Free R value: a novel statistical quantity for assessing the accuracy of crystal structures View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1992-01

AUTHORS

A T Brünger

ABSTRACT

The determination of macromolecular structure by crystallography involves fitting atomic models to the observed diffraction data. The traditional measure of the quality of this fit, and presumably the accuracy of the model, is the R value. Despite stereochemical restraints, it is possible to overfit or 'misfit' the diffraction data: an incorrect model can be refined to fairly good R values as several recent examples have shown. Here I propose a reliable and unbiased indicator of the accuracy of such models. By analogy with the cross-validation method of testing statistical models I define a statistical quantity (R(free) (T) that measures the agreement between observed and computed structure factor amplitudes for a 'test' set of reflections that is omitted in the modelling and refinement process. As examples show, there is a high correlation between R(free) (T) and the accuracy of the atomic model phases. This is useful because experimental phase information is usually inaccurate, incomplete or unavailable. I expect that R(free) (T) will provide a measure of the information content of recently proposed models of thermal motion and disorder, time-averaging and bulk solvent. More... »

PAGES

472-475

Journal

TITLE

Nature

ISSUE

6359

VOLUME

355

Author Affiliations

Related Patents

  • Active-Site Engineering Of Nucleotidylyltransferases And General Enzymatic Methods For The Synthesis Of Natural And “Unnatural” Udp- And Tdp-Nucleotide Sugars
  • Circularly Permuted Biotin Binding Proteins
  • Crystal Structure Of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activator Complexed With Kunitz Domain Inhibitor
  • Interleukin-13 Binding Proteins
  • Interleukin-13 Binding Proteins
  • Glucoamylase Variants With Altered Properties
  • Inhibitors Of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
  • Compounds Modulating C-Kit Activity
  • Methods And Processes For Non-Invasive Assessment Of Genetic Variations
  • Stereoselective Synthesis Of 9-Cis.13,14-Dihydroretinoic Acid And Its Ethyl Esters
  • Engineered Multifunctional Enzymes And Methods Of Use
  • Interleukin-13 Binding Proteins
  • Crystals Of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (Ace)
  • Compounds And Methods For Kinase Modulation, And Indications Therefor
  • Peptide Mimetic Ligands Of Polo-Like Kinase 1 Polo Box Domain And Methods Of Use
  • Glucoamylase Variants
  • Crystal Structure Of An Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (Ace) And Uses Thereof
  • Compounds And Methods For Kinase Modulation, And Indications Therefor
  • Compounds Modulating C-Fms And/Or C-Kit Activity And Uses Therefor
  • Compositions And Uses Thereof
  • Glucoamylase Variants With Altered Properties
  • Compounds Modulating C-Fms And/Or C-Kit Activity
  • Compounds Modulating C-Fms And/Or C-Kit Activity And Uses Therefor
  • Engineered Multifunctional Enzymes And Methods Of Use
  • Compounds And Methods For Kinase Modulation, And Indications Therefor
  • Compounds Modulating C-Fms And/Or C-Kit Activity And Uses Therefor
  • Compounds And Methods For Kinase Modulation, And Indications Therefor
  • Compounds And Methods For Kinase Modulation, And Indications Therefor
  • Glucoamylase Variants With Altered Properties
  • Compounds Modulating C-Fms And/Or C-Kit Activity And Uses Therefor
  • Method Of Identifying Inhibitors Of Lck
  • Active-Site Engineering Of Nucleotidylyltransferases And General Enzymatic Methods For The Synthesis Of Natural And “Unnatural” Udp- And Tdp-Nucleotide Sugars
  • Compounds And Methods For Development Of Ret Modulators
  • Pde4b Inhibitors
  • Compounds Modulating C-Kit Activity
  • Molecular Sleds Comprising A Positively-Charged Amino Acid Sequence And A Molecular Cargo And Uses Thereof
  • Synthesis Of Heterocyclic Compounds
  • Compounds And Methods For Kinase Modulation, And Indications Therefor
  • Compounds And Methods For Development Of Ret Modulators
  • Pde4b Inhibitors And Uses Therefor
  • Compounds And Methods For Kinase Modulation, And Indications Therefor
  • Compounds And Methods For Kinase Modulation, And Indications Therefor
  • Methods And Compositions For Analyzing Nucleic Acid
  • Crystal Structure Of An Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (Ace) And Uses Thereof
  • Mutein Of A Bone Morphogenetic Protein And Use Thereof
  • Compounds Modulating C-Kit And C-Fms Activity And Uses Therefor
  • Reducing Sequence Read Count Error In Assessment Of Complex Genetic Variations
  • Crystallization And Structure Determination Of Staphylococcus Aureus Udp-N-Acetylenolpyruvylglucosamine Reductase (S. Aureus Murb)
  • Synthesis Of Heterocyclic Compounds
  • Pde4b Inhibitors And Uses Therefor
  • Crystal
  • Crystal Structure Of The N-Terminal Domain Of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme And Uses Thereof
  • Methods And Processes For Non-Invasive Assessment Of Genetic Variations
  • Method Of Changing Conformation Of A Matrix Metalloproteinase
  • Compositions And Uses Thereof
  • Glucoamylase Variants
  • Compounds Modulating C-Fms And/Or C-Kit Activity And Uses Therefor
  • Solid Forms Of A Pharmaceutically Active Substance
  • Compounds And Methods For Kinase Modulation, And Indications Therefor
  • Crystals Of The Tyrosine Kinase Domain Of Non-Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
  • Human Anti Tshr Antibodies
  • Compounds And Methods For Kinase Modulation, And Indications Therefor
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/355472a0

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/355472a0

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048571716

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18481394


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0104", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Statistics", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/01", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Mathematical Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Crystallography, X-Ray", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Models, Statistical", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Molecular Structure", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Scattering, Radiation", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Yale University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.47100.32", 
              "name": [
                "Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven 06511, USA."
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Br\u00fcnger", 
            "givenName": "A T", 
            "id": "sg:person.0740476750.50", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0740476750.50"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/prot.340100407", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004678688"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/prot.340100407", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004678688"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1107/s0365110x65001081", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005994591"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(85)15021-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010091754"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(83)90008-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013127184"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.88.2.622", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016767621"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pc.42.100191.001213", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026536722"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(88)90211-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030633520"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jcc.540040211", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034193440"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/343687a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035234503", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/343687a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.88.7.2773", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039444024"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(85)15018-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040139780"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/266140a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044663807", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/266140a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/266140a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044663807", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/266140a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0003-2670(00)82860-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044800141"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2860(88)80261-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048183858"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.2047852", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062519673"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.235.4787.458", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062533650"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.2396108", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062535515"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.253.5018.390", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062542404"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.3133767", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062593385"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1051/epn/19861701011", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090781678"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "1992-01", 
        "datePublishedReg": "1992-01-01", 
        "description": "The determination of macromolecular structure by crystallography involves fitting atomic models to the observed diffraction data. The traditional measure of the quality of this fit, and presumably the accuracy of the model, is the R value. Despite stereochemical restraints, it is possible to overfit or 'misfit' the diffraction data: an incorrect model can be refined to fairly good R values as several recent examples have shown. Here I propose a reliable and unbiased indicator of the accuracy of such models. By analogy with the cross-validation method of testing statistical models I define a statistical quantity (R(free) (T) that measures the agreement between observed and computed structure factor amplitudes for a 'test' set of reflections that is omitted in the modelling and refinement process. As examples show, there is a high correlation between R(free) (T) and the accuracy of the atomic model phases. This is useful because experimental phase information is usually inaccurate, incomplete or unavailable. I expect that R(free) (T) will provide a measure of the information content of recently proposed models of thermal motion and disorder, time-averaging and bulk solvent.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/355472a0", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1018957", 
            "issn": [
              "0090-0028", 
              "1476-4687"
            ], 
            "name": "Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "6359", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "355"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Free R value: a novel statistical quantity for assessing the accuracy of crystal structures", 
        "pagination": "472-475", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "e7633e55f1412c92826b9fe6011b80b36870abf9fa6c2bf56c932bd75e950bee"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "18481394"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "0410462"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/355472a0"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1048571716"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/355472a0", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048571716"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T12:59", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8659_00000426.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v355/n6359/full/355472a0.html"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/355472a0'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/355472a0'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/355472a0'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/355472a0'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    147 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      53 URIs      25 LITERALS      13 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/355472a0 schema:about N936286fa8a344867b7e5c5c2d01dd005
    2 N9b48e79505294e0baee8f3daaa2aba5c
    3 Nbf2d94f5cc0e41c992d43db05e148a1c
    4 Ndc97ef279edf45cb91ab723d56f755d7
    5 anzsrc-for:01
    6 anzsrc-for:0104
    7 schema:author N8fccc7de828541e1adfb309ccdca3fdd
    8 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1038/266140a0
    9 sg:pub.10.1038/343687a0
    10 https://doi.org/10.1002/jcc.540040211
    11 https://doi.org/10.1002/prot.340100407
    12 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(83)90008-6
    13 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(88)90211-2
    14 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2860(88)80261-8
    15 https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(85)15018-4
    16 https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(85)15021-4
    17 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0003-2670(00)82860-3
    18 https://doi.org/10.1051/epn/19861701011
    19 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.88.2.622
    20 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.88.7.2773
    21 https://doi.org/10.1107/s0365110x65001081
    22 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.2047852
    23 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.235.4787.458
    24 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.2396108
    25 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.253.5018.390
    26 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.3133767
    27 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pc.42.100191.001213
    28 schema:datePublished 1992-01
    29 schema:datePublishedReg 1992-01-01
    30 schema:description The determination of macromolecular structure by crystallography involves fitting atomic models to the observed diffraction data. The traditional measure of the quality of this fit, and presumably the accuracy of the model, is the R value. Despite stereochemical restraints, it is possible to overfit or 'misfit' the diffraction data: an incorrect model can be refined to fairly good R values as several recent examples have shown. Here I propose a reliable and unbiased indicator of the accuracy of such models. By analogy with the cross-validation method of testing statistical models I define a statistical quantity (R(free) (T) that measures the agreement between observed and computed structure factor amplitudes for a 'test' set of reflections that is omitted in the modelling and refinement process. As examples show, there is a high correlation between R(free) (T) and the accuracy of the atomic model phases. This is useful because experimental phase information is usually inaccurate, incomplete or unavailable. I expect that R(free) (T) will provide a measure of the information content of recently proposed models of thermal motion and disorder, time-averaging and bulk solvent.
    31 schema:genre research_article
    32 schema:inLanguage en
    33 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    34 schema:isPartOf N224e572564fd4acd9ddc5957f611c706
    35 Na86a686e83e14cf5a313dd053518ab62
    36 sg:journal.1018957
    37 schema:name Free R value: a novel statistical quantity for assessing the accuracy of crystal structures
    38 schema:pagination 472-475
    39 schema:productId N66c163cb738e4bc9a6cef5d1f5e4a4d7
    40 N6d053cbd35a744e89ed992c9e0950b02
    41 Nbf64802d31c144499ebd5d700ec0f275
    42 Nd0b58ca546de4fcc82a23edfde5f9856
    43 Nd6124717b3cd485e8218fff6a3b106a1
    44 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048571716
    45 https://doi.org/10.1038/355472a0
    46 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T12:59
    47 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    48 schema:sdPublisher N64f1209c71404f9fa11ba1041649e6b8
    49 schema:url http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v355/n6359/full/355472a0.html
    50 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    51 sgo:sdDataset articles
    52 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    53 N224e572564fd4acd9ddc5957f611c706 schema:issueNumber 6359
    54 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    55 N64f1209c71404f9fa11ba1041649e6b8 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    56 rdf:type schema:Organization
    57 N66c163cb738e4bc9a6cef5d1f5e4a4d7 schema:name nlm_unique_id
    58 schema:value 0410462
    59 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    60 N6d053cbd35a744e89ed992c9e0950b02 schema:name dimensions_id
    61 schema:value pub.1048571716
    62 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    63 N8fccc7de828541e1adfb309ccdca3fdd rdf:first sg:person.0740476750.50
    64 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    65 N936286fa8a344867b7e5c5c2d01dd005 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    66 schema:name Scattering, Radiation
    67 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    68 N9b48e79505294e0baee8f3daaa2aba5c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    69 schema:name Models, Statistical
    70 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    71 Na86a686e83e14cf5a313dd053518ab62 schema:volumeNumber 355
    72 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    73 Nbf2d94f5cc0e41c992d43db05e148a1c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    74 schema:name Crystallography, X-Ray
    75 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    76 Nbf64802d31c144499ebd5d700ec0f275 schema:name doi
    77 schema:value 10.1038/355472a0
    78 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    79 Nd0b58ca546de4fcc82a23edfde5f9856 schema:name readcube_id
    80 schema:value e7633e55f1412c92826b9fe6011b80b36870abf9fa6c2bf56c932bd75e950bee
    81 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    82 Nd6124717b3cd485e8218fff6a3b106a1 schema:name pubmed_id
    83 schema:value 18481394
    84 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    85 Ndc97ef279edf45cb91ab723d56f755d7 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    86 schema:name Molecular Structure
    87 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    88 anzsrc-for:01 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    89 schema:name Mathematical Sciences
    90 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    91 anzsrc-for:0104 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    92 schema:name Statistics
    93 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    94 sg:journal.1018957 schema:issn 0090-0028
    95 1476-4687
    96 schema:name Nature
    97 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    98 sg:person.0740476750.50 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.47100.32
    99 schema:familyName Brünger
    100 schema:givenName A T
    101 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0740476750.50
    102 rdf:type schema:Person
    103 sg:pub.10.1038/266140a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044663807
    104 https://doi.org/10.1038/266140a0
    105 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    106 sg:pub.10.1038/343687a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035234503
    107 https://doi.org/10.1038/343687a0
    108 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    109 https://doi.org/10.1002/jcc.540040211 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034193440
    110 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    111 https://doi.org/10.1002/prot.340100407 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004678688
    112 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    113 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(83)90008-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013127184
    114 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    115 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(88)90211-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030633520
    116 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    117 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2860(88)80261-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048183858
    118 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    119 https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(85)15018-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040139780
    120 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    121 https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(85)15021-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010091754
    122 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    123 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0003-2670(00)82860-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044800141
    124 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    125 https://doi.org/10.1051/epn/19861701011 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090781678
    126 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    127 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.88.2.622 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016767621
    128 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    129 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.88.7.2773 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039444024
    130 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    131 https://doi.org/10.1107/s0365110x65001081 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005994591
    132 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    133 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.2047852 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062519673
    134 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    135 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.235.4787.458 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062533650
    136 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    137 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.2396108 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062535515
    138 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    139 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.253.5018.390 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062542404
    140 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    141 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.3133767 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062593385
    142 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    143 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pc.42.100191.001213 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026536722
    144 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    145 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.47100.32 schema:alternateName Yale University
    146 schema:name Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven 06511, USA.
    147 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...