Effects of mild winter freezing on soil nitrogen and carbon dynamics in a northern hardwood forest View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2001-11

AUTHORS

Peter M. Groffman, Charles T. Driscoll, Timothy J. Fahey, Janet P. Hardy, Ross D. Fitzhugh, Geraldine L. Tierney

ABSTRACT

Overwinter and snowmelt processes are thought to be critical to controllersof nitrogen (N) cycling and retention in northern forests. However, therehave been few measurements of basic N cycle processes (e.g.mineralization, nitrification, denitrification) during winter and littleanalysis of the influence of winter climate on growing season N dynamics.In this study, we manipulated snow cover to assess the effects of soilfreezing on in situ rates of N mineralization, nitrification and soilrespiration, denitrification (intact core, C2H2 – based method),microbial biomass C and N content and potential net N mineralization andnitrification in two sugar maple and two yellow birch stands with referenceand snow manipulation treatment plots over a two year period at theHubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, U.S.A. The snowmanipulation treatment, which simulated the late development of snowpackas may occur in a warmer climate, induced mild (temperatures >−5 °C) soil freezing that lasted until snowmelt. The treatmentcaused significant increases in soil nitrate (NO3−)concentrations in sugar maple stands, but did not affect mineralization,nitrification, denitrification or microbial biomass, and had no significanteffects in yellow birch stands. Annual N mineralization and nitrificationrates varied significantly from year to year. Net mineralization increasedfrom ∼12.0 g N m−2 y−1 in 1998 to ∼22 g N m−2 y−1 in 1999 and nitrification increased from ∼8 g N m−2 y−1 in 1998 to ∼13 g N m−2 y−1 in 1999.Denitrification rates ranged from 0 to 0.65 g N m−2 y−1. Ourresults suggest that mild soil freezing must increase soil NO3− levels by physical disruption of the soil ecosystem and not by direct stimulation of mineralization and nitrification. Physical disruption canincrease fine root mortality, reduce plant N uptake and reduce competitionfor inorganic N, allowing soil NO3− levels to increase evenwith no increase in net mineralization or nitrification. More... »

PAGES

191-213

References to SciGraph publications

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  • 2001-11. Soil freezing alters fine root dynamics in a northern hardwood forest in BIOGEOCHEMISTRY
  • 1997-04. Winter production of CO2 and N2O from alpine tundra: environmental controls and relationship to inter-system C and N fluxes in OECOLOGIA
  • 2000-07. Atmospheric deposition and watershed nitrogen export along an elevational gradient in the Catskill Mountains, New York in BIOGEOCHEMISTRY
  • 2000-05. Long-Term Nitrogen Additions and Nitrogen Saturation in Two Temperate Forests in ECOSYSTEMS
  • 1996-02. Microbial activity under alpine snowpacks, Niwot Ridge, Colorado in BIOGEOCHEMISTRY
  • 1998-04. Nitrogen mineralization in upland Precambrian Shield catchments: Contrasting the role of lichen-covered bedrock and forested areas in BIOGEOCHEMISTRY
  • 1999-02. Winter CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes on some natural and drained boreal peatlands in BIOGEOCHEMISTRY
  • 1997-07. Foliage litter quality and annual net N mineralization: comparison across North American forest sites in OECOLOGIA
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    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1023/a:1013024603959

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    http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1013024603959

    DIMENSIONS

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    77 northern forests
    78 northern hardwood forests
    79 overwinter
    80 period
    81 physical disruption
    82 plant N uptake
    83 plots
    84 process
    85 rate
    86 retention
    87 root mortality
    88 significant increase
    89 significanteffect
    90 situ rates
    91 snow
    92 snowmelt
    93 snowmelt processes
    94 soil
    95 soil ecosystems
    96 soil freezing
    97 soil nitrate
    98 soil nitrogen
    99 soilrespiration
    100 stands
    101 stimulation
    102 study
    103 sugar maple
    104 sugar maple stands
    105 therehave
    106 treatment
    107 treatment plots
    108 uptake
    109 warmer climate
    110 winter
    111 winter climate
    112 winter freezing
    113 year period
    114 years
    115 yellow birch
    116 yellow birch stands
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