Melanoma Cell Autonomous Growth: The Rb/E2F Pathway View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

1999-09

AUTHORS

Ruth Halaban

ABSTRACT

Transformation of normal melanocytes to metastatic melanoma cells is characterized by loss of dependency on external growth factors required for the viability and proliferation of normal melanocytes. The molecular events that lead to melanoma cell autonomous growth are not well defined, but are likely to include sustained activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6) as a result of loss of CDK inhibitors (such as p16INK4a and possibly p27KIP1), and persistent upregulation of several cyclins (cyclin D1, cyclin A and cyclin E), the positive regulators of CDKs. CDKs phosphorylate, and consequently, inactivate the retinoblastoma family of tumor suppressor proteins (pRb, p107 and p130), termed pocket proteins. The inactivation of pocket proteins liberates E2F transcription factors from suppressive complexes ('free' E2F) that, in turn, induces the continuous expression of target genes whose products promote cell cycle progression. In normal melanocytes, external growth factors suppress the activity of all three pocket proteins, allowing E2F activity to accumulate and sustain transcription of target genes required for cell proliferation. In contrast, in melanoma cells from advanced lesions, all three pocket proteins are highly phosphorylated and inactive, even in the absence of environmental mitogens, and free E2F activity is constitutively high. Manipulations of normal mouse melanocytes in vitro, and in vivo in transgenic mouse expressing ectopic genes, further support the notion that growth rate, and release from dependency on external mitogens, positively correlate with inactivation of pocket proteins. The latter has been accomplished by sustained cell surface receptor stimulation, such as constitutive high expression of a growth factor, or by sequestration with dominantly acting viral proteins. Taken together, chronic hyperphosphorlyation/inactivation of pRb, p107 and p130 is probably one of the key events in converting growth-factor dependent normal melanocytes, to autonomously growing melanoma cells. Since all pocket proteins are regulated by CDKs activity, it is likely that agents that inhibit this class of enzymes will be effective in treating melanoma patients. More... »

PAGES

333-343

References to SciGraph publications

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  • Identifiers

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    DOI

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    DIMENSIONS

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    PUBMED

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