Kondo effect in a single-electron transistor View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

1998-01

AUTHORS

D. Goldhaber-Gordon, Hadas Shtrikman, D. Mahalu, David Abusch-Magder, U. Meirav, M. A. Kastner

ABSTRACT

How localized electrons interact with delocalized electrons is a central question to many problems in sold-state physics1,2,3. The simplest manifestation of this situation is the Kondo effect, which occurs when an impurity atom with an unpaired electron is placed in a metal2. At low temperatures a spin singlet state is formed between the unpaired localized electron and delocalized electrons at the Fermi energy. Theories predict4,5,6,7 that a Kondo singlet should form in a single-electron transistor (SET), which contains a confined ‘droplet’ of electrons coupled by quantum-mechanical tunnelling to the delocalized electrons in the transistor's leads. If this is so, a SET could provide a means of investigating aspects of the Kondo effect under controlled circumstances that are not accessible in conventional systems: the number of electrons can be changed from odd to even, the difference in energy between the localized state and the Fermi level can be tuned, the coupling to the leads can be adjusted, voltage differences can be applied to reveal non-equilibrium Kondo phenomena7, and a single localized state can be studied rather than a statistical distribution. But for SETs fabricated previously, the binding energy of the spin singlet has been too small to observe Kondo phenomena. Ralph and Buhrman8 have observed the Kondo singlet at a single accidental impurity in a metal point contact, but with only two electrodes and without control over the structure they were not able to observe all of the features predicted. Here we report measurements on SETs smaller than those made previously, which exhibit all of the predicted aspects of the Kondo effect in such a system. More... »

PAGES

156-159

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1996-02. Electrons in artificial atoms in NATURE
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/34373

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/34373

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002698314


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/02", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Physical Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0202", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Atomic, Molecular, Nuclear, Particle and Plasma Physics", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Braun Center for Submicron Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot, Israel", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.13992.30", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 02139, Cambridge, Massachussetts, USA", 
                "Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Braun Center for Submicron Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot, Israel"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Goldhaber-Gordon", 
            "givenName": "D.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01077405550.04", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01077405550.04"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Braun Center for Submicron Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot, Israel", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.13992.30", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Braun Center for Submicron Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot, Israel"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Shtrikman", 
            "givenName": "Hadas", 
            "id": "sg:person.01311640117.70", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01311640117.70"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Braun Center for Submicron Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot, Israel", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.13992.30", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Braun Center for Submicron Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot, Israel"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Mahalu", 
            "givenName": "D.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01026312301.06", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01026312301.06"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 02139, Cambridge, Massachussetts, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.116068.8", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 02139, Cambridge, Massachussetts, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Abusch-Magder", 
            "givenName": "David", 
            "id": "sg:person.011532410115.45", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011532410115.45"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Braun Center for Submicron Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot, Israel", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.13992.30", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Braun Center for Submicron Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot, Israel"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Meirav", 
            "givenName": "U.", 
            "id": "sg:person.010065167475.15", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010065167475.15"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 02139, Cambridge, Massachussetts, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.116068.8", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 02139, Cambridge, Massachussetts, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kastner", 
            "givenName": "M. A.", 
            "id": "sg:person.011522436652.55", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011522436652.55"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/379413a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023449542", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/379413a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "1998-01", 
        "datePublishedReg": "1998-01-01", 
        "description": "How localized electrons interact with delocalized electrons is a central question to many problems in sold-state physics1,2,3. The simplest manifestation of this situation is the Kondo effect, which occurs when an impurity atom with an unpaired electron is placed in a metal2. At low temperatures a spin singlet state is formed between the unpaired localized electron and delocalized electrons at the Fermi energy. Theories predict4,5,6,7 that a Kondo singlet should form in a single-electron transistor (SET), which contains a confined \u2018droplet\u2019 of electrons coupled by quantum-mechanical tunnelling to the delocalized electrons in the transistor's leads. If this is so, a SET could provide a means of investigating aspects of the Kondo effect under controlled circumstances that are not accessible in conventional systems: the number of electrons can be changed from odd to even, the difference in energy between the localized state and the Fermi level can be tuned, the coupling to the leads can be adjusted, voltage differences can be applied to reveal non-equilibrium Kondo phenomena7, and a single localized state can be studied rather than a statistical distribution. But for SETs fabricated previously, the binding energy of the spin singlet has been too small to observe Kondo phenomena. Ralph and Buhrman8 have observed the Kondo singlet at a single accidental impurity in a metal point contact, but with only two electrodes and without control over the structure they were not able to observe all of the features predicted. Here we report measurements on SETs smaller than those made previously, which exhibit all of the predicted aspects of the Kondo effect in such a system.", 
        "genre": "article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/34373", 
        "inLanguage": "en", 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1018957", 
            "issn": [
              "0028-0836", 
              "1476-4687"
            ], 
            "name": "Nature", 
            "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "6663", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "391"
          }
        ], 
        "keywords": [
          "single-electron transistor", 
          "Kondo effect", 
          "Kondo singlet", 
          "delocalized electrons", 
          "spin-singlet state", 
          "quantum mechanical tunneling", 
          "number of electrons", 
          "metal point contact", 
          "Fermi energy", 
          "localized electrons", 
          "spin singlet", 
          "Fermi level", 
          "localized states", 
          "electrons", 
          "singlet state", 
          "Kondo phenomena", 
          "impurity atoms", 
          "statistical distribution", 
          "point contact", 
          "unpaired electron", 
          "singlet", 
          "energy", 
          "low temperature", 
          "simple manifestation", 
          "accidental impurities", 
          "transistors", 
          "voltage difference", 
          "tunneling", 
          "atoms", 
          "state", 
          "coupling", 
          "impurities", 
          "metal2", 
          "theory", 
          "measurements", 
          "Confined", 
          "problem", 
          "system", 
          "temperature", 
          "phenomenon", 
          "lead", 
          "structure", 
          "distribution", 
          "effect", 
          "conventional system", 
          "electrode", 
          "number", 
          "means", 
          "droplets", 
          "control", 
          "situation", 
          "aspects", 
          "central question", 
          "features", 
          "Ralph", 
          "contact", 
          "questions", 
          "circumstances", 
          "differences", 
          "levels", 
          "manifestations", 
          "transistor's leads", 
          "non-equilibrium Kondo phenomena7", 
          "Kondo phenomena7", 
          "phenomena7", 
          "single localized state", 
          "Buhrman8", 
          "single accidental impurity"
        ], 
        "name": "Kondo effect in a single-electron transistor", 
        "pagination": "156-159", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1002698314"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/34373"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/34373", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002698314"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2022-01-01T18:07", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20220101/entities/gbq_results/article/article_274.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://doi.org/10.1038/34373"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/34373'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/34373'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/34373'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/34373'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    169 TRIPLES      22 PREDICATES      95 URIs      86 LITERALS      6 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/34373 schema:about anzsrc-for:02
    2 anzsrc-for:0202
    3 schema:author N16dbad178baf4980bfeb7bef09c3b7aa
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1038/379413a0
    5 schema:datePublished 1998-01
    6 schema:datePublishedReg 1998-01-01
    7 schema:description How localized electrons interact with delocalized electrons is a central question to many problems in sold-state physics1,2,3. The simplest manifestation of this situation is the Kondo effect, which occurs when an impurity atom with an unpaired electron is placed in a metal2. At low temperatures a spin singlet state is formed between the unpaired localized electron and delocalized electrons at the Fermi energy. Theories predict4,5,6,7 that a Kondo singlet should form in a single-electron transistor (SET), which contains a confined ‘droplet’ of electrons coupled by quantum-mechanical tunnelling to the delocalized electrons in the transistor's leads. If this is so, a SET could provide a means of investigating aspects of the Kondo effect under controlled circumstances that are not accessible in conventional systems: the number of electrons can be changed from odd to even, the difference in energy between the localized state and the Fermi level can be tuned, the coupling to the leads can be adjusted, voltage differences can be applied to reveal non-equilibrium Kondo phenomena7, and a single localized state can be studied rather than a statistical distribution. But for SETs fabricated previously, the binding energy of the spin singlet has been too small to observe Kondo phenomena. Ralph and Buhrman8 have observed the Kondo singlet at a single accidental impurity in a metal point contact, but with only two electrodes and without control over the structure they were not able to observe all of the features predicted. Here we report measurements on SETs smaller than those made previously, which exhibit all of the predicted aspects of the Kondo effect in such a system.
    8 schema:genre article
    9 schema:inLanguage en
    10 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    11 schema:isPartOf N7e6671d51deb40629be71cb11a1aaa01
    12 Nc3368cb3f90c4c2e968c0378b12880a7
    13 sg:journal.1018957
    14 schema:keywords Buhrman8
    15 Confined
    16 Fermi energy
    17 Fermi level
    18 Kondo effect
    19 Kondo phenomena
    20 Kondo phenomena7
    21 Kondo singlet
    22 Ralph
    23 accidental impurities
    24 aspects
    25 atoms
    26 central question
    27 circumstances
    28 contact
    29 control
    30 conventional system
    31 coupling
    32 delocalized electrons
    33 differences
    34 distribution
    35 droplets
    36 effect
    37 electrode
    38 electrons
    39 energy
    40 features
    41 impurities
    42 impurity atoms
    43 lead
    44 levels
    45 localized electrons
    46 localized states
    47 low temperature
    48 manifestations
    49 means
    50 measurements
    51 metal point contact
    52 metal2
    53 non-equilibrium Kondo phenomena7
    54 number
    55 number of electrons
    56 phenomena7
    57 phenomenon
    58 point contact
    59 problem
    60 quantum mechanical tunneling
    61 questions
    62 simple manifestation
    63 single accidental impurity
    64 single localized state
    65 single-electron transistor
    66 singlet
    67 singlet state
    68 situation
    69 spin singlet
    70 spin-singlet state
    71 state
    72 statistical distribution
    73 structure
    74 system
    75 temperature
    76 theory
    77 transistor's leads
    78 transistors
    79 tunneling
    80 unpaired electron
    81 voltage difference
    82 schema:name Kondo effect in a single-electron transistor
    83 schema:pagination 156-159
    84 schema:productId Nbcca32122ac64fe1b6e59e9b71053427
    85 Nd33f44288fd644bfa7b6223c24cedf41
    86 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002698314
    87 https://doi.org/10.1038/34373
    88 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-01-01T18:07
    89 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    90 schema:sdPublisher N044a6e9969ac4cb2a418d9e092e133b0
    91 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1038/34373
    92 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    93 sgo:sdDataset articles
    94 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    95 N044a6e9969ac4cb2a418d9e092e133b0 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    96 rdf:type schema:Organization
    97 N16dbad178baf4980bfeb7bef09c3b7aa rdf:first sg:person.01077405550.04
    98 rdf:rest Nc9122a2b0a0149a4a7b984bd638849e3
    99 N6c68e0b3f8dd4fabad868b8edae39b15 rdf:first sg:person.010065167475.15
    100 rdf:rest N92ddb5ebd07b43cdafc8d320b8ee4249
    101 N7e6671d51deb40629be71cb11a1aaa01 schema:issueNumber 6663
    102 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    103 N92ddb5ebd07b43cdafc8d320b8ee4249 rdf:first sg:person.011522436652.55
    104 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    105 Nb66ca19fd2574accacbff048d06cd58a rdf:first sg:person.01026312301.06
    106 rdf:rest Ndae42fba968c42c4a828a175cfcb6557
    107 Nbcca32122ac64fe1b6e59e9b71053427 schema:name doi
    108 schema:value 10.1038/34373
    109 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    110 Nc3368cb3f90c4c2e968c0378b12880a7 schema:volumeNumber 391
    111 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    112 Nc9122a2b0a0149a4a7b984bd638849e3 rdf:first sg:person.01311640117.70
    113 rdf:rest Nb66ca19fd2574accacbff048d06cd58a
    114 Nd33f44288fd644bfa7b6223c24cedf41 schema:name dimensions_id
    115 schema:value pub.1002698314
    116 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    117 Ndae42fba968c42c4a828a175cfcb6557 rdf:first sg:person.011532410115.45
    118 rdf:rest N6c68e0b3f8dd4fabad868b8edae39b15
    119 anzsrc-for:02 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    120 schema:name Physical Sciences
    121 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    122 anzsrc-for:0202 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    123 schema:name Atomic, Molecular, Nuclear, Particle and Plasma Physics
    124 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    125 sg:journal.1018957 schema:issn 0028-0836
    126 1476-4687
    127 schema:name Nature
    128 schema:publisher Springer Nature
    129 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    130 sg:person.010065167475.15 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.13992.30
    131 schema:familyName Meirav
    132 schema:givenName U.
    133 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010065167475.15
    134 rdf:type schema:Person
    135 sg:person.01026312301.06 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.13992.30
    136 schema:familyName Mahalu
    137 schema:givenName D.
    138 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01026312301.06
    139 rdf:type schema:Person
    140 sg:person.01077405550.04 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.13992.30
    141 schema:familyName Goldhaber-Gordon
    142 schema:givenName D.
    143 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01077405550.04
    144 rdf:type schema:Person
    145 sg:person.011522436652.55 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.116068.8
    146 schema:familyName Kastner
    147 schema:givenName M. A.
    148 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011522436652.55
    149 rdf:type schema:Person
    150 sg:person.011532410115.45 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.116068.8
    151 schema:familyName Abusch-Magder
    152 schema:givenName David
    153 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011532410115.45
    154 rdf:type schema:Person
    155 sg:person.01311640117.70 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.13992.30
    156 schema:familyName Shtrikman
    157 schema:givenName Hadas
    158 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01311640117.70
    159 rdf:type schema:Person
    160 sg:pub.10.1038/379413a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023449542
    161 https://doi.org/10.1038/379413a0
    162 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    163 grid-institutes:grid.116068.8 schema:alternateName Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 02139, Cambridge, Massachussetts, USA
    164 schema:name Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 02139, Cambridge, Massachussetts, USA
    165 rdf:type schema:Organization
    166 grid-institutes:grid.13992.30 schema:alternateName Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Braun Center for Submicron Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot, Israel
    167 schema:name Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Braun Center for Submicron Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot, Israel
    168 Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 02139, Cambridge, Massachussetts, USA
    169 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...