Observation of γ rays >1015 eV from Cygnus X-3 View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1983-10

AUTHORS

J. Lloyd-Evans, R. N. Coy, A. Lambert, J. Lapikens, M. Patel, R. J. O. Reid, A. A. Watson

ABSTRACT

The X-ray binary system Cygnus X-3 is a source of particular interest. As well as emitting X rays which are modulated with a 4.8-h period, it has been observed in 30–100 MeV γ rays by the SAS II satellite1 and several groups have detected γ rays in the TeV range showing the same 4.8-h period2–5. Additionally there is evidence of a 34.1-day period2,6,7 and of random variations correlated with X-ray emission and radio outbursts8,9. Most recently, Samorski and Stamm10, using the small extensive air shower array at Kiel, have found that the γ-ray spectrum of Cygnus X-3 extends above 2×1015 eV, with an integral flux of (7.4±3.2)×10−14 cm−2 s−1. This result has considerable implications both for our understanding of the source and for the solution of the long-standing problem of the origin of cosmic rays. We now confirm the Kiel observations and present evidence that the γ-ray spectrum of Cygnus X-3 steepens above 1016 eV. More... »

PAGES

784-787

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/305784a0

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/305784a0

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004687390


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/02", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Physical Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0201", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Astronomical and Space Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Physics, University of Leeds, 2, Leeds, UK", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9909.9", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Physics, University of Leeds, 2, Leeds, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Lloyd-Evans", 
        "givenName": "J.", 
        "id": "sg:person.010454407025.95", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010454407025.95"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Physics, University of Leeds, 2, Leeds, UK", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9909.9", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Physics, University of Leeds, 2, Leeds, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Coy", 
        "givenName": "R. N.", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Physics, University of Leeds, 2, Leeds, UK", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9909.9", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Physics, University of Leeds, 2, Leeds, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Lambert", 
        "givenName": "A.", 
        "id": "sg:person.016203414751.25", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016203414751.25"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Physics, University of Leeds, 2, Leeds, UK", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9909.9", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Physics, University of Leeds, 2, Leeds, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Lapikens", 
        "givenName": "J.", 
        "id": "sg:person.015462522700.43", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015462522700.43"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Physics, University of Leeds, 2, Leeds, UK", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9909.9", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Physics, University of Leeds, 2, Leeds, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Patel", 
        "givenName": "M.", 
        "id": "sg:person.016561500303.25", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016561500303.25"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Physics, University of Leeds, 2, Leeds, UK", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9909.9", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Physics, University of Leeds, 2, Leeds, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Reid", 
        "givenName": "R. J. O.", 
        "id": "sg:person.07442213653.53", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07442213653.53"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Physics, University of Leeds, 2, Leeds, UK", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9909.9", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Physics, University of Leeds, 2, Leeds, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Watson", 
        "givenName": "A. A.", 
        "id": "sg:person.013045017102.01", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013045017102.01"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/289568a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035740161", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/289568a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/physci239119a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047475282", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/physci239119a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/296543a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015510400", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/296543a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "1983-10", 
    "datePublishedReg": "1983-10-01", 
    "description": "The X-ray binary system Cygnus X-3 is a source of particular interest. As well as emitting X rays which are modulated with a 4.8-h period, it has been observed in 30\u2013100 MeV \u03b3 rays by the SAS II satellite1 and several groups have detected \u03b3 rays in the TeV range showing the same 4.8-h period2\u20135. Additionally there is evidence of a 34.1-day period2,6,7 and of random variations correlated with X-ray emission and radio outbursts8,9. Most recently, Samorski and Stamm10, using the small extensive air shower array at Kiel, have found that the \u03b3-ray spectrum of Cygnus X-3 extends above 2\u00d71015 eV, with an integral flux of (7.4\u00b13.2)\u00d710\u221214 cm\u22122 s\u22121. This result has considerable implications both for our understanding of the source and for the solution of the long-standing problem of the origin of cosmic rays. We now confirm the Kiel observations and present evidence that the \u03b3-ray spectrum of Cygnus X-3 steepens above 1016 eV.", 
    "genre": "article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/305784a0", 
    "inLanguage": "en", 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1018957", 
        "issn": [
          "0028-0836", 
          "1476-4687"
        ], 
        "name": "Nature", 
        "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "5937", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "305"
      }
    ], 
    "keywords": [
      "Cygnus X", 
      "ray spectra", 
      "ray binary system Cygnus X", 
      "extensive air shower array", 
      "MeV \u03b3 rays", 
      "air shower array", 
      "cosmic rays", 
      "shower array", 
      "ray emission", 
      "integral flux", 
      "TeV range", 
      "rays", 
      "spectra", 
      "eV", 
      "steepens", 
      "emission", 
      "source", 
      "radio", 
      "particular interest", 
      "flux", 
      "array", 
      "range", 
      "random variation", 
      "present evidence", 
      "origin", 
      "variation", 
      "results", 
      "interest", 
      "solution", 
      "Kiel", 
      "understanding", 
      "evidence", 
      "considerable implications", 
      "problem", 
      "implications", 
      "period", 
      "group", 
      "observations", 
      "binary system Cygnus X", 
      "system Cygnus X", 
      "\u03b3 rays", 
      "SAS II satellite1", 
      "II satellite1", 
      "satellite1", 
      "Samorski", 
      "Stamm10", 
      "small extensive air shower array", 
      "Kiel observations"
    ], 
    "name": "Observation of \u03b3 rays >1015 eV from Cygnus X-3", 
    "pagination": "784-787", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1004687390"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1038/305784a0"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1038/305784a0", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004687390"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2022-01-01T18:02", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20220101/entities/gbq_results/article/article_163.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://doi.org/10.1038/305784a0"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/305784a0'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/305784a0'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/305784a0'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/305784a0'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

159 TRIPLES      22 PREDICATES      77 URIs      66 LITERALS      6 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1038/305784a0 schema:about anzsrc-for:02
2 anzsrc-for:0201
3 schema:author N5ced3e5aa00b43f6983459ea30f37b1b
4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1038/289568a0
5 sg:pub.10.1038/296543a0
6 sg:pub.10.1038/physci239119a0
7 schema:datePublished 1983-10
8 schema:datePublishedReg 1983-10-01
9 schema:description The X-ray binary system Cygnus X-3 is a source of particular interest. As well as emitting X rays which are modulated with a 4.8-h period, it has been observed in 30–100 MeV γ rays by the SAS II satellite1 and several groups have detected γ rays in the TeV range showing the same 4.8-h period2–5. Additionally there is evidence of a 34.1-day period2,6,7 and of random variations correlated with X-ray emission and radio outbursts8,9. Most recently, Samorski and Stamm10, using the small extensive air shower array at Kiel, have found that the γ-ray spectrum of Cygnus X-3 extends above 2×1015 eV, with an integral flux of (7.4±3.2)×10−14 cm−2 s−1. This result has considerable implications both for our understanding of the source and for the solution of the long-standing problem of the origin of cosmic rays. We now confirm the Kiel observations and present evidence that the γ-ray spectrum of Cygnus X-3 steepens above 1016 eV.
10 schema:genre article
11 schema:inLanguage en
12 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
13 schema:isPartOf N19f8b306bd974938be3347bd2da9bf42
14 Nd8747f83496748609e533b7b3f5b6f5e
15 sg:journal.1018957
16 schema:keywords Cygnus X
17 II satellite1
18 Kiel
19 Kiel observations
20 MeV γ rays
21 SAS II satellite1
22 Samorski
23 Stamm10
24 TeV range
25 air shower array
26 array
27 binary system Cygnus X
28 considerable implications
29 cosmic rays
30 eV
31 emission
32 evidence
33 extensive air shower array
34 flux
35 group
36 implications
37 integral flux
38 interest
39 observations
40 origin
41 particular interest
42 period
43 present evidence
44 problem
45 radio
46 random variation
47 range
48 ray binary system Cygnus X
49 ray emission
50 ray spectra
51 rays
52 results
53 satellite1
54 shower array
55 small extensive air shower array
56 solution
57 source
58 spectra
59 steepens
60 system Cygnus X
61 understanding
62 variation
63 γ rays
64 schema:name Observation of γ rays >1015 eV from Cygnus X-3
65 schema:pagination 784-787
66 schema:productId Nddc8d08f452543c78763252f2d1325fd
67 Ne226e5c6218c4e43922abcf9e6d9bd82
68 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004687390
69 https://doi.org/10.1038/305784a0
70 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-01-01T18:02
71 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
72 schema:sdPublisher Nac868bea1cda43a2a25da892c600c651
73 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1038/305784a0
74 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
75 sgo:sdDataset articles
76 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
77 N19f8b306bd974938be3347bd2da9bf42 schema:issueNumber 5937
78 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
79 N1e5d2c5f2927498fb11ba1a9bed145fe rdf:first N5bd7d0edb7ef4e918fec81774c6819be
80 rdf:rest N6f5a403ebdfe474fb43b92906437bfe4
81 N22009344e7534bbf9396b57adc59f473 rdf:first sg:person.013045017102.01
82 rdf:rest rdf:nil
83 N29ec1789ba2d4068a09ce4bfc62f702c rdf:first sg:person.015462522700.43
84 rdf:rest Nefbc402743c2403cb5c8f408be885f6c
85 N5bd7d0edb7ef4e918fec81774c6819be schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.9909.9
86 schema:familyName Coy
87 schema:givenName R. N.
88 rdf:type schema:Person
89 N5ced3e5aa00b43f6983459ea30f37b1b rdf:first sg:person.010454407025.95
90 rdf:rest N1e5d2c5f2927498fb11ba1a9bed145fe
91 N6f5a403ebdfe474fb43b92906437bfe4 rdf:first sg:person.016203414751.25
92 rdf:rest N29ec1789ba2d4068a09ce4bfc62f702c
93 N86f023bf54f548d98a3263eb8886d35c rdf:first sg:person.07442213653.53
94 rdf:rest N22009344e7534bbf9396b57adc59f473
95 Nac868bea1cda43a2a25da892c600c651 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
96 rdf:type schema:Organization
97 Nd8747f83496748609e533b7b3f5b6f5e schema:volumeNumber 305
98 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
99 Nddc8d08f452543c78763252f2d1325fd schema:name dimensions_id
100 schema:value pub.1004687390
101 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
102 Ne226e5c6218c4e43922abcf9e6d9bd82 schema:name doi
103 schema:value 10.1038/305784a0
104 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
105 Nefbc402743c2403cb5c8f408be885f6c rdf:first sg:person.016561500303.25
106 rdf:rest N86f023bf54f548d98a3263eb8886d35c
107 anzsrc-for:02 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
108 schema:name Physical Sciences
109 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
110 anzsrc-for:0201 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
111 schema:name Astronomical and Space Sciences
112 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
113 sg:journal.1018957 schema:issn 0028-0836
114 1476-4687
115 schema:name Nature
116 schema:publisher Springer Nature
117 rdf:type schema:Periodical
118 sg:person.010454407025.95 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.9909.9
119 schema:familyName Lloyd-Evans
120 schema:givenName J.
121 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010454407025.95
122 rdf:type schema:Person
123 sg:person.013045017102.01 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.9909.9
124 schema:familyName Watson
125 schema:givenName A. A.
126 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013045017102.01
127 rdf:type schema:Person
128 sg:person.015462522700.43 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.9909.9
129 schema:familyName Lapikens
130 schema:givenName J.
131 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015462522700.43
132 rdf:type schema:Person
133 sg:person.016203414751.25 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.9909.9
134 schema:familyName Lambert
135 schema:givenName A.
136 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016203414751.25
137 rdf:type schema:Person
138 sg:person.016561500303.25 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.9909.9
139 schema:familyName Patel
140 schema:givenName M.
141 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016561500303.25
142 rdf:type schema:Person
143 sg:person.07442213653.53 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.9909.9
144 schema:familyName Reid
145 schema:givenName R. J. O.
146 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07442213653.53
147 rdf:type schema:Person
148 sg:pub.10.1038/289568a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035740161
149 https://doi.org/10.1038/289568a0
150 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
151 sg:pub.10.1038/296543a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015510400
152 https://doi.org/10.1038/296543a0
153 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
154 sg:pub.10.1038/physci239119a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047475282
155 https://doi.org/10.1038/physci239119a0
156 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
157 grid-institutes:grid.9909.9 schema:alternateName Department of Physics, University of Leeds, 2, Leeds, UK
158 schema:name Department of Physics, University of Leeds, 2, Leeds, UK
159 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...