Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1999-03

AUTHORS

Brian H. Cumpston, Sundaravel P. Ananthavel, Stephen Barlow, Daniel L. Dyer, Jeffrey E. Ehrlich, Lael L. Erskine, Ahmed A. Heikal, Stephen M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, Dianne McCord-Maughon, Jinqui Qin, Harald Röckel, Mariacristina Rumi, Xiang-Li Wu, Seth R. Marder, Joseph W. Perry

ABSTRACT

Two-photon excitation provides a means of activating chemical or physical processes with high spatial resolution in three dimensions and has made possible the development of three-dimensional fluorescence imaging1, optical data storage2,3 and lithographic microfabrication4,5,6. These applications take advantage of the fact that the two-photon absorption probability depends quadratically on intensity, so under tight-focusing conditions, the absorption is confined at the focus to a volume of order λ3 (where λ is the laser wavelength). Any subsequent process, such as fluorescence or a photoinduced chemical reaction, is also localized in this small volume. Although three-dimensional data storage and microfabrication have been illustrated using two-photon-initiated polymerization of resins incorporating conventional ultraviolet-absorbing initiators, such photopolymer systems exhibit low photosensitivity as the initiators have small two-photon absorption cross-sections (δ). Consequently, this approach requires high laser power, and its widespread use remains impractical. Here we report on a class of π;-conjugated compounds that exhibit large δ (as high as 1, 250 × 10−50 cm4 s per photon) and enhanced two-photon sensitivity relative to ultraviolet initiators. Two-photon excitable resins based on these new initiators have been developed and used to demonstrate a scheme for three-dimensional data storage which permits fluorescent and refractive read-out, and the fabrication of three-dimensional micro-optical and micromechanical structures, including photonic-bandgap-type structures7. More... »

PAGES

51-54

Journal

TITLE

Nature

ISSUE

6722

VOLUME

398

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  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/17989

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/17989

    DIMENSIONS

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    18 schema:description Two-photon excitation provides a means of activating chemical or physical processes with high spatial resolution in three dimensions and has made possible the development of three-dimensional fluorescence imaging1, optical data storage2,3 and lithographic microfabrication4,5,6. These applications take advantage of the fact that the two-photon absorption probability depends quadratically on intensity, so under tight-focusing conditions, the absorption is confined at the focus to a volume of order λ3 (where λ is the laser wavelength). Any subsequent process, such as fluorescence or a photoinduced chemical reaction, is also localized in this small volume. Although three-dimensional data storage and microfabrication have been illustrated using two-photon-initiated polymerization of resins incorporating conventional ultraviolet-absorbing initiators, such photopolymer systems exhibit low photosensitivity as the initiators have small two-photon absorption cross-sections (δ). Consequently, this approach requires high laser power, and its widespread use remains impractical. Here we report on a class of π;-conjugated compounds that exhibit large δ (as high as 1, 250 × 10−50 cm4 s per photon) and enhanced two-photon sensitivity relative to ultraviolet initiators. Two-photon excitable resins based on these new initiators have been developed and used to demonstrate a scheme for three-dimensional data storage which permits fluorescent and refractive read-out, and the fabrication of three-dimensional micro-optical and micromechanical structures, including photonic-bandgap-type structures7.
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