A Preliminary Estimate of the Number of Human Genes View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1964-02

AUTHORS

F. VOGEL

ABSTRACT

RECENT results of molecular genetics enable us to estimate the number of human genes, if certain assumptions are made. The following data are available: (1) The α-chain of human hæmoglobin contains 141, the β-chain contains 146 amino-acids, corresponding to a molecular weight of about 17,000 each1. Assuming a triplet code2,3 this means that the α- and β-chains are determined by 423 and 438 nucleotide pairs, respectively. According to ‘Svedberg's law’4, many proteins consist of sub-units of the same order of magnitude (molecular weight of about 17,500). Hence, the assumption seems to be warranted that one average structural geno might have a length of about 450 nucleotide pairs. (2) The weight of one haploid human chromosome set in human spermatozoa is about 2.72 × 10−12 g. Granulocytes contain about 6.23 × 10−12 g; lymphocytes contain about 5.84 × −12 g (ref. 5). Extensive examinations have shown that the DKA. content is constant in all resting cells of one species, which have the same number of chromosome sets, and depends on the degree of polyploidy5,6. The assumption seems to be justified that most of the DNA works as genetic material, even if in some cells minor fractions with other functions might possibly be present7. In the following calculations the total amount of DNA in a haploid human chromosome set is estimated to be about 3 × 10−12 g. (3) Usually the genetic variants of human haemoglobins differ in one amino-acid substitution only1,8. One structural gene can only produce one single type of genetically determined polypeptide chain. As much as we know, this applies for other genetically determined proteins as well. This means that the genetic information for these structural genes can only be present once. Any degree of polyteny for these loci in the germ cells is highly unlikely. As has been mentioned, however, the DNA content of diploid cells is about twice the content of (haploid) spermatozoa. We assume that the total genetic information is only present once. More... »

PAGES

847-847

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1963-03. The genetic code. II. in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
  • 1963-01. Übertragung der genetischen Information in THE SCIENCE OF NATURE
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/201847a0

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/201847a0

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007386697

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14161239


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0604", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Genetics", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Biological Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Chromosomes", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "DNA", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Genetics, Medical", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Hemoglobins", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Humans", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "familyName": "VOGEL", 
            "givenName": "F.", 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1085/jgp.34.4.451", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043455084"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00590799", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047035246", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00590799"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00590799", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047035246", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00590799"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/scientificamerican0363-80", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056511973", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0363-80"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "1964-02", 
        "datePublishedReg": "1964-02-01", 
        "description": "RECENT results of molecular genetics enable us to estimate the number of human genes, if certain assumptions are made. The following data are available: (1) The \u03b1-chain of human h\u00e6moglobin contains 141, the \u03b2-chain contains 146 amino-acids, corresponding to a molecular weight of about 17,000 each1. Assuming a triplet code2,3 this means that the \u03b1- and \u03b2-chains are determined by 423 and 438 nucleotide pairs, respectively. According to \u2018Svedberg's law\u20194, many proteins consist of sub-units of the same order of magnitude (molecular weight of about 17,500). Hence, the assumption seems to be warranted that one average structural geno might have a length of about 450 nucleotide pairs. (2) The weight of one haploid human chromosome set in human spermatozoa is about 2.72 \u00d7 10\u221212 g. Granulocytes contain about 6.23 \u00d7 10\u221212 g; lymphocytes contain about 5.84 \u00d7 \u221212 g (ref. 5). Extensive examinations have shown that the DKA. content is constant in all resting cells of one species, which have the same number of chromosome sets, and depends on the degree of polyploidy5,6. The assumption seems to be justified that most of the DNA works as genetic material, even if in some cells minor fractions with other functions might possibly be present7. In the following calculations the total amount of DNA in a haploid human chromosome set is estimated to be about 3 \u00d7 10\u221212 g. (3) Usually the genetic variants of human haemoglobins differ in one amino-acid substitution only1,8. One structural gene can only produce one single type of genetically determined polypeptide chain. As much as we know, this applies for other genetically determined proteins as well. This means that the genetic information for these structural genes can only be present once. Any degree of polyteny for these loci in the germ cells is highly unlikely. As has been mentioned, however, the DNA content of diploid cells is about twice the content of (haploid) spermatozoa. We assume that the total genetic information is only present once.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/201847a0", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1018957", 
            "issn": [
              "0090-0028", 
              "1476-4687"
            ], 
            "name": "Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "4921", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "201"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "A Preliminary Estimate of the Number of Human Genes", 
        "pagination": "847-847", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "232f6e9bc13704a6df1f3290530a096721b8f4dda826d435f0eed8bfe7861558"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "14161239"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "0410462"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/201847a0"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1007386697"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/201847a0", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007386697"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T14:47", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8663_00000422.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "http://www.nature.com/articles/201847a0"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/201847a0'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/201847a0'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/201847a0'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/201847a0'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    95 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      37 URIs      26 LITERALS      14 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/201847a0 schema:about N43f932f25e334a119730164e1c3e53fa
    2 N506e5ce0f1e6440298f250e096254780
    3 N511c37b4bcd843f291e8f97a95f4c9ec
    4 N74badec1f5c44a7b8303ada6e5af60ff
    5 Nf6cbfe217e854cf8b835b88c64e7efe1
    6 anzsrc-for:06
    7 anzsrc-for:0604
    8 schema:author N97784ebd3232418b8b409b8e90d76ae9
    9 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf00590799
    10 sg:pub.10.1038/scientificamerican0363-80
    11 https://doi.org/10.1085/jgp.34.4.451
    12 schema:datePublished 1964-02
    13 schema:datePublishedReg 1964-02-01
    14 schema:description RECENT results of molecular genetics enable us to estimate the number of human genes, if certain assumptions are made. The following data are available: (1) The α-chain of human hæmoglobin contains 141, the β-chain contains 146 amino-acids, corresponding to a molecular weight of about 17,000 each1. Assuming a triplet code2,3 this means that the α- and β-chains are determined by 423 and 438 nucleotide pairs, respectively. According to ‘Svedberg's law’4, many proteins consist of sub-units of the same order of magnitude (molecular weight of about 17,500). Hence, the assumption seems to be warranted that one average structural geno might have a length of about 450 nucleotide pairs. (2) The weight of one haploid human chromosome set in human spermatozoa is about 2.72 × 10−12 g. Granulocytes contain about 6.23 × 10−12 g; lymphocytes contain about 5.84 × −12 g (ref. 5). Extensive examinations have shown that the DKA. content is constant in all resting cells of one species, which have the same number of chromosome sets, and depends on the degree of polyploidy5,6. The assumption seems to be justified that most of the DNA works as genetic material, even if in some cells minor fractions with other functions might possibly be present7. In the following calculations the total amount of DNA in a haploid human chromosome set is estimated to be about 3 × 10−12 g. (3) Usually the genetic variants of human haemoglobins differ in one amino-acid substitution only1,8. One structural gene can only produce one single type of genetically determined polypeptide chain. As much as we know, this applies for other genetically determined proteins as well. This means that the genetic information for these structural genes can only be present once. Any degree of polyteny for these loci in the germ cells is highly unlikely. As has been mentioned, however, the DNA content of diploid cells is about twice the content of (haploid) spermatozoa. We assume that the total genetic information is only present once.
    15 schema:genre research_article
    16 schema:inLanguage en
    17 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    18 schema:isPartOf N2d4979e87fdd4d82a1ad9f1e575780dc
    19 N862914eaad5141f9b091de173b8cd2ad
    20 sg:journal.1018957
    21 schema:name A Preliminary Estimate of the Number of Human Genes
    22 schema:pagination 847-847
    23 schema:productId N005de91cf00a44c4a27d0ffe72a812fc
    24 N433db1aef8354b63813dbe1e0da7fb58
    25 N65ade5e67c9c4ca981ffbacbb71a9d06
    26 Na1206547033a49ac8f60837fde4268de
    27 Nacc2e07947a2444ca11d02871818a479
    28 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007386697
    29 https://doi.org/10.1038/201847a0
    30 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T14:47
    31 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    32 schema:sdPublisher Nf96d6695d77a444ab6ef96e8978111ad
    33 schema:url http://www.nature.com/articles/201847a0
    34 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    35 sgo:sdDataset articles
    36 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    37 N005de91cf00a44c4a27d0ffe72a812fc schema:name doi
    38 schema:value 10.1038/201847a0
    39 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    40 N2d4979e87fdd4d82a1ad9f1e575780dc schema:issueNumber 4921
    41 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    42 N433db1aef8354b63813dbe1e0da7fb58 schema:name readcube_id
    43 schema:value 232f6e9bc13704a6df1f3290530a096721b8f4dda826d435f0eed8bfe7861558
    44 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    45 N43f932f25e334a119730164e1c3e53fa schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    46 schema:name Humans
    47 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    48 N506e5ce0f1e6440298f250e096254780 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    49 schema:name DNA
    50 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    51 N511c37b4bcd843f291e8f97a95f4c9ec schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    52 schema:name Chromosomes
    53 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    54 N65ade5e67c9c4ca981ffbacbb71a9d06 schema:name pubmed_id
    55 schema:value 14161239
    56 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    57 N74badec1f5c44a7b8303ada6e5af60ff schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    58 schema:name Genetics, Medical
    59 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    60 N862914eaad5141f9b091de173b8cd2ad schema:volumeNumber 201
    61 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    62 N97784ebd3232418b8b409b8e90d76ae9 rdf:first Ne4fcbe617f4c42eab42beb19f0efd279
    63 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    64 Na1206547033a49ac8f60837fde4268de schema:name nlm_unique_id
    65 schema:value 0410462
    66 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    67 Nacc2e07947a2444ca11d02871818a479 schema:name dimensions_id
    68 schema:value pub.1007386697
    69 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    70 Ne4fcbe617f4c42eab42beb19f0efd279 schema:familyName VOGEL
    71 schema:givenName F.
    72 rdf:type schema:Person
    73 Nf6cbfe217e854cf8b835b88c64e7efe1 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    74 schema:name Hemoglobins
    75 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    76 Nf96d6695d77a444ab6ef96e8978111ad schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    77 rdf:type schema:Organization
    78 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    79 schema:name Biological Sciences
    80 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    81 anzsrc-for:0604 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    82 schema:name Genetics
    83 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    84 sg:journal.1018957 schema:issn 0090-0028
    85 1476-4687
    86 schema:name Nature
    87 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    88 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00590799 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047035246
    89 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00590799
    90 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    91 sg:pub.10.1038/scientificamerican0363-80 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056511973
    92 https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0363-80
    93 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    94 https://doi.org/10.1085/jgp.34.4.451 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043455084
    95 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...