Carrying large fuel loads during sustained bird flight is cheaper than expected View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2001-10

AUTHORS

Anders Kvist, Åke Lindström, Martin Green, Theunis Piersma, G. Henk Visser

ABSTRACT

Birds on migration alternate between consuming fuel stores during flights and accumulating fuel stores during stopovers. The optimal timing and length of flights and stopovers for successful migration depend heavily on the extra metabolic power input (fuel use) required to carry the fuel stores during flight1,2. The effect of large fuel loads on metabolic power input has never been empirically determined. We measured the total metabolic power input of a long-distance migrant, the red knot (Calidris canutus), flying for 6 to 10 h in a wind tunnel, using the doubly labelled water technique3. Here we show that total metabolic power input increased with fuel load, but proportionally less than the predicted mechanical power output from the flight muscles. The most likely explanation is that the efficiency with which metabolic power input is converted into mechanical output by the flight muscles increases with fuel load. This will influence current models of bird flight and bird migration. It may also help to explain why some shorebirds, despite the high metabolic power input required to fly, routinely make nonstop flights of 4,000 km longer4. More... »

PAGES

730-732

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/35099556

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35099556

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000920393

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11607031


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/09", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Engineering", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0906", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Electrical and Electronic Engineering", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Animals", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Birds", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Body Weight", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Energy Metabolism", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Flight, Animal", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Muscle, Skeletal", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, S-22362, Lund, Sweden", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4514.4", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, S-22362, Lund, Sweden"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kvist", 
        "givenName": "Anders", 
        "id": "sg:person.01161441152.01", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01161441152.01"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), PO Box 59, 1790 AB, Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10914.3d", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, S-22362, Lund, Sweden", 
            "Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), PO Box 59, 1790 AB, Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Lindstr\u00f6m", 
        "givenName": "\u00c5ke", 
        "id": "sg:person.0766667211.49", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0766667211.49"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, S-22362, Lund, Sweden", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4514.4", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, S-22362, Lund, Sweden"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Green", 
        "givenName": "Martin", 
        "id": "sg:person.015060341354.92", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015060341354.92"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, PO Box 14, 9750 AA, Haren, The Netherlands", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4830.f", 
          "name": [
            "Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), PO Box 59, 1790 AB, Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands", 
            "Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, PO Box 14, 9750 AA, Haren, The Netherlands"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Piersma", 
        "givenName": "Theunis", 
        "id": "sg:person.01146433326.27", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01146433326.27"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Centre for Isotope Research, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
          "name": [
            "Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, PO Box 14, 9750 AA, Haren, The Netherlands", 
            "Centre for Isotope Research, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Visser", 
        "givenName": "G. Henk", 
        "id": "sg:person.01303535331.16", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01303535331.16"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00264684", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024932013", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00264684"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s003600000112", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032887125", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s003600000112"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-74542-3_22", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026670884", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-74542-3_22"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/385304a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026399648", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/385304a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2001-10", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2001-10-01", 
    "description": "Birds on migration alternate between consuming fuel stores during flights and accumulating fuel stores during stopovers. The optimal timing and length of flights and stopovers for successful migration depend heavily on the extra metabolic power input (fuel use) required to carry the fuel stores during flight1,2. The effect of large fuel loads on metabolic power input has never been empirically determined. We measured the total metabolic power input of a long-distance migrant, the red knot (Calidris canutus), flying for 6 to 10\u2009h in a wind tunnel, using the doubly labelled water technique3. Here we show that total metabolic power input increased with fuel load, but proportionally less than the predicted mechanical power output from the flight muscles. The most likely explanation is that the efficiency with which metabolic power input is converted into mechanical output by the flight muscles increases with fuel load. This will influence current models of bird flight and bird migration. It may also help to explain why some shorebirds, despite the high metabolic power input required to fly, routinely make nonstop flights of 4,000\u2009km longer4.", 
    "genre": "article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/35099556", 
    "inLanguage": "en", 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1018957", 
        "issn": [
          "0028-0836", 
          "1476-4687"
        ], 
        "name": "Nature", 
        "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "6857", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "413"
      }
    ], 
    "keywords": [
      "metabolic power input", 
      "power input", 
      "bird flight", 
      "wind tunnel", 
      "mechanical power output", 
      "fuel loads", 
      "power output", 
      "load", 
      "mechanical output", 
      "flight", 
      "length of flight", 
      "large fuel loads", 
      "input", 
      "tunnel", 
      "output", 
      "efficiency", 
      "current models", 
      "technique3", 
      "model", 
      "length", 
      "increase", 
      "effect", 
      "migration", 
      "knots", 
      "bird migration", 
      "fuel stores", 
      "flight muscles", 
      "timing", 
      "explanation", 
      "stores", 
      "successful migration", 
      "likely explanation", 
      "muscle increases", 
      "muscle", 
      "optimal timing", 
      "stopover", 
      "shorebirds", 
      "birds", 
      "nonstop flights", 
      "red knots", 
      "long-distance migrants", 
      "migrants"
    ], 
    "name": "Carrying large fuel loads during sustained bird flight is cheaper than expected", 
    "pagination": "730-732", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1000920393"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1038/35099556"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "11607031"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1038/35099556", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000920393"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2022-05-10T09:51", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20220509/entities/gbq_results/article/article_333.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://doi.org/10.1038/35099556"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/35099556'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/35099556'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/35099556'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/35099556'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

184 TRIPLES      22 PREDICATES      79 URIs      67 LITERALS      13 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1038/35099556 schema:about N15d7fc4ac46340fea1b01ff414246938
2 N2473b84f96074d5ebb6215356566dbf1
3 N633b7d8a386948e987118abb64133ae8
4 N6a1d148d93384828aa07fb2e54076629
5 N8f795df6e1e6461fb0cadf65c6b240b8
6 Nac8e82a96a9d48d5b4e36283dbf80fc8
7 anzsrc-for:09
8 anzsrc-for:0906
9 schema:author Nc60715d26cea418a8912c7828c5a1446
10 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-74542-3_22
11 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00264684
12 sg:pub.10.1007/s003600000112
13 sg:pub.10.1038/385304a0
14 schema:datePublished 2001-10
15 schema:datePublishedReg 2001-10-01
16 schema:description Birds on migration alternate between consuming fuel stores during flights and accumulating fuel stores during stopovers. The optimal timing and length of flights and stopovers for successful migration depend heavily on the extra metabolic power input (fuel use) required to carry the fuel stores during flight1,2. The effect of large fuel loads on metabolic power input has never been empirically determined. We measured the total metabolic power input of a long-distance migrant, the red knot (Calidris canutus), flying for 6 to 10 h in a wind tunnel, using the doubly labelled water technique3. Here we show that total metabolic power input increased with fuel load, but proportionally less than the predicted mechanical power output from the flight muscles. The most likely explanation is that the efficiency with which metabolic power input is converted into mechanical output by the flight muscles increases with fuel load. This will influence current models of bird flight and bird migration. It may also help to explain why some shorebirds, despite the high metabolic power input required to fly, routinely make nonstop flights of 4,000 km longer4.
17 schema:genre article
18 schema:inLanguage en
19 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
20 schema:isPartOf N3a894d5beecf4aa7b2fccbbfcec4d2f6
21 N7bae436df9144ac7b285a9e0e36c27ff
22 sg:journal.1018957
23 schema:keywords bird flight
24 bird migration
25 birds
26 current models
27 effect
28 efficiency
29 explanation
30 flight
31 flight muscles
32 fuel loads
33 fuel stores
34 increase
35 input
36 knots
37 large fuel loads
38 length
39 length of flight
40 likely explanation
41 load
42 long-distance migrants
43 mechanical output
44 mechanical power output
45 metabolic power input
46 migrants
47 migration
48 model
49 muscle
50 muscle increases
51 nonstop flights
52 optimal timing
53 output
54 power input
55 power output
56 red knots
57 shorebirds
58 stopover
59 stores
60 successful migration
61 technique3
62 timing
63 tunnel
64 wind tunnel
65 schema:name Carrying large fuel loads during sustained bird flight is cheaper than expected
66 schema:pagination 730-732
67 schema:productId N07913b8eb90a4d5e941dc8f3e70991d6
68 N3ee5055a21ea49a9bac2b36efdc97391
69 Nfd6b842c914448dbb5e527ad7c451b58
70 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000920393
71 https://doi.org/10.1038/35099556
72 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-05-10T09:51
73 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
74 schema:sdPublisher N714d0821eef4443ead2c9ed448feee65
75 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1038/35099556
76 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
77 sgo:sdDataset articles
78 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
79 N07913b8eb90a4d5e941dc8f3e70991d6 schema:name doi
80 schema:value 10.1038/35099556
81 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
82 N1229aa908f744457b8d0c1f886ba016b rdf:first sg:person.01146433326.27
83 rdf:rest N52f40509b3754787be873510685c7f0c
84 N15d7fc4ac46340fea1b01ff414246938 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
85 schema:name Birds
86 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
87 N2473b84f96074d5ebb6215356566dbf1 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
88 schema:name Flight, Animal
89 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
90 N3a894d5beecf4aa7b2fccbbfcec4d2f6 schema:volumeNumber 413
91 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
92 N3ee5055a21ea49a9bac2b36efdc97391 schema:name dimensions_id
93 schema:value pub.1000920393
94 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
95 N52f40509b3754787be873510685c7f0c rdf:first sg:person.01303535331.16
96 rdf:rest rdf:nil
97 N633b7d8a386948e987118abb64133ae8 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
98 schema:name Animals
99 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
100 N6a1d148d93384828aa07fb2e54076629 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
101 schema:name Muscle, Skeletal
102 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
103 N714d0821eef4443ead2c9ed448feee65 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
104 rdf:type schema:Organization
105 N7bae436df9144ac7b285a9e0e36c27ff schema:issueNumber 6857
106 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
107 N8e2dc7c714c74242a298d41797d50ffd rdf:first sg:person.015060341354.92
108 rdf:rest N1229aa908f744457b8d0c1f886ba016b
109 N8f795df6e1e6461fb0cadf65c6b240b8 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
110 schema:name Energy Metabolism
111 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
112 Na028384d0d51418aa0c225ebc4eafdbb rdf:first sg:person.0766667211.49
113 rdf:rest N8e2dc7c714c74242a298d41797d50ffd
114 Nac8e82a96a9d48d5b4e36283dbf80fc8 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
115 schema:name Body Weight
116 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
117 Nc60715d26cea418a8912c7828c5a1446 rdf:first sg:person.01161441152.01
118 rdf:rest Na028384d0d51418aa0c225ebc4eafdbb
119 Nfd6b842c914448dbb5e527ad7c451b58 schema:name pubmed_id
120 schema:value 11607031
121 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
122 anzsrc-for:09 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
123 schema:name Engineering
124 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
125 anzsrc-for:0906 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
126 schema:name Electrical and Electronic Engineering
127 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
128 sg:journal.1018957 schema:issn 0028-0836
129 1476-4687
130 schema:name Nature
131 schema:publisher Springer Nature
132 rdf:type schema:Periodical
133 sg:person.01146433326.27 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.4830.f
134 schema:familyName Piersma
135 schema:givenName Theunis
136 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01146433326.27
137 rdf:type schema:Person
138 sg:person.01161441152.01 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.4514.4
139 schema:familyName Kvist
140 schema:givenName Anders
141 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01161441152.01
142 rdf:type schema:Person
143 sg:person.01303535331.16 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
144 schema:familyName Visser
145 schema:givenName G. Henk
146 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01303535331.16
147 rdf:type schema:Person
148 sg:person.015060341354.92 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.4514.4
149 schema:familyName Green
150 schema:givenName Martin
151 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015060341354.92
152 rdf:type schema:Person
153 sg:person.0766667211.49 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.10914.3d
154 schema:familyName Lindström
155 schema:givenName Åke
156 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0766667211.49
157 rdf:type schema:Person
158 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-74542-3_22 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026670884
159 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-74542-3_22
160 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
161 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00264684 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024932013
162 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00264684
163 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
164 sg:pub.10.1007/s003600000112 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032887125
165 https://doi.org/10.1007/s003600000112
166 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
167 sg:pub.10.1038/385304a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026399648
168 https://doi.org/10.1038/385304a0
169 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
170 grid-institutes:None schema:alternateName Centre for Isotope Research, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands
171 schema:name Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, PO Box 14, 9750 AA, Haren, The Netherlands
172 Centre for Isotope Research, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands
173 rdf:type schema:Organization
174 grid-institutes:grid.10914.3d schema:alternateName Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), PO Box 59, 1790 AB, Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands
175 schema:name Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, S-22362, Lund, Sweden
176 Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), PO Box 59, 1790 AB, Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands
177 rdf:type schema:Organization
178 grid-institutes:grid.4514.4 schema:alternateName Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, S-22362, Lund, Sweden
179 schema:name Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, S-22362, Lund, Sweden
180 rdf:type schema:Organization
181 grid-institutes:grid.4830.f schema:alternateName Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, PO Box 14, 9750 AA, Haren, The Netherlands
182 schema:name Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, PO Box 14, 9750 AA, Haren, The Netherlands
183 Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), PO Box 59, 1790 AB, Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands
184 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...