Evidence for Black Holes in Binary Star Systems View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1971-08

AUTHORS

G. W. GIBBONS, S. W. HAWKING

ABSTRACT

ONE of the most exciting predictions of the general theory of relativity is that a star of more than about 1.4 M⊙ may undergo gravitational collapse to produce a black hole when it has exhausted its nuclear fuel. It would therefore be a very important confirmation of the theory if such holes could be detected. Unfortunately their very small size (a few km) makes it virtually impossible to observe them directly, but their existence could be inferred from the motion of other objects in their gravitational field. The natural place to look for black holes therefore is in binary star systems in which only one object is observed (single line binaries). Thorne and Trimble1 gave a list of all single line spectroscopic binaries in Batten's2 catalogue in which the mass of the unseen object was estimated to be 1.4 M⊙ or over. In most of these binaries the unseen secondary was less massive than the primary observed star and therefore could have been a normal star which is not observed in comparison with its brighter companion. In a smaller number of cases the secondary was heavier than the primary, but in each of these cases Trimble and Thorne were able to suggest a possible reason why it might not have been observed. They concluded therefore that while some of these single line binaries might contain black holes there was no compelling reason for believing that any of them did. More... »

PAGES

465-466

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/232465a0

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/232465a0

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038414177

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16077538


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/02", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Physical Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0201", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Astronomical and Space Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "GIBBONS", 
        "givenName": "G. W.", 
        "id": "sg:person.0761046650.29", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0761046650.29"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Institute of Theoretical Astronomy, University of Cambridge", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Theoretical Astronomy, University of Cambridge"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "HAWKING", 
        "givenName": "S. W.", 
        "id": "sg:person.012212614165.22", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012212614165.22"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "1971-08", 
    "datePublishedReg": "1971-08-01", 
    "description": "ONE of the most exciting predictions of the general theory of relativity is that a star of more than about 1.4 M\u2299 may undergo gravitational collapse to produce a black hole when it has exhausted its nuclear fuel. It would therefore be a very important confirmation of the theory if such holes could be detected. Unfortunately their very small size (a few km) makes it virtually impossible to observe them directly, but their existence could be inferred from the motion of other objects in their gravitational field. The natural place to look for black holes therefore is in binary star systems in which only one object is observed (single line binaries). Thorne and Trimble1 gave a list of all single line spectroscopic binaries in Batten's2 catalogue in which the mass of the unseen object was estimated to be 1.4 M\u2299 or over. In most of these binaries the unseen secondary was less massive than the primary observed star and therefore could have been a normal star which is not observed in comparison with its brighter companion. In a smaller number of cases the secondary was heavier than the primary, but in each of these cases Trimble and Thorne were able to suggest a possible reason why it might not have been observed. They concluded therefore that while some of these single line binaries might contain black holes there was no compelling reason for believing that any of them did.", 
    "genre": "article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/232465a0", 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1018957", 
        "issn": [
          "0028-0836", 
          "1476-4687"
        ], 
        "name": "Nature", 
        "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "5311", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "232"
      }
    ], 
    "keywords": [
      "binary star systems", 
      "black holes", 
      "star systems", 
      "single-lined spectroscopic binary", 
      "single-lined binaries", 
      "observed stars", 
      "normal stars", 
      "bright companion", 
      "spectroscopic binaries", 
      "exciting predictions", 
      "gravitational collapse", 
      "gravitational field", 
      "stars", 
      "holes", 
      "binaries", 
      "such holes", 
      "important confirmation", 
      "nuclear fuel", 
      "relativity", 
      "Thorne", 
      "general theory", 
      "companion", 
      "objects", 
      "catalogue", 
      "theory", 
      "field", 
      "motion", 
      "small size", 
      "mass", 
      "possible reasons", 
      "existence", 
      "collapse", 
      "system", 
      "prediction", 
      "natural place", 
      "compelling reasons", 
      "size", 
      "primary", 
      "Trimble", 
      "comparison", 
      "small number", 
      "confirmation", 
      "cases", 
      "number", 
      "place", 
      "unseen objects", 
      "reasons", 
      "evidence", 
      "fuel", 
      "list"
    ], 
    "name": "Evidence for Black Holes in Binary Star Systems", 
    "pagination": "465-466", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1038414177"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1038/232465a0"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "16077538"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1038/232465a0", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038414177"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2022-11-24T20:44", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20221124/entities/gbq_results/article/article_135.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://doi.org/10.1038/232465a0"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/232465a0'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/232465a0'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/232465a0'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/232465a0'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

120 TRIPLES      20 PREDICATES      76 URIs      68 LITERALS      7 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1038/232465a0 schema:about anzsrc-for:02
2 anzsrc-for:0201
3 schema:author N2959221363814867829a9b800e0274e1
4 schema:datePublished 1971-08
5 schema:datePublishedReg 1971-08-01
6 schema:description ONE of the most exciting predictions of the general theory of relativity is that a star of more than about 1.4 M⊙ may undergo gravitational collapse to produce a black hole when it has exhausted its nuclear fuel. It would therefore be a very important confirmation of the theory if such holes could be detected. Unfortunately their very small size (a few km) makes it virtually impossible to observe them directly, but their existence could be inferred from the motion of other objects in their gravitational field. The natural place to look for black holes therefore is in binary star systems in which only one object is observed (single line binaries). Thorne and Trimble1 gave a list of all single line spectroscopic binaries in Batten's2 catalogue in which the mass of the unseen object was estimated to be 1.4 M⊙ or over. In most of these binaries the unseen secondary was less massive than the primary observed star and therefore could have been a normal star which is not observed in comparison with its brighter companion. In a smaller number of cases the secondary was heavier than the primary, but in each of these cases Trimble and Thorne were able to suggest a possible reason why it might not have been observed. They concluded therefore that while some of these single line binaries might contain black holes there was no compelling reason for believing that any of them did.
7 schema:genre article
8 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
9 schema:isPartOf N670b07d451c943c5b54959aa1779db12
10 N74042d7eb70341fbb0800bae061e7547
11 sg:journal.1018957
12 schema:keywords Thorne
13 Trimble
14 binaries
15 binary star systems
16 black holes
17 bright companion
18 cases
19 catalogue
20 collapse
21 companion
22 comparison
23 compelling reasons
24 confirmation
25 evidence
26 exciting predictions
27 existence
28 field
29 fuel
30 general theory
31 gravitational collapse
32 gravitational field
33 holes
34 important confirmation
35 list
36 mass
37 motion
38 natural place
39 normal stars
40 nuclear fuel
41 number
42 objects
43 observed stars
44 place
45 possible reasons
46 prediction
47 primary
48 reasons
49 relativity
50 single-lined binaries
51 single-lined spectroscopic binary
52 size
53 small number
54 small size
55 spectroscopic binaries
56 star systems
57 stars
58 such holes
59 system
60 theory
61 unseen objects
62 schema:name Evidence for Black Holes in Binary Star Systems
63 schema:pagination 465-466
64 schema:productId N072bb582b0304a589829e5045f4befed
65 N785eb64f591d4987b0c45231db55b678
66 Nb01efdda7ad54aa89a571332e38e2324
67 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038414177
68 https://doi.org/10.1038/232465a0
69 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-11-24T20:44
70 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
71 schema:sdPublisher N621827db12d24f408daec2fa2ff5c6db
72 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1038/232465a0
73 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
74 sgo:sdDataset articles
75 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
76 N072bb582b0304a589829e5045f4befed schema:name doi
77 schema:value 10.1038/232465a0
78 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
79 N2959221363814867829a9b800e0274e1 rdf:first sg:person.0761046650.29
80 rdf:rest N3f41392a1d1e48c7913942726589a8cf
81 N3f41392a1d1e48c7913942726589a8cf rdf:first sg:person.012212614165.22
82 rdf:rest rdf:nil
83 N621827db12d24f408daec2fa2ff5c6db schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
84 rdf:type schema:Organization
85 N670b07d451c943c5b54959aa1779db12 schema:volumeNumber 232
86 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
87 N74042d7eb70341fbb0800bae061e7547 schema:issueNumber 5311
88 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
89 N785eb64f591d4987b0c45231db55b678 schema:name pubmed_id
90 schema:value 16077538
91 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
92 Nb01efdda7ad54aa89a571332e38e2324 schema:name dimensions_id
93 schema:value pub.1038414177
94 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
95 anzsrc-for:02 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
96 schema:name Physical Sciences
97 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
98 anzsrc-for:0201 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
99 schema:name Astronomical and Space Sciences
100 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
101 sg:journal.1018957 schema:issn 0028-0836
102 1476-4687
103 schema:name Nature
104 schema:publisher Springer Nature
105 rdf:type schema:Periodical
106 sg:person.012212614165.22 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5335.0
107 schema:familyName HAWKING
108 schema:givenName S. W.
109 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012212614165.22
110 rdf:type schema:Person
111 sg:person.0761046650.29 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5335.0
112 schema:familyName GIBBONS
113 schema:givenName G. W.
114 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0761046650.29
115 rdf:type schema:Person
116 grid-institutes:grid.5335.0 schema:alternateName Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge
117 Institute of Theoretical Astronomy, University of Cambridge
118 schema:name Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge
119 Institute of Theoretical Astronomy, University of Cambridge
120 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...