Characterization of porous hydroxyapatite View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1999-03

AUTHORS

K. A. Hing, S. M. Best, W. Bonfield

ABSTRACT

Hydroxyapatite has been considered for use in the repair of osseous defects for the last 20 years. Recent developments have led to interest in the potential of porous hydroxyapatite as a synthetic bone graft. However, despite considerable activity in this field, regarding assessment of the biological response to such materials, the basic materials characterization is often inadequate. This paper documents the characterization of the chemical composition, mechanical integrity, macro- and microstructure of a porous hydroxyapatite, Endobon ® (E. Merck GmbH), intended for the bone-graft market. Specimens possesed a range of apparent densities from 0.35 to 1.44 g cm-3. Chemical analysis demonstrated that the natural apatite precursor of Endobon® was not converted to pure hydroxyapatite, but retained many of the ionic substituents found in bone mineral, notably carbonate, sodium and magnesium ions. Investigation of the microstructure illustrated that the struts of the material were not fully dense, but had retained some traces of the network of osteocyte lacunae. Macrostructural analysis demonstrated the complex inter-relationship between the structural features of an open pore structure. Both pore size and connectivity were found to be inversely dependent on apparent density. Furthermore, measurement of pore aspect ratio and orientation demonstrated a relationship between apparent density and the degree of macrostructural anisotropy within the specimens, while, it was also noted that pore connectivity was sensitive to anisotropy. Compression testing demonstrated the effect of apparent density and macrostructural anisotropy on the mechanical properties. An increase in apparent density from 0.38 to 1.25 g cm-3 resulted in increases in ultimate compressive stress and compressive modulus of 1 to 11 MPa and 0.2 to 3.1 GPa, respectively. Furthermore, anisotropic high density (> 0.9 g cm-3) specimens were found to possess lower compressive moduli than isotropic specimens with equivalent apparent densities. These results underline the importance of full structural and mechanical characterization of porous ceramic implant materials. ©1999 Kluwer Academic Publishers More... »

PAGES

135-145

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1023/a:1008929305897

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1008929305897

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033533919

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15348161


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