Effects of modulation defects on hadamard transform time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HT-TOFMS) View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2003-03

AUTHORS

Joel R. Kimmel, Facundo M. Fernández, Richard N. Zare

ABSTRACT

In any Hadamard multiplexing technique, discrepancies between the intended and the applied encoding sequences may reduce the intensity of real spectral features and create discrete, artificial signals. In our implementation of Hadamard transform time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HT-TOFMS), the encoding sequence is applied to the ion beam by means of an interleaved comb of wires (Bradbury-Nielson gate), which shutters the ion beam on and off. By isolating and exaggerating individual skewing effects in simulating the HT-TOFMS process, we determined the nature of errors that arise from various defects. In particular, we find that the most damaging defects are: mismatched voltages between the wire sets and the acceleration voltage of the instrument, which cause positive and negative peaks throughout mass spectra; insufficient deflection voltage, which reduces the intensity of real peaks and causes negative peaks that are spread across the entire mass range; and voltage errors as the wire sets return from their deflection voltage to their transmission value, which yield significant reductions in peak intensities, create artificial peaks throughout mass spectra, and broaden real peaks by causing positive peaks to grow in the bins adjacent to them. Because the magnitude of the modulation defects grows as the applied modulation voltage is increased, Bradbury-Nielson gates with finer wire spacing, and hence stronger effective fields for a given applied voltage, were produced and installed. Operating at 10 to 15 V where errors in the electronics are essentially absent, the most finely spaced gate (100 microm) yielded signal-to-noise ratios that were more than two times higher than those achieved with more widely spaced gates. As an alternative method for minimizing skewing effects, HT-TOFMS data were post processed using an exact knowledge of the modulation defects. Nonbinary matrices that mimic the actual encoding process were built by measuring voltage versus time traces and then translating these traces to transmission versus time. Use of these matrices in the deconvolution step led to marked improvements in spectral resolution but require full knowledge of the encoding defects. More... »

PAGES

278-286

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1016/s1044-0305(03)00006-0

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1044-0305(03)00006-0

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013141968

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12648935


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0299", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Other Physical Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/02", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Physical Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Stanford University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.168010.e", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kimmel", 
        "givenName": "Joel R.", 
        "id": "sg:person.0734637406.10", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0734637406.10"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Stanford University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.168010.e", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Fern\u00e1ndez", 
        "givenName": "Facundo M.", 
        "id": "sg:person.0660224774.27", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0660224774.27"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Stanford University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.168010.e", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Zare", 
        "givenName": "Richard N.", 
        "id": "sg:person.010075246350.09", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010075246350.09"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1097-0231(19990615)13:11<994::aid-rcm596>3.0.co;2-w", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013405697"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1097-0231(19990615)13:11<994::aid-rcm596>3.0.co;2-w", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013405697"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1016/s1044-0305(01)00322-1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022365593", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1044-0305(01)00322-1"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200390047", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028803256"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0039-9140(90)80047-j", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029243610"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0029-554x(70)90607-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037014776"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0029-554x(70)90607-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037014776"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ac001065n", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054972307"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ac001065n", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054972307"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ac011149b", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054992845"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ac011149b", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054992845"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ac012521q", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054993070"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ac012521q", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054993070"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ac015673u", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054993304"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ac015673u", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054993304"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ac9804036", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055075359"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ac9804036", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055075359"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ac990252m", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055076731"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ac990252m", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055076731"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ac990625j", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055077094"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ac990625j", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055077094"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1146553", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057674733"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1148823", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057677227"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1150456", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057679013"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1416109", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057704487"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1366/0003702011951722", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065255516"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1366/0003702011951722", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065255516"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1366/0003702874447383", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065261797"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1366/0003702874447383", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065261797"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1366/0003702934067676", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065263714"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1366/0003702934067676", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065263714"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2003-03", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2003-03-01", 
    "description": "In any Hadamard multiplexing technique, discrepancies between the intended and the applied encoding sequences may reduce the intensity of real spectral features and create discrete, artificial signals. In our implementation of Hadamard transform time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HT-TOFMS), the encoding sequence is applied to the ion beam by means of an interleaved comb of wires (Bradbury-Nielson gate), which shutters the ion beam on and off. By isolating and exaggerating individual skewing effects in simulating the HT-TOFMS process, we determined the nature of errors that arise from various defects. In particular, we find that the most damaging defects are: mismatched voltages between the wire sets and the acceleration voltage of the instrument, which cause positive and negative peaks throughout mass spectra; insufficient deflection voltage, which reduces the intensity of real peaks and causes negative peaks that are spread across the entire mass range; and voltage errors as the wire sets return from their deflection voltage to their transmission value, which yield significant reductions in peak intensities, create artificial peaks throughout mass spectra, and broaden real peaks by causing positive peaks to grow in the bins adjacent to them. Because the magnitude of the modulation defects grows as the applied modulation voltage is increased, Bradbury-Nielson gates with finer wire spacing, and hence stronger effective fields for a given applied voltage, were produced and installed. Operating at 10 to 15 V where errors in the electronics are essentially absent, the most finely spaced gate (100 microm) yielded signal-to-noise ratios that were more than two times higher than those achieved with more widely spaced gates. As an alternative method for minimizing skewing effects, HT-TOFMS data were post processed using an exact knowledge of the modulation defects. Nonbinary matrices that mimic the actual encoding process were built by measuring voltage versus time traces and then translating these traces to transmission versus time. Use of these matrices in the deconvolution step led to marked improvements in spectral resolution but require full knowledge of the encoding defects.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1016/s1044-0305(03)00006-0", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1100508", 
        "issn": [
          "1044-0305", 
          "1879-1123"
        ], 
        "name": "Journal of The American Society for Mass Spectrometry", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "3", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "14"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Effects of modulation defects on hadamard transform time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HT-TOFMS)", 
    "pagination": "278-286", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "3e9aa88aae755539aa04f34716c8dab922a5b22a33ce85df46494c176e74612d"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "12648935"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "9010412"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1016/s1044-0305(03)00006-0"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1013141968"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1044-0305(03)00006-0", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013141968"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T00:13", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8695_00000499.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1016/S1044-0305(03)00006-0"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1016/s1044-0305(03)00006-0'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1016/s1044-0305(03)00006-0'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1016/s1044-0305(03)00006-0'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1016/s1044-0305(03)00006-0'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

141 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      48 URIs      21 LITERALS      9 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1016/s1044-0305(03)00006-0 schema:about anzsrc-for:02
2 anzsrc-for:0299
3 schema:author N092918ba2c874508bbcf28623e665168
4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1016/s1044-0305(01)00322-1
5 https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1097-0231(19990615)13:11<994::aid-rcm596>3.0.co;2-w
6 https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200390047
7 https://doi.org/10.1016/0029-554x(70)90607-5
8 https://doi.org/10.1016/0039-9140(90)80047-j
9 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac001065n
10 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac011149b
11 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac012521q
12 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac015673u
13 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac9804036
14 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac990252m
15 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac990625j
16 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1146553
17 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1148823
18 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1150456
19 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1416109
20 https://doi.org/10.1366/0003702011951722
21 https://doi.org/10.1366/0003702874447383
22 https://doi.org/10.1366/0003702934067676
23 schema:datePublished 2003-03
24 schema:datePublishedReg 2003-03-01
25 schema:description In any Hadamard multiplexing technique, discrepancies between the intended and the applied encoding sequences may reduce the intensity of real spectral features and create discrete, artificial signals. In our implementation of Hadamard transform time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HT-TOFMS), the encoding sequence is applied to the ion beam by means of an interleaved comb of wires (Bradbury-Nielson gate), which shutters the ion beam on and off. By isolating and exaggerating individual skewing effects in simulating the HT-TOFMS process, we determined the nature of errors that arise from various defects. In particular, we find that the most damaging defects are: mismatched voltages between the wire sets and the acceleration voltage of the instrument, which cause positive and negative peaks throughout mass spectra; insufficient deflection voltage, which reduces the intensity of real peaks and causes negative peaks that are spread across the entire mass range; and voltage errors as the wire sets return from their deflection voltage to their transmission value, which yield significant reductions in peak intensities, create artificial peaks throughout mass spectra, and broaden real peaks by causing positive peaks to grow in the bins adjacent to them. Because the magnitude of the modulation defects grows as the applied modulation voltage is increased, Bradbury-Nielson gates with finer wire spacing, and hence stronger effective fields for a given applied voltage, were produced and installed. Operating at 10 to 15 V where errors in the electronics are essentially absent, the most finely spaced gate (100 microm) yielded signal-to-noise ratios that were more than two times higher than those achieved with more widely spaced gates. As an alternative method for minimizing skewing effects, HT-TOFMS data were post processed using an exact knowledge of the modulation defects. Nonbinary matrices that mimic the actual encoding process were built by measuring voltage versus time traces and then translating these traces to transmission versus time. Use of these matrices in the deconvolution step led to marked improvements in spectral resolution but require full knowledge of the encoding defects.
26 schema:genre research_article
27 schema:inLanguage en
28 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
29 schema:isPartOf N0e09c5e7621b425da709d4fb44e07f7d
30 N54f06c5a974045c79d7b50d8fd98439b
31 sg:journal.1100508
32 schema:name Effects of modulation defects on hadamard transform time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HT-TOFMS)
33 schema:pagination 278-286
34 schema:productId N173bc77b31d94f5c8a75967f14513ac7
35 N4eb09576917c4897bde77de2eb5d1911
36 N5185c9c899ee497a8641b092c1f0744a
37 Na6e7eb519a4348f9a5519bc4618b647d
38 Nb008d38a9df24ecf96ada7307cdc9a99
39 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013141968
40 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1044-0305(03)00006-0
41 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T00:13
42 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
43 schema:sdPublisher Nfb7925471d5143daacce961e6287a5fd
44 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1016/S1044-0305(03)00006-0
45 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
46 sgo:sdDataset articles
47 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
48 N092918ba2c874508bbcf28623e665168 rdf:first sg:person.0734637406.10
49 rdf:rest N490c0cccf96045e6aa903ec471671a5d
50 N0e09c5e7621b425da709d4fb44e07f7d schema:volumeNumber 14
51 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
52 N173bc77b31d94f5c8a75967f14513ac7 schema:name doi
53 schema:value 10.1016/s1044-0305(03)00006-0
54 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
55 N490c0cccf96045e6aa903ec471671a5d rdf:first sg:person.0660224774.27
56 rdf:rest N8a87137776254b0eb571fec46106fc6e
57 N4eb09576917c4897bde77de2eb5d1911 schema:name dimensions_id
58 schema:value pub.1013141968
59 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
60 N5185c9c899ee497a8641b092c1f0744a schema:name nlm_unique_id
61 schema:value 9010412
62 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
63 N54f06c5a974045c79d7b50d8fd98439b schema:issueNumber 3
64 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
65 N8a87137776254b0eb571fec46106fc6e rdf:first sg:person.010075246350.09
66 rdf:rest rdf:nil
67 Na6e7eb519a4348f9a5519bc4618b647d schema:name readcube_id
68 schema:value 3e9aa88aae755539aa04f34716c8dab922a5b22a33ce85df46494c176e74612d
69 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
70 Nb008d38a9df24ecf96ada7307cdc9a99 schema:name pubmed_id
71 schema:value 12648935
72 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
73 Nfb7925471d5143daacce961e6287a5fd schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
74 rdf:type schema:Organization
75 anzsrc-for:02 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
76 schema:name Physical Sciences
77 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
78 anzsrc-for:0299 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
79 schema:name Other Physical Sciences
80 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
81 sg:journal.1100508 schema:issn 1044-0305
82 1879-1123
83 schema:name Journal of The American Society for Mass Spectrometry
84 rdf:type schema:Periodical
85 sg:person.010075246350.09 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.168010.e
86 schema:familyName Zare
87 schema:givenName Richard N.
88 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010075246350.09
89 rdf:type schema:Person
90 sg:person.0660224774.27 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.168010.e
91 schema:familyName Fernández
92 schema:givenName Facundo M.
93 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0660224774.27
94 rdf:type schema:Person
95 sg:person.0734637406.10 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.168010.e
96 schema:familyName Kimmel
97 schema:givenName Joel R.
98 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0734637406.10
99 rdf:type schema:Person
100 sg:pub.10.1016/s1044-0305(01)00322-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022365593
101 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1044-0305(01)00322-1
102 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
103 https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1097-0231(19990615)13:11<994::aid-rcm596>3.0.co;2-w schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013405697
104 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
105 https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200390047 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028803256
106 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
107 https://doi.org/10.1016/0029-554x(70)90607-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037014776
108 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
109 https://doi.org/10.1016/0039-9140(90)80047-j schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029243610
110 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
111 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac001065n schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054972307
112 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
113 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac011149b schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054992845
114 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
115 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac012521q schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054993070
116 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
117 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac015673u schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054993304
118 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
119 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac9804036 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055075359
120 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
121 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac990252m schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055076731
122 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
123 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac990625j schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055077094
124 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
125 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1146553 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057674733
126 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
127 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1148823 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057677227
128 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
129 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1150456 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057679013
130 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
131 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1416109 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057704487
132 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
133 https://doi.org/10.1366/0003702011951722 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065255516
134 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
135 https://doi.org/10.1366/0003702874447383 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065261797
136 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
137 https://doi.org/10.1366/0003702934067676 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065263714
138 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
139 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.168010.e schema:alternateName Stanford University
140 schema:name Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
141 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...