Biosynthesis of the reverse transcriptase of hepatitis B viruses involves de novo translational initiation not ribosomal frameshifting View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1989-01

AUTHORS

Lung-Ji Chang, Peter Pryciak, Don Ganem, Harold E. Varmus

ABSTRACT

Retroviruses and many other types of genetic elements replicate by reverse transcription of RNA (for reviews, see refs 1 and 2). Although structurally and biologically very diverse, such elements carry conserved polymerase genes (pol) that encode proteins required for reverse transcription3. In most cases, the pol gene is preceded by an overlapping gene encoding one or more nucleocapsid proteins4, in a different reading frame. Because both coding regions are represented in a single mRNA, the question arises of how the reverse transcriptase in the alternative reading frame is expressed. In retroviruses and retrotransposons it is expressed as a nucleocapsid-polymerase fusion protein by ribosomal frameshift-ing during translation of the overlapping region5–8. We have examined the mechanism of polymerase biosynthesis in another family of animal viruses that use reverse transcription, the hepatitis B viruses. Genetic and biochemical studies reveal that these viruses do not use ribosomal frameshifting to generate this enzyme, but instead direct translation initiation at an internal initiation (AUG) codon in the polymerase gene. More... »

PAGES

364-368

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/337364a0

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/337364a0

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035604737

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2463489


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Biological Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0604", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Genetics", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1108", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical Microbiology", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Animals", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Cells, Cultured", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Ducks", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Genes", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Genes, Viral", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Hepatitis B virus", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Liver", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Mutation", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Ribosomes", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California Medical Center, 94143, San Francisco, California, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.413077.6", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California Medical Center, 94143, San Francisco, California, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Chang", 
        "givenName": "Lung-Ji", 
        "id": "sg:person.015103666527.41", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015103666527.41"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California Medical Center, 94143, San Francisco, California, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.413077.6", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California Medical Center, 94143, San Francisco, California, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Pryciak", 
        "givenName": "Peter", 
        "id": "sg:person.01010452771.00", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01010452771.00"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Medicine, University of California Medical Center, 94143, San Francisco, California, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.413077.6", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Medicine, University of California Medical Center, 94143, San Francisco, California, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Ganem", 
        "givenName": "Don", 
        "id": "sg:person.01236443337.37", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01236443337.37"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California Medical Center, 94143, San Francisco, California, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.413077.6", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California Medical Center, 94143, San Francisco, California, USA", 
            "Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California Medical Center, 94143, San Francisco, California, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Varmus", 
        "givenName": "Harold E.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01341456311.48", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01341456311.48"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/299740a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013959147", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/299740a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/282615a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041826779", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/282615a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/334320a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014592155", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/334320a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/331280a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046403732", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/331280a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/305827a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037831401", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/305827a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/scientificamerican0987-56", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056600862", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0987-56"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/314583a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028048732", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/314583a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "1989-01", 
    "datePublishedReg": "1989-01-01", 
    "description": "Retroviruses and many other types of genetic elements replicate by reverse transcription of RNA (for reviews, see refs 1 and 2). Although structurally and biologically very diverse, such elements carry conserved polymerase genes (pol) that encode proteins required for reverse transcription3. In most cases, the pol gene is preceded by an overlapping gene encoding one or more nucleocapsid proteins4, in a different reading frame. Because both coding regions are represented in a single mRNA, the question arises of how the reverse transcriptase in the alternative reading frame is expressed. In retroviruses and retrotransposons it is expressed as a nucleocapsid-polymerase fusion protein by ribosomal frameshift-ing during translation of the overlapping region5\u20138. We have examined the mechanism of polymerase biosynthesis in another family of animal viruses that use reverse transcription, the hepatitis B viruses. Genetic and biochemical studies reveal that these viruses do not use ribosomal frameshifting to generate this enzyme, but instead direct translation initiation at an internal initiation (AUG) codon in the polymerase gene.", 
    "genre": "article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/337364a0", 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1018957", 
        "issn": [
          "0028-0836", 
          "1476-4687"
        ], 
        "name": "Nature", 
        "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "6205", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "337"
      }
    ], 
    "keywords": [
      "reading frame", 
      "direct translation initiation", 
      "polymerase gene", 
      "different reading frames", 
      "internal initiation codon", 
      "alternative reading frame", 
      "reverse transcription", 
      "reverse transcriptase", 
      "translation initiation", 
      "single mRNA", 
      "translational initiation", 
      "initiation codon", 
      "genetic elements", 
      "ribosomal frameshifting", 
      "animal viruses", 
      "fusion protein", 
      "genes", 
      "biochemical studies", 
      "transcription", 
      "biosynthesis", 
      "protein", 
      "pol gene", 
      "retroviruses", 
      "retrotransposons", 
      "transcriptase", 
      "proteins4", 
      "virus", 
      "codon", 
      "frameshifting", 
      "transcription3", 
      "RNA", 
      "enzyme", 
      "mRNA", 
      "initiation", 
      "family", 
      "such elements", 
      "translation", 
      "frame", 
      "mechanism", 
      "region", 
      "elements", 
      "B virus", 
      "most cases", 
      "hepatitis B virus", 
      "types", 
      "study", 
      "questions", 
      "cases"
    ], 
    "name": "Biosynthesis of the reverse transcriptase of hepatitis B viruses involves de novo translational initiation not ribosomal frameshifting", 
    "pagination": "364-368", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1035604737"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1038/337364a0"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "2463489"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1038/337364a0", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035604737"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2022-12-01T06:19", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20221201/entities/gbq_results/article/article_184.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://doi.org/10.1038/337364a0"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/337364a0'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/337364a0'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/337364a0'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/337364a0'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

214 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      94 URIs      77 LITERALS      18 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1038/337364a0 schema:about N294a2dfee41845adb6ae505e406e7939
2 N370beb519ee246a291fb2ed111f5cba7
3 N41d4bc638b744622be76776be53a9709
4 N48386f64b7c044d9a415ca6b434169ef
5 N490324a01bf948dea38043b3a805ab8d
6 N5d2bbc5002874e9483a4a89f4dd34cc7
7 N97c3ebd6df2140b8b14edc3d5a6ee6a3
8 Naf0aba0f43044a2b842277d6074c2bde
9 Ne1ed84ad779f4a68bd97388aa4cc7cc9
10 Nef14a580d37f4f38a9ef38cf509c387e
11 Nf163d3e45e8943d6be40b2b07f765162
12 anzsrc-for:06
13 anzsrc-for:0604
14 anzsrc-for:11
15 anzsrc-for:1108
16 schema:author N21bfb547846c4d20b4ad728a69ef56e5
17 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1038/282615a0
18 sg:pub.10.1038/299740a0
19 sg:pub.10.1038/305827a0
20 sg:pub.10.1038/314583a0
21 sg:pub.10.1038/331280a0
22 sg:pub.10.1038/334320a0
23 sg:pub.10.1038/scientificamerican0987-56
24 schema:datePublished 1989-01
25 schema:datePublishedReg 1989-01-01
26 schema:description Retroviruses and many other types of genetic elements replicate by reverse transcription of RNA (for reviews, see refs 1 and 2). Although structurally and biologically very diverse, such elements carry conserved polymerase genes (pol) that encode proteins required for reverse transcription3. In most cases, the pol gene is preceded by an overlapping gene encoding one or more nucleocapsid proteins4, in a different reading frame. Because both coding regions are represented in a single mRNA, the question arises of how the reverse transcriptase in the alternative reading frame is expressed. In retroviruses and retrotransposons it is expressed as a nucleocapsid-polymerase fusion protein by ribosomal frameshift-ing during translation of the overlapping region5–8. We have examined the mechanism of polymerase biosynthesis in another family of animal viruses that use reverse transcription, the hepatitis B viruses. Genetic and biochemical studies reveal that these viruses do not use ribosomal frameshifting to generate this enzyme, but instead direct translation initiation at an internal initiation (AUG) codon in the polymerase gene.
27 schema:genre article
28 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
29 schema:isPartOf N1f4fe804764147fbb82579a8b0be786f
30 Nd881180514134aa7b649cd87eb1aaf8d
31 sg:journal.1018957
32 schema:keywords B virus
33 RNA
34 alternative reading frame
35 animal viruses
36 biochemical studies
37 biosynthesis
38 cases
39 codon
40 different reading frames
41 direct translation initiation
42 elements
43 enzyme
44 family
45 frame
46 frameshifting
47 fusion protein
48 genes
49 genetic elements
50 hepatitis B virus
51 initiation
52 initiation codon
53 internal initiation codon
54 mRNA
55 mechanism
56 most cases
57 pol gene
58 polymerase gene
59 protein
60 proteins4
61 questions
62 reading frame
63 region
64 retrotransposons
65 retroviruses
66 reverse transcriptase
67 reverse transcription
68 ribosomal frameshifting
69 single mRNA
70 study
71 such elements
72 transcriptase
73 transcription
74 transcription3
75 translation
76 translation initiation
77 translational initiation
78 types
79 virus
80 schema:name Biosynthesis of the reverse transcriptase of hepatitis B viruses involves de novo translational initiation not ribosomal frameshifting
81 schema:pagination 364-368
82 schema:productId N0e73a58a713c4040a3c74aac84d7f4c1
83 N56e90f82dc8241d6b514cec1b5f5ccd3
84 N66e83007e88e415bbfea7a685d618b3a
85 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035604737
86 https://doi.org/10.1038/337364a0
87 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-12-01T06:19
88 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
89 schema:sdPublisher N0f08255c509e4923998240f758ab88ca
90 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1038/337364a0
91 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
92 sgo:sdDataset articles
93 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
94 N0b41bc13e656490dba06c2810dde7951 rdf:first sg:person.01236443337.37
95 rdf:rest Nd725cac6140e4b7389f07b07e78cd148
96 N0e73a58a713c4040a3c74aac84d7f4c1 schema:name doi
97 schema:value 10.1038/337364a0
98 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
99 N0f08255c509e4923998240f758ab88ca schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
100 rdf:type schema:Organization
101 N1f4fe804764147fbb82579a8b0be786f schema:volumeNumber 337
102 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
103 N21bfb547846c4d20b4ad728a69ef56e5 rdf:first sg:person.015103666527.41
104 rdf:rest Ndaba545caf174c4ca4afa2b41d94277b
105 N294a2dfee41845adb6ae505e406e7939 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
106 schema:name Ribosomes
107 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
108 N370beb519ee246a291fb2ed111f5cba7 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
109 schema:name Cells, Cultured
110 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
111 N41d4bc638b744622be76776be53a9709 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
112 schema:name Liver
113 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
114 N48386f64b7c044d9a415ca6b434169ef schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
115 schema:name Animals
116 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
117 N490324a01bf948dea38043b3a805ab8d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
118 schema:name Hepatitis B virus
119 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
120 N56e90f82dc8241d6b514cec1b5f5ccd3 schema:name dimensions_id
121 schema:value pub.1035604737
122 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
123 N5d2bbc5002874e9483a4a89f4dd34cc7 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
124 schema:name Genes, Viral
125 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
126 N66e83007e88e415bbfea7a685d618b3a schema:name pubmed_id
127 schema:value 2463489
128 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
129 N97c3ebd6df2140b8b14edc3d5a6ee6a3 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
130 schema:name RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
131 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
132 Naf0aba0f43044a2b842277d6074c2bde schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
133 schema:name Mutation
134 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
135 Nd725cac6140e4b7389f07b07e78cd148 rdf:first sg:person.01341456311.48
136 rdf:rest rdf:nil
137 Nd881180514134aa7b649cd87eb1aaf8d schema:issueNumber 6205
138 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
139 Ndaba545caf174c4ca4afa2b41d94277b rdf:first sg:person.01010452771.00
140 rdf:rest N0b41bc13e656490dba06c2810dde7951
141 Ne1ed84ad779f4a68bd97388aa4cc7cc9 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
142 schema:name Genes
143 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
144 Nef14a580d37f4f38a9ef38cf509c387e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
145 schema:name Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational
146 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
147 Nf163d3e45e8943d6be40b2b07f765162 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
148 schema:name Ducks
149 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
150 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
151 schema:name Biological Sciences
152 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
153 anzsrc-for:0604 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
154 schema:name Genetics
155 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
156 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
157 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
158 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
159 anzsrc-for:1108 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
160 schema:name Medical Microbiology
161 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
162 sg:journal.1018957 schema:issn 0028-0836
163 1476-4687
164 schema:name Nature
165 schema:publisher Springer Nature
166 rdf:type schema:Periodical
167 sg:person.01010452771.00 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.413077.6
168 schema:familyName Pryciak
169 schema:givenName Peter
170 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01010452771.00
171 rdf:type schema:Person
172 sg:person.01236443337.37 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.413077.6
173 schema:familyName Ganem
174 schema:givenName Don
175 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01236443337.37
176 rdf:type schema:Person
177 sg:person.01341456311.48 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.413077.6
178 schema:familyName Varmus
179 schema:givenName Harold E.
180 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01341456311.48
181 rdf:type schema:Person
182 sg:person.015103666527.41 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.413077.6
183 schema:familyName Chang
184 schema:givenName Lung-Ji
185 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015103666527.41
186 rdf:type schema:Person
187 sg:pub.10.1038/282615a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041826779
188 https://doi.org/10.1038/282615a0
189 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
190 sg:pub.10.1038/299740a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013959147
191 https://doi.org/10.1038/299740a0
192 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
193 sg:pub.10.1038/305827a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037831401
194 https://doi.org/10.1038/305827a0
195 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
196 sg:pub.10.1038/314583a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028048732
197 https://doi.org/10.1038/314583a0
198 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
199 sg:pub.10.1038/331280a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046403732
200 https://doi.org/10.1038/331280a0
201 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
202 sg:pub.10.1038/334320a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014592155
203 https://doi.org/10.1038/334320a0
204 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
205 sg:pub.10.1038/scientificamerican0987-56 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056600862
206 https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0987-56
207 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
208 grid-institutes:grid.413077.6 schema:alternateName Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California Medical Center, 94143, San Francisco, California, USA
209 Department of Medicine, University of California Medical Center, 94143, San Francisco, California, USA
210 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California Medical Center, 94143, San Francisco, California, USA
211 schema:name Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California Medical Center, 94143, San Francisco, California, USA
212 Department of Medicine, University of California Medical Center, 94143, San Francisco, California, USA
213 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California Medical Center, 94143, San Francisco, California, USA
214 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...