Unconventional Cellulose Esters: Synthesis, Characterization and Structure–Property Relations View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2003-09

AUTHORS

Thomas Heinze, Tim F. Liebert, Katy S. Pfeiffer, Muhammad A. Hussain

ABSTRACT

This paper summarizes selected results obtained during a two-year research project in the framework of the focus program ‘Cellulose and cellulose derivatives’ (SPP 1011), sponsored by the German Science Foundation (DFG). New synthesis paths for the preparation of the most important cellulose ester, cellulose acetate, were investigated. In contrast to conventional methods, cellulose was converted in a homogeneous phase reaction with acetyl chloride in the presence of different bases, including polyvinyl pyridine and cross-linked polyvinyl pyridine. Moreover, results of the conversion in the new solvent dimethyl sulfoxide/tetrabutylammonium fluoride trihydrate are discussed. The structures obtained were analyzed both on the level of the anhydroglucose unit (AGU) and along the polymer chain. It was found that the addition of a base can significantly change the selectivity of the reaction and thereby the properties of the products (e.g., solubility). No signs of a non-statistical distribution of the acetyl groups along the polymer chains were observed. Furthermore, reactivity and selectivity of the acylation reactions, using in situ activation with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (Tos-Cl), were studied for different long-chain carboxylic acids (capric-, caprylic-, decanoic-, lauric-, palmitic-, stearic acid). The thermogravimetric analysis of these derivatives showed that the decomposition temperature increased with an increasing number of carbon atoms, starting from 292 °C (cellulose caprate) to 318 °C (cellulose stearate). New cellulose derivatives were synthesized, for example, cellulose adamantoyl ester. For this purpose cellulose was converted homogeneously in N,N-dimethylacetamide/LiCl with free acids in the presence of activating reagents, for example, Tos-Cl or 1,1′-carbonyldiimidazol. More... »

PAGES

283-296

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1023/a:1025117327970

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1025117327970

DIMENSIONS

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