  • Method And Installation For The Manufacture Of Carbon Nanotubes
  • Nanocomposites With High Thermoelectric Figures Of Merit
  • Electron-Emitting Device, Electron-Emitting Apparatus, Image Display Apparatus, And Light-Emitting Apparatus
  • Carbon Nanotube Transistor Fabrication
  • Field Emission Ion Source Based On Nanostructure-Containing Material
  • Carbon Nanoencapsulates
  • Heterostructure Nanotube Devices
  • High-Molecular Weight Carbon Material And Method Of Forming The Same
  • Nanotube Transistor And Rectifying Devices
  • Carbon Nanotube Structures And Method For Manufacturing The Same
  • Electronic Device Containing A Carbon Nanotube
  • Net Shape Manufacturing Using Carbon Nanotubes
  • Method Of Manufacturing Carbon Nanotubes
  • Production Of Fullerenic Nanostructures In Flames
  • Process For Functionalizing Carbon Nanotubes Under Solvent-Free Conditions
  • Method And Apparatus For Synthesizing Filamentary Structures
  • Nanotube-Based High Energy Material And Method
  • Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes From High Pressure Co
  • Fibers Of Aligned Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes And Process For Making The Same
  • Method For Producing Encapsulated Nanoparticles And Carbon Nanotubes Using Catalytic Disproportionation Of Carbon Monoxide
  • Method Of Manufacturing Electron-Emitting Device And Electron Source
  • Electron-Emitting Device, Electron-Emitting Apparatus, Image Display Apparatus, And Light-Emitting Apparatus
  • Thermoelectric Properties By High Temperature Annealing
  • Graphene Solutions
  • Field Emission Cold-Cathode Device
  • Nanocomposites With High Thermoelectric Figures Of Merit
  • Electron-Emitting Device, Electron Source, Image Forming Apparatus, And Method Of Manufacturing Electron-Emitting Device And Electron Source
  • Graphite Filaments Having Tubular Structure And Method Of Forming The Same
  • Method For Preparing Functional Nanomaterials Utilizing Endothermic Reaction
  • Methods For High Figure-Of-Merit In Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials
  • Fabricating Carbon Nanotube Transistor Devices
  • Polymer-Wrapped Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes
  • Nanotube-Based High Energy Material And Method
  • Method Of Manufacturing Electron-Emitting Element Using Catalyst To Grow Carbon Fibers Between Opposite Electrodes
  • Field Emission Tips
  • Method Of Manufacturing An Electronic Device Containing A Carbon Nanotube
  • Ropes Of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes And Compositions Thereof
  • Rotational Actuator Of Motor Based On Carbon Nanotubes
  • Electrical Conductors Comprising Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes
  • Apparatus For Producing Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes
  • Electron-Emitting Device, Electron Source And Image-Forming Apparatus, And Method For Manufacturing Electron Emitting Device
  • Catalytic Growth Of Single-And Double-Wall Carbon Nanotubes From Metal Particles
  • Electron-Emitting Device, Electron Source And Image-Forming Apparatus, And Method For Manufacturing Electron Emitting Device
  • Carbide Nanomaterials
  • Supercapacitor Using Carbon Nanosheets As Electrode
  • Carbon Nanotube Transistor Process With Transferred Carbon Nanotubes
  • Graphite Filaments Having Tubular Structure And Method Of Forming The Same
  • Electronic Device Containing Carbon Nanotubes
  • Method For Low Temperature Synthesis Of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes
  • Gas-Phase Nucleation And Growth Of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes From High Pressure Co
  • Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Alewives, Process For Making, And Compositions Thereof
  • Carbon Nanotube Transistor Process With Transferred Carbon Nanotubes
  • Supercapacitor Using Carbon Nanosheets As Electrode
  • Carbide Nanomaterials
  • Rotational Actuator Of Motor Based On Carbon Nanotubes
  • Electrical Conductors Comprising Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes
  • Field Emission Tips
  • Method Of Manufacturing An Electronic Device Containing A Carbon Nanotube
  • Ropes Of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes And Compositions Thereof
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/358220a0

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/358220a0

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024485352


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/03", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Chemical Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0305", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Organic Chemistry", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Fundamental Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, 305, Tsukuba, Japan", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.420377.5", 
              "name": [
                "Fundamental Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, 305, Tsukuba, Japan"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Ebbesen", 
            "givenName": "T. W.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01014615471.74", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01014615471.74"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Fundamental Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, 305, Tsukuba, Japan", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.420377.5", 
              "name": [
                "Fundamental Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, 305, Tsukuba, Japan"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Ajayan", 
            "givenName": "P. M.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01265070166.69", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01265070166.69"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/354056a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016485857", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/354056a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/357365a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052633005", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/357365a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/356776a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009023835", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/356776a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "1992-07-16", 
        "datePublishedReg": "1992-07-16", 
        "description": "INTEREST in carbon fibres1,2 has been stimulated greatly by the recent discovery of hollow graphitic tubules of nanometre dimensions3. There has been much speculation about the properties and potential application of these nanotubes4\u20138. Theoretical studies predict that their electronic properties will depend on their diameter and degree of helicity4,5. Experimental tests of these ideas has been hampered, however, by the lack of macroscopic quantities of the material. Here we report the synthesis of graphitic nanotubes in gram quantities. We use a variant of the standard arc-discharge technique for fullerene synthesis under a helium atmosphere. Under certain conditions, a carbonaceous deposit forms on one of the graphite rods, consisting of a macroscopic (diameter of about 5 mm) cylinder in which the core comprises pure nanotubes and nanoscale particles in high yield. The purity and yield depend sensitively on the gas pressure in the reaction vessel. Preliminary measurements of the conductivity of the bulk nanotube material indicate a conductivity of about 100 S cm\u201311.", 
        "genre": "article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/358220a0", 
        "inLanguage": "en", 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1018957", 
            "issn": [
              "0028-0836", 
              "1476-4687"
            ], 
            "name": "Nature", 
            "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "6383", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "358"
          }
        ], 
        "keywords": [
          "macroscopic quantities", 
          "electronic properties", 
          "arc discharge technique", 
          "theoretical study", 
          "large-scale synthesis", 
          "graphitic tubules", 
          "certain conditions", 
          "pure nanotubes", 
          "nanotube materials", 
          "carbon nanotubes", 
          "macroscopic cylinders", 
          "graphitic nanotubes", 
          "nanotubes", 
          "graphite rod", 
          "potential applications", 
          "experimental tests", 
          "properties", 
          "preliminary measurements", 
          "quantity", 
          "fullerene synthesis", 
          "gas pressure", 
          "high yield", 
          "cylinder", 
          "conductivity", 
          "nanoscale", 
          "synthesis", 
          "reaction vessel", 
          "applications", 
          "helium atmosphere", 
          "idea", 
          "materials", 
          "technique", 
          "atmosphere", 
          "measurements", 
          "purity", 
          "form", 
          "yield", 
          "carbon", 
          "conditions", 
          "diameter", 
          "rods", 
          "core", 
          "interest", 
          "recent discovery", 
          "degree", 
          "variants", 
          "deposits form", 
          "discovery", 
          "pressure", 
          "speculation", 
          "test", 
          "study", 
          "vessels", 
          "lack", 
          "tubules"
        ], 
        "name": "Large-scale synthesis of carbon nanotubes", 
        "pagination": "220-222", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1024485352"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/358220a0"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/358220a0", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024485352"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2022-05-10T09:47", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20220509/entities/gbq_results/article/article_261.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://doi.org/10.1038/358220a0"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/358220a0'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/358220a0'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/358220a0'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/358220a0'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    132 TRIPLES      22 PREDICATES      83 URIs      72 LITERALS      6 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/358220a0 schema:about anzsrc-for:03
    2 anzsrc-for:0305
    3 schema:author Ncc6a5d534b3e41b89b4693eb9996889f
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1038/354056a0
    5 sg:pub.10.1038/356776a0
    6 sg:pub.10.1038/357365a0
    7 schema:datePublished 1992-07-16
    8 schema:datePublishedReg 1992-07-16
    9 schema:description INTEREST in carbon fibres1,2 has been stimulated greatly by the recent discovery of hollow graphitic tubules of nanometre dimensions3. There has been much speculation about the properties and potential application of these nanotubes4–8. Theoretical studies predict that their electronic properties will depend on their diameter and degree of helicity4,5. Experimental tests of these ideas has been hampered, however, by the lack of macroscopic quantities of the material. Here we report the synthesis of graphitic nanotubes in gram quantities. We use a variant of the standard arc-discharge technique for fullerene synthesis under a helium atmosphere. Under certain conditions, a carbonaceous deposit forms on one of the graphite rods, consisting of a macroscopic (diameter of about 5 mm) cylinder in which the core comprises pure nanotubes and nanoscale particles in high yield. The purity and yield depend sensitively on the gas pressure in the reaction vessel. Preliminary measurements of the conductivity of the bulk nanotube material indicate a conductivity of about 100 S cm–11.
    10 schema:genre article
    11 schema:inLanguage en
    12 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    13 schema:isPartOf N1179bf28e57e4f6c8ccfc12bff35c844
    14 Nd7e64b1eedbb4573a3fdd15c6f2fa1a4
    15 sg:journal.1018957
    16 schema:keywords applications
    17 arc discharge technique
    18 atmosphere
    19 carbon
    20 carbon nanotubes
    21 certain conditions
    22 conditions
    23 conductivity
    24 core
    25 cylinder
    26 degree
    27 deposits form
    28 diameter
    29 discovery
    30 electronic properties
    31 experimental tests
    32 form
    33 fullerene synthesis
    34 gas pressure
    35 graphite rod
    36 graphitic nanotubes
    37 graphitic tubules
    38 helium atmosphere
    39 high yield
    40 idea
    41 interest
    42 lack
    43 large-scale synthesis
    44 macroscopic cylinders
    45 macroscopic quantities
    46 materials
    47 measurements
    48 nanoscale
    49 nanotube materials
    50 nanotubes
    51 potential applications
    52 preliminary measurements
    53 pressure
    54 properties
    55 pure nanotubes
    56 purity
    57 quantity
    58 reaction vessel
    59 recent discovery
    60 rods
    61 speculation
    62 study
    63 synthesis
    64 technique
    65 test
    66 theoretical study
    67 tubules
    68 variants
    69 vessels
    70 yield
    71 schema:name Large-scale synthesis of carbon nanotubes
    72 schema:pagination 220-222
    73 schema:productId N8259dc00ffeb4819a482c76c5796d867
    74 Ned8936d4fe2d4e07983d4c809e3cee1a
    75 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024485352
    76 https://doi.org/10.1038/358220a0
    77 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-05-10T09:47
    78 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    79 schema:sdPublisher N1adc6d0d094843e2ac0e543af16eb639
    80 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1038/358220a0
    81 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    82 sgo:sdDataset articles
    83 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    84 N1179bf28e57e4f6c8ccfc12bff35c844 schema:issueNumber 6383
    85 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    86 N1adc6d0d094843e2ac0e543af16eb639 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    87 rdf:type schema:Organization
    88 N8259dc00ffeb4819a482c76c5796d867 schema:name dimensions_id
    89 schema:value pub.1024485352
    90 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    91 Nae7de710ed2d4ec09313a9d0f63ea0c1 rdf:first sg:person.01265070166.69
    92 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    93 Ncc6a5d534b3e41b89b4693eb9996889f rdf:first sg:person.01014615471.74
    94 rdf:rest Nae7de710ed2d4ec09313a9d0f63ea0c1
    95 Nd7e64b1eedbb4573a3fdd15c6f2fa1a4 schema:volumeNumber 358
    96 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    97 Ned8936d4fe2d4e07983d4c809e3cee1a schema:name doi
    98 schema:value 10.1038/358220a0
    99 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    100 anzsrc-for:03 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    101 schema:name Chemical Sciences
    102 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    103 anzsrc-for:0305 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    104 schema:name Organic Chemistry
    105 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    106 sg:journal.1018957 schema:issn 0028-0836
    107 1476-4687
    108 schema:name Nature
    109 schema:publisher Springer Nature
    110 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    111 sg:person.01014615471.74 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.420377.5
    112 schema:familyName Ebbesen
    113 schema:givenName T. W.
    114 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01014615471.74
    115 rdf:type schema:Person
    116 sg:person.01265070166.69 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.420377.5
    117 schema:familyName Ajayan
    118 schema:givenName P. M.
    119 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01265070166.69
    120 rdf:type schema:Person
    121 sg:pub.10.1038/354056a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016485857
    122 https://doi.org/10.1038/354056a0
    123 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    124 sg:pub.10.1038/356776a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009023835
    125 https://doi.org/10.1038/356776a0
    126 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    127 sg:pub.10.1038/357365a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052633005
    128 https://doi.org/10.1038/357365a0
    129 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    130 grid-institutes:grid.420377.5 schema:alternateName Fundamental Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, 305, Tsukuba, Japan
    131 schema:name Fundamental Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, 305, Tsukuba, Japan
    132 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...