C60: Buckminsterfullerene View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1985-11

AUTHORS

H. W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. O'Brien, R. F. Curl, R. E. Smalley

ABSTRACT

During experiments aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which long-chain carbon molecules are formed in interstellar space and circumstellar shells1, graphite has been vaporized by laser irradiation, producing a remarkably stable cluster consisting of 60 carbon atoms. Concerning the question of what kind of 60-carbon atom structure might give rise to a superstable species, we suggest a truncated icosahedron, a polygon with 60 vertices and 32 faces, 12 of which are pentagonal and 20 hexagonal. This object is commonly encountered as the football shown in Fig. 1. The C60 molecule which results when a carbon atom is placed at each vertex of this structure has all valences satisfied by two single bonds and one double bond, has many resonance structures, and appears to be aromatic. More... »

PAGES

162-163

Journal

TITLE

Nature

ISSUE

6042

VOLUME

318

Related Patents

  • Gas Sensor, Gas Measuring System Using The Gas Sensor, And Gas Detection Module For The Gas Sensor
  • Solid Metal-Carbon Matrix Of Metallofullerites And Method Of Forming Same
  • Systems And Methods For Formation And Harvesting Of Nanofibrous Materials
  • Sulfur-Containing Fullerene Derivatives And Method For Producing Said Derivatives
  • Method For Constructing A Carbon Molecule And Structures Of Carbon Molecules
  • Systems And Methods For Formation And Harvesting Of Nanofibrous Materials
  • Proton Conductor, Production Method Thereof, And Electrochemical Device Using The Same
  • Preparation Of Fullerenes And Apparatus Therefor
  • Nanostructured Titanium Oxide Material And Its Synthesis Procedure
  • Convex Equilateral Polyhedra With Polyhedral Symmetry
  • Form Of Carbon
  • Mass Spectrometry Probes And Systems For Ionizing A Sample Transport
  • Synthetic Carbon Allotropes: Graphite Intercalated With Buckminsterfullerenes
  • Method For Producing Large-Diameter 3d Carbon Nano-Onion Structures At Room Temperature
  • Injector Apparatus And Methods For Production Of Nanostructures
  • Carbon Material And Method Of Preparing The Same
  • Passive Hit Locator System Comprising Carbon Nanotube Arrays
  • Ionic Conductor, Process For Production Thereof, And Electrochemical Device
  • Proton Conductor, Process For Producing The Same, And Electrochemical Device
  • Proton Conductor, Production Method Thereof, And Electrochemical Device Using The Same
  • Carbon Nanostructures Encapsulating Palladium
  • Purification Of Fullerenes
  • Process For Fullerene Functionalization
  • Method Of Preparing Carbon Cluster Film Having Electrical Conductivity
  • Carbon Material And Method Of Preparing The Same
  • Method Of Containing Radiation Using Fullerene Molecules
  • Process For Preparing Boron Carbon Nanorods
  • Systems And Methods For Synthesis Of Extended Length Nanostructures
  • Fuel Removal System For Hydrogen Implanted In A Nanostructure Material
  • Selective Adsorbent Material And Its Use
  • Systems And Methods For Formation And Harvesting Of Nanofibrous Materials
  • Electrochemical Hydrogen Flow Rate Control System
  • Nanostructured Titanium Oxide Material And Its Synthesis Procedure
  • Functionalized Carbon Materials
  • Form Of Carbon
  • Phototransformation Of Fullerenes
  • Nanostructured Titanium Oxide Material And Its Synthesis Procedure
  • Nanotube Materials For Thermal Management Of Electronic Components
  • Proton Conductor, Production Method Thereof, And Electrochemical Device Using The Same
  • Proton Conductor Film, Manufacturing Method Therefor, Fuel Cell Provided With Proton Conductor Film And Manufacturing Method Therefor
  • Methods For Preparing Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composites Using Free Radical Precursors
  • Ionic Conductor, Process For Production Thereof, And Electrochemical Device
  • Cvd Method Of Producing And Doping Fullerenes
  • Systems And Methods For Controlling Chirality Of Nanotubes
  • Hollow Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles As Solid Lubricants In Composite Metal Matrices
  • Magnetic Recording Medium Comprising A Solid Lubrication Layer Of Fullerene Carbon Having An Alkyl Or Allyl Chain
  • Solubility Of Therapeutic Agents
  • Proton Conductor, Production Method Thereof, And Electrochemical Device Using The Same
  • Process For Purifying Fullerenes
  • Electrically And Thermally Non-Metallic Conductive Nanostructure-Based Adapters
  • Systems And Methods For Making Structures Defined By Cnt Pulp Networks
  • Fiber Photovoltaic Devices And Methods For Production Thereof
  • Laser-Induced Graphene Scrolls (Ligs) Materials
  • Method Of Producing Diamond Crystals From Metallfullerite Matrix And Resulting Product
  • Chemically-Assisted Alignment Of Nanotubes Within Extensible Structures
  • Exfoliating-Dispersing Agents For Nanotubes, Bundles And Fibers
  • Antibodies Specific For Fullerenes
  • Precursor Soot Synthesis Of Fullerenes And Nanotubes Without Formation Of Carbonaceous Soot
  • Method For Decomposing Carbon-Containing Compound, Method For Producing Carbon Microstructure, And Method For Forming Carbon Thin Film
  • Nanostructure-Based Heating Devices And Methods Of Use
  • Nanostructured Antennas And Methods Of Manufacturing Same
  • Preparation Of Fullerenes And Apparatus Therefor
  • Continuous Growth Of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Using Chemical Vapor Deposition
  • Separation Of Fullerene C60 And C70 Using Crystallization
  • Carbon Cluster Film Having Electrical Conductivity And Method Of Preparing The Same
  • Cvd Synthesis Of Carbon Nanotubes
  • Form Of Carbon
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/318162a0

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/318162a0

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024648559


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/02", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Physical Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0202", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Atomic, Molecular, Nuclear, Particle and Plasma Physics", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "School of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, University of Sussex, BN1 9QJ, Brighton, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.12082.39", 
              "name": [
                "Rice Quantum Institute and Departments of Chemistry and Electrical Engineering, Rice University, 77251, Houston, Texas, USA", 
                "School of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, University of Sussex, BN1 9QJ, Brighton, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kroto", 
            "givenName": "H. W.", 
            "id": "sg:person.012464464623.77", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012464464623.77"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Rice Quantum Institute and Departments of Chemistry and Electrical Engineering, Rice University, 77251, Houston, Texas, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21940.3e", 
              "name": [
                "Rice Quantum Institute and Departments of Chemistry and Electrical Engineering, Rice University, 77251, Houston, Texas, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Heath", 
            "givenName": "J. R.", 
            "id": "sg:person.0706422465.00", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0706422465.00"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Rice Quantum Institute and Departments of Chemistry and Electrical Engineering, Rice University, 77251, Houston, Texas, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21940.3e", 
              "name": [
                "Rice Quantum Institute and Departments of Chemistry and Electrical Engineering, Rice University, 77251, Houston, Texas, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "O'Brien", 
            "givenName": "S. C.", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Rice Quantum Institute and Departments of Chemistry and Electrical Engineering, Rice University, 77251, Houston, Texas, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21940.3e", 
              "name": [
                "Rice Quantum Institute and Departments of Chemistry and Electrical Engineering, Rice University, 77251, Houston, Texas, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Curl", 
            "givenName": "R. F.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01220465424.76", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01220465424.76"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Rice Quantum Institute and Departments of Chemistry and Electrical Engineering, Rice University, 77251, Houston, Texas, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21940.3e", 
              "name": [
                "Rice Quantum Institute and Departments of Chemistry and Electrical Engineering, Rice University, 77251, Houston, Texas, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Smalley", 
            "givenName": "R. E.", 
            "id": "sg:person.0603211336.18", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0603211336.18"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "1985-11", 
        "datePublishedReg": "1985-11-01", 
        "description": "During experiments aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which long-chain carbon molecules are formed in interstellar space and circumstellar shells1, graphite has been vaporized by laser irradiation, producing a remarkably stable cluster consisting of 60 carbon atoms. Concerning the question of what kind of 60-carbon atom structure might give rise to a superstable species, we suggest a truncated icosahedron, a polygon with 60 vertices and 32 faces, 12 of which are pentagonal and 20 hexagonal. This object is commonly encountered as the football shown in Fig. 1. The C60 molecule which results when a carbon atom is placed at each vertex of this structure has all valences satisfied by two single bonds and one double bond, has many resonance structures, and appears to be aromatic.", 
        "genre": "article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/318162a0", 
        "inLanguage": "en", 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1018957", 
            "issn": [
              "0028-0836", 
              "1476-4687"
            ], 
            "name": "Nature", 
            "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "6042", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "318"
          }
        ], 
        "keywords": [
          "interstellar space", 
          "atom structure", 
          "vertices", 
          "stable clusters", 
          "carbon molecules", 
          "resonance structure", 
          "atoms", 
          "carbon atoms", 
          "space", 
          "Fig. 1", 
          "polygons", 
          "structure", 
          "icosahedron", 
          "objects", 
          "C60 molecules", 
          "clusters", 
          "buckminsterfullerene", 
          "kind", 
          "laser irradiation", 
          "experiments", 
          "graphite", 
          "long chain carbon molecules", 
          "valence", 
          "questions", 
          "single bond", 
          "irradiation", 
          "molecules", 
          "bonds", 
          "face", 
          "mechanism", 
          "double bond", 
          "football", 
          "species"
        ], 
        "name": "C60: Buckminsterfullerene", 
        "pagination": "162-163", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1024648559"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/318162a0"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/318162a0", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024648559"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2022-05-10T09:43", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20220509/entities/gbq_results/article/article_187.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://doi.org/10.1038/318162a0"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/318162a0'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/318162a0'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/318162a0'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/318162a0'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    122 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      59 URIs      51 LITERALS      6 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/318162a0 schema:about anzsrc-for:02
    2 anzsrc-for:0202
    3 schema:author N543b3c510227449b911fc77411af9af3
    4 schema:datePublished 1985-11
    5 schema:datePublishedReg 1985-11-01
    6 schema:description During experiments aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which long-chain carbon molecules are formed in interstellar space and circumstellar shells1, graphite has been vaporized by laser irradiation, producing a remarkably stable cluster consisting of 60 carbon atoms. Concerning the question of what kind of 60-carbon atom structure might give rise to a superstable species, we suggest a truncated icosahedron, a polygon with 60 vertices and 32 faces, 12 of which are pentagonal and 20 hexagonal. This object is commonly encountered as the football shown in Fig. 1. The C60 molecule which results when a carbon atom is placed at each vertex of this structure has all valences satisfied by two single bonds and one double bond, has many resonance structures, and appears to be aromatic.
    7 schema:genre article
    8 schema:inLanguage en
    9 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    10 schema:isPartOf N5a46fdbf169e4ca1a76521e59cc902eb
    11 Na957e407e2ea485c95a2221da18be216
    12 sg:journal.1018957
    13 schema:keywords C60 molecules
    14 Fig. 1
    15 atom structure
    16 atoms
    17 bonds
    18 buckminsterfullerene
    19 carbon atoms
    20 carbon molecules
    21 clusters
    22 double bond
    23 experiments
    24 face
    25 football
    26 graphite
    27 icosahedron
    28 interstellar space
    29 irradiation
    30 kind
    31 laser irradiation
    32 long chain carbon molecules
    33 mechanism
    34 molecules
    35 objects
    36 polygons
    37 questions
    38 resonance structure
    39 single bond
    40 space
    41 species
    42 stable clusters
    43 structure
    44 valence
    45 vertices
    46 schema:name C60: Buckminsterfullerene
    47 schema:pagination 162-163
    48 schema:productId N16fc480a7f194f648be541943d2deb93
    49 N9c7b643133664e1c8cee242337a6cca0
    50 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024648559
    51 https://doi.org/10.1038/318162a0
    52 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-05-10T09:43
    53 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    54 schema:sdPublisher Nf6d2d34daa524b6cb638bee544fc433c
    55 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1038/318162a0
    56 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    57 sgo:sdDataset articles
    58 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    59 N16fc480a7f194f648be541943d2deb93 schema:name dimensions_id
    60 schema:value pub.1024648559
    61 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    62 N543b3c510227449b911fc77411af9af3 rdf:first sg:person.012464464623.77
    63 rdf:rest N9b9cbffe27f2455f8923ce4b3fcf5658
    64 N573296e03ee14650bee86fdcbbc87625 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.21940.3e
    65 schema:familyName O'Brien
    66 schema:givenName S. C.
    67 rdf:type schema:Person
    68 N5a46fdbf169e4ca1a76521e59cc902eb schema:volumeNumber 318
    69 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    70 N6866af631d4c4603aeedf3ba3f2f1159 rdf:first sg:person.0603211336.18
    71 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    72 N9b9cbffe27f2455f8923ce4b3fcf5658 rdf:first sg:person.0706422465.00
    73 rdf:rest Nc77c5f649e4d429ea614d8f558301852
    74 N9c7b643133664e1c8cee242337a6cca0 schema:name doi
    75 schema:value 10.1038/318162a0
    76 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    77 Na957e407e2ea485c95a2221da18be216 schema:issueNumber 6042
    78 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    79 Nc77c5f649e4d429ea614d8f558301852 rdf:first N573296e03ee14650bee86fdcbbc87625
    80 rdf:rest Nd0881ef19b7d47edb8d592bfc668d4d8
    81 Nd0881ef19b7d47edb8d592bfc668d4d8 rdf:first sg:person.01220465424.76
    82 rdf:rest N6866af631d4c4603aeedf3ba3f2f1159
    83 Nf6d2d34daa524b6cb638bee544fc433c schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    84 rdf:type schema:Organization
    85 anzsrc-for:02 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    86 schema:name Physical Sciences
    87 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    88 anzsrc-for:0202 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    89 schema:name Atomic, Molecular, Nuclear, Particle and Plasma Physics
    90 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    91 sg:journal.1018957 schema:issn 0028-0836
    92 1476-4687
    93 schema:name Nature
    94 schema:publisher Springer Nature
    95 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    96 sg:person.01220465424.76 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.21940.3e
    97 schema:familyName Curl
    98 schema:givenName R. F.
    99 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01220465424.76
    100 rdf:type schema:Person
    101 sg:person.012464464623.77 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.12082.39
    102 schema:familyName Kroto
    103 schema:givenName H. W.
    104 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012464464623.77
    105 rdf:type schema:Person
    106 sg:person.0603211336.18 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.21940.3e
    107 schema:familyName Smalley
    108 schema:givenName R. E.
    109 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0603211336.18
    110 rdf:type schema:Person
    111 sg:person.0706422465.00 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.21940.3e
    112 schema:familyName Heath
    113 schema:givenName J. R.
    114 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0706422465.00
    115 rdf:type schema:Person
    116 grid-institutes:grid.12082.39 schema:alternateName School of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, University of Sussex, BN1 9QJ, Brighton, UK
    117 schema:name Rice Quantum Institute and Departments of Chemistry and Electrical Engineering, Rice University, 77251, Houston, Texas, USA
    118 School of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, University of Sussex, BN1 9QJ, Brighton, UK
    119 rdf:type schema:Organization
    120 grid-institutes:grid.21940.3e schema:alternateName Rice Quantum Institute and Departments of Chemistry and Electrical Engineering, Rice University, 77251, Houston, Texas, USA
    121 schema:name Rice Quantum Institute and Departments of Chemistry and Electrical Engineering, Rice University, 77251, Houston, Texas, USA
    122 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...