<i>The History and Economics of Indian Famines</i> View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

1914-07

AUTHORS

B.

ABSTRACT

THE literature of Indian famines is so extensive that Mr. Loveday has had no light task in compiling the main historical facts and formulating the conclusions contained in this enlarged prize essay. Famines are rightly regarded as natural calamities, caused by failures or irregularities of the monsoons. Indian historians record their occurrence under native rule. The policy of the native rulers was rather prevention (by wrong methods) than cure: the mortality was fearful. Under the East India Company the famine policy was uncertain and unsuccessful, the systems of famine-relief were inadequate, the economic conditions different from the present. After 1858 the Government adopted, in the great famine of 1860 in Upper India, a famine relief organisation which has been greatly developed but never abandoned. The Orissa failure, 1866–7, tne excessive expenditure accompanying the success in Bengal, 1874; the great mortality in Madras, 1877, led to the Famine Commission of 1878–80. Since then Famine Codes have been framed for famine-relief administration. With subsequent experience, mistakes have been corrected and the Codes perfected, so that now famines—of work rather thin of food—are managed effectively. Mr. Loveday de scribes briefly the various stages of policy, e.g. importation, emigration, poor houses, etc., etc.; the later tendency has been to greater generosity and decentralisation. Irrigation works (when possible) to gtow food are being extended; and railways to transport it to distressed tracts. Meanwhile the economic condition of India is vary ing, changes must be recognised, protective mea sures and the wider economic problems—indebted ness, agriculture, cooperative societies, etc., etc. —must be considered together. More... »

PAGES

530

Journal

TITLE

Nature

ISSUE

2334

VOLUME

93

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/093530b0

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/093530b0

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032472964


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