The physical structure and dynamics of a deep, meromictic crater lake (Lac Pavin, France) View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2002-11

AUTHORS

Werner Aeschbach-Hertig, Markus Hofer, Martin Schmid, Rolf Kipfer, Dieter M. Imboden

ABSTRACT

The characteristic feature of the physical structure of Lac Pavin is a distinct and permanent chemically induced density increase between about 60 and 70 m depth. This chemocline separates the seasonally mixed mixolimnion from the monimolimnion, which is characterized by elevated temperature and salinity as well as complete anoxia. Previously published box-models of the lake postulated substantial groundwater input at the lake bottom, and consequently a short water residence time in the monimolimnion and high fluxes of dissolved constituents across the chemocline. We present a new view of the physical structure and dynamics of Lac Pavin, which is based on the results of high-resolution CTD profiles, transient and geochemical tracers (tritium, CFCs, helium), and numerical modeling. The CTD profiles indicate the existence of a sublacustrine spring above rather than below the chemocline. A stability analysis of the water column suggests that vertical turbulent mixing in the chemocline is very weak. A numerical one-dimensional lake model is used to reconstruct the evolution of transient tracer distributions over the past 50 years. Model parameters such as vertical diffusivity and size of sublacustrine springs are constrained by comparison with observed tracer data. Whereas the presence of a significant water input to the monimolimnion can clearly be excluded, the input to the mixolimnion – both at the surface and from the indicated sublacustrine spring – cannot be accurately determined. The vertical turbulent diffusivity in the chemocline is well constrained to K ≈ 5×10-8 m2 s-1, about a factor of three below the molecular diffusivity for heat. Assuming thus purely molecular heat transport, the heat flow through the chemocline can be estimated to between 30 and 40 mW m-2. With respect to dissolved constituents, the very weak turbulent diffusive exchange is equivalent to a stagnant monimolimnion with a residence time of nearly 100 years. Based on these results and vertical concentration profiles of dissolved species, diffusive fluxes between monimolimnion and mixolimnion can be calculated. A large excess of helium with a 3He/4He ratio of (9.09 ± 0.01)×10-6 (6.57 Ra) is present in the monimolimnion, clearly indicating a flux of magmatic gases into the monimolimnion. We calculate a flux of 1.0×10-12 mol m-2 s-1 for mantle helium and infer a flux of 1.2×10-7 mol m-2 s-1 (72 t year-1) for magmatic CO2. The monimolimnion appears to be in steady state with respect to these fluxes. More... »

PAGES

111-136

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1023/a:1022942226198

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1022942226198

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007764939


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