Budget Impact Analysis of an Epigenetic Test Used for Diagnosing Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder from the Perspective of a Laboratory ... View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2021-10-10

AUTHORS

Patrick Berrigan, Geoffrey G. Hicks, Wendy J. Ungar, Jennifer D. Zwicker

ABSTRACT

Background and AimsFetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a condition that results from prenatal alcohol exposure. Though diagnosis is important for individuals with FASD to receive appropriate care, diagnosis can be difficult to obtain. Accurate diagnoses can be impeded because of an inability to confirm prenatal alcohol exposure. This is particularly problematic in instances when family cannot confirm prenatal alcohol exposure. DNA methylation testing represents a novel approach to identifying prenatal alcohol exposure via epigenetic biomarkers. The objective was to assess the impact on laboratory expenditures from adopting DNA methylation additively to the diagnostic workup for patients suspected of having FASD for whom prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be otherwise confirmed.MethodsA budget impact model was developed that incorporates laboratory cost data, population data for Manitoba Canada, literature, and expert opinion. Probabilistic analysis was conducted for the primary analysis and deterministic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the sensitivity of the budget impact to changes in model parameters. The perspective of the present study is that of the laboratory budget holder at a centralized laboratory in Manitoba, Canada.ResultsOver a 5-year period, it was estimated that there would be 500 DNA methylation tests and the predicted budget impact to the laboratory budget holder was $207,574 (95% credible interval: 70,208–408,161) in Canadian dollars (CAD). Over a 10-year period, it was estimated that there would be 1017 DNA methylation tests and the predicted budget impact to the laboratory budget holder was CAD$439,470 (95% credible interval: 148,902–867,328).ConclusionsFindings provide insight into the impact that DNA methylation testing would have on laboratory budgets if used in the diagnostic workup for FASD in individuals for whom prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be confirmed otherwise. More... »

PAGES

1-11

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s41669-021-00304-4

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s41669-021-00304-4

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1141779825

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34628597


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Biological Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0604", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Genetics", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "School of Public Policy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.22072.35", 
          "name": [
            "School of Public Policy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Berrigan", 
        "givenName": "Patrick", 
        "id": "sg:person.011152562747.61", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011152562747.61"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21613.37", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Hicks", 
        "givenName": "Geoffrey G.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01042065035.24", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01042065035.24"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17063.33", 
          "name": [
            "Program of Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada", 
            "Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Ungar", 
        "givenName": "Wendy J.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01201031706.74", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01201031706.74"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.22072.35", 
          "name": [
            "School of Public Policy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada", 
            "Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Zwicker", 
        "givenName": "Jennifer D.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01321317252.31", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01321317252.31"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf03404505", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074489377", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03404505"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13148-018-0439-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100381866", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13148-018-0439-6"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10488-014-0537-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035551547", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-014-0537-5"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10803-020-04603-3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1129322025", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04603-3"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s12889-019-8110-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1123694520", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-8110-5"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11065-011-9167-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046723129", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-011-9167-9"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2021-10-10", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2021-10-10", 
    "description": "Background and AimsFetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a condition that results from prenatal alcohol exposure. Though diagnosis is important for individuals with FASD to receive appropriate care, diagnosis can be difficult to obtain. Accurate diagnoses can be impeded because of an inability to confirm prenatal alcohol exposure. This is particularly problematic in instances when family cannot confirm prenatal alcohol exposure. DNA methylation testing represents a novel approach to identifying prenatal alcohol exposure via epigenetic biomarkers. The objective was to assess the impact on laboratory expenditures from adopting DNA methylation additively to the diagnostic workup for patients suspected of having FASD for whom prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be otherwise confirmed.MethodsA budget impact model was developed that incorporates laboratory cost data, population data for Manitoba Canada, literature, and expert opinion. Probabilistic analysis was conducted for the primary analysis and deterministic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the sensitivity of the budget impact to changes in model parameters. The perspective of the present study is that of the laboratory budget holder at a centralized laboratory in Manitoba, Canada.ResultsOver a 5-year period, it was estimated that there would be 500 DNA methylation tests and the predicted budget impact to the laboratory budget holder was $207,574 (95% credible interval: 70,208\u2013408,161)\u00a0in\u00a0Canadian dollars (CAD). Over a 10-year period, it was estimated that there would be 1017 DNA methylation tests and the predicted budget impact to the laboratory budget holder was CAD$439,470 (95% credible interval: 148,902\u2013867,328).ConclusionsFindings provide insight into the impact that DNA methylation testing would have on laboratory budgets if used in the diagnostic workup for FASD in individuals for whom prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be confirmed otherwise.", 
    "genre": "article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s41669-021-00304-4", 
    "inLanguage": "en", 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1284515", 
        "issn": [
          "2509-4262", 
          "2509-4254"
        ], 
        "name": "PharmacoEconomics - Open", 
        "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }
    ], 
    "keywords": [
      "prenatal alcohol exposure", 
      "alcohol exposure", 
      "alcohol spectrum disorders", 
      "budget impact", 
      "DNA methylation test", 
      "diagnostic workup", 
      "methylation testing", 
      "MethodsA budget impact model", 
      "DNA methylation testing", 
      "fetal alcohol spectrum disorders", 
      "budget impact model", 
      "methylation test", 
      "budget impact analysis", 
      "deterministic sensitivity analyses", 
      "Canadian dollars", 
      "budget holders", 
      "spectrum disorder", 
      "appropriate care", 
      "primary analysis", 
      "accurate diagnosis", 
      "laboratory expenditures", 
      "diagnosis", 
      "workup", 
      "FASD", 
      "epigenetic biomarkers", 
      "exposure", 
      "centralized laboratories", 
      "disorders", 
      "present study", 
      "epigenetic test", 
      "cost data", 
      "expert opinion", 
      "population data", 
      "patients", 
      "Manitoba Canada", 
      "ResultsOver", 
      "individuals", 
      "biomarkers", 
      "DNA methylation", 
      "care", 
      "laboratory budget", 
      "period", 
      "ConclusionsFindings", 
      "test", 
      "testing", 
      "impact", 
      "inability", 
      "data", 
      "analysis", 
      "Canada", 
      "study", 
      "sensitivity analysis", 
      "background", 
      "impact model", 
      "sensitivity", 
      "Manitoba", 
      "expenditure", 
      "methylation", 
      "changes", 
      "objective", 
      "family", 
      "novel approach", 
      "literature", 
      "laboratory", 
      "opinion", 
      "dollars", 
      "perspective", 
      "insights", 
      "conditions", 
      "model", 
      "instances", 
      "approach", 
      "parameters", 
      "impact analysis", 
      "holder", 
      "probabilistic analysis", 
      "budget", 
      "model parameters", 
      "AimsFetal alcohol spectrum disorder", 
      "laboratory cost data", 
      "laboratory budget holder"
    ], 
    "name": "Budget Impact Analysis of an Epigenetic Test Used for Diagnosing Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder from the Perspective of a Laboratory Budget Holder in Manitoba, Canada", 
    "pagination": "1-11", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1141779825"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1007/s41669-021-00304-4"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "34628597"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1007/s41669-021-00304-4", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1141779825"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2022-01-01T19:04", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20220101/entities/gbq_results/article/article_913.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://doi.org/10.1007/s41669-021-00304-4"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s41669-021-00304-4'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s41669-021-00304-4'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s41669-021-00304-4'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s41669-021-00304-4'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

191 TRIPLES      22 PREDICATES      111 URIs      97 LITERALS      5 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1007/s41669-021-00304-4 schema:about anzsrc-for:06
2 anzsrc-for:0604
3 schema:author N8fe365d7934149678d548d932dd1931e
4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf03404505
5 sg:pub.10.1007/s10488-014-0537-5
6 sg:pub.10.1007/s10803-020-04603-3
7 sg:pub.10.1007/s11065-011-9167-9
8 sg:pub.10.1186/s12889-019-8110-5
9 sg:pub.10.1186/s13148-018-0439-6
10 schema:datePublished 2021-10-10
11 schema:datePublishedReg 2021-10-10
12 schema:description Background and AimsFetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a condition that results from prenatal alcohol exposure. Though diagnosis is important for individuals with FASD to receive appropriate care, diagnosis can be difficult to obtain. Accurate diagnoses can be impeded because of an inability to confirm prenatal alcohol exposure. This is particularly problematic in instances when family cannot confirm prenatal alcohol exposure. DNA methylation testing represents a novel approach to identifying prenatal alcohol exposure via epigenetic biomarkers. The objective was to assess the impact on laboratory expenditures from adopting DNA methylation additively to the diagnostic workup for patients suspected of having FASD for whom prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be otherwise confirmed.MethodsA budget impact model was developed that incorporates laboratory cost data, population data for Manitoba Canada, literature, and expert opinion. Probabilistic analysis was conducted for the primary analysis and deterministic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the sensitivity of the budget impact to changes in model parameters. The perspective of the present study is that of the laboratory budget holder at a centralized laboratory in Manitoba, Canada.ResultsOver a 5-year period, it was estimated that there would be 500 DNA methylation tests and the predicted budget impact to the laboratory budget holder was $207,574 (95% credible interval: 70,208–408,161) in Canadian dollars (CAD). Over a 10-year period, it was estimated that there would be 1017 DNA methylation tests and the predicted budget impact to the laboratory budget holder was CAD$439,470 (95% credible interval: 148,902–867,328).ConclusionsFindings provide insight into the impact that DNA methylation testing would have on laboratory budgets if used in the diagnostic workup for FASD in individuals for whom prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be confirmed otherwise.
13 schema:genre article
14 schema:inLanguage en
15 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
16 schema:isPartOf sg:journal.1284515
17 schema:keywords AimsFetal alcohol spectrum disorder
18 Canada
19 Canadian dollars
20 ConclusionsFindings
21 DNA methylation
22 DNA methylation test
23 DNA methylation testing
24 FASD
25 Manitoba
26 Manitoba Canada
27 MethodsA budget impact model
28 ResultsOver
29 accurate diagnosis
30 alcohol exposure
31 alcohol spectrum disorders
32 analysis
33 approach
34 appropriate care
35 background
36 biomarkers
37 budget
38 budget holders
39 budget impact
40 budget impact analysis
41 budget impact model
42 care
43 centralized laboratories
44 changes
45 conditions
46 cost data
47 data
48 deterministic sensitivity analyses
49 diagnosis
50 diagnostic workup
51 disorders
52 dollars
53 epigenetic biomarkers
54 epigenetic test
55 expenditure
56 expert opinion
57 exposure
58 family
59 fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
60 holder
61 impact
62 impact analysis
63 impact model
64 inability
65 individuals
66 insights
67 instances
68 laboratory
69 laboratory budget
70 laboratory budget holder
71 laboratory cost data
72 laboratory expenditures
73 literature
74 methylation
75 methylation test
76 methylation testing
77 model
78 model parameters
79 novel approach
80 objective
81 opinion
82 parameters
83 patients
84 period
85 perspective
86 population data
87 prenatal alcohol exposure
88 present study
89 primary analysis
90 probabilistic analysis
91 sensitivity
92 sensitivity analysis
93 spectrum disorder
94 study
95 test
96 testing
97 workup
98 schema:name Budget Impact Analysis of an Epigenetic Test Used for Diagnosing Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder from the Perspective of a Laboratory Budget Holder in Manitoba, Canada
99 schema:pagination 1-11
100 schema:productId N068ac751f6b848229b5681f1f01bb411
101 Na068f4201ab44034a1676557deb3363c
102 Nd2ca78da869849359113c9e2a925a2cb
103 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1141779825
104 https://doi.org/10.1007/s41669-021-00304-4
105 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-01-01T19:04
106 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
107 schema:sdPublisher N3c5467ccdf60412fb1b3b0c305c4548c
108 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1007/s41669-021-00304-4
109 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
110 sgo:sdDataset articles
111 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
112 N068ac751f6b848229b5681f1f01bb411 schema:name doi
113 schema:value 10.1007/s41669-021-00304-4
114 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
115 N3c5467ccdf60412fb1b3b0c305c4548c schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
116 rdf:type schema:Organization
117 N70bda56561d1429eb2170cbe1fd02c8b rdf:first sg:person.01201031706.74
118 rdf:rest Nc233c9d63bb7470aa9e163e328471583
119 N8fe365d7934149678d548d932dd1931e rdf:first sg:person.011152562747.61
120 rdf:rest Nc018193e146b4fbdb2d35ff9dfb360dc
121 Na068f4201ab44034a1676557deb3363c schema:name pubmed_id
122 schema:value 34628597
123 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
124 Nc018193e146b4fbdb2d35ff9dfb360dc rdf:first sg:person.01042065035.24
125 rdf:rest N70bda56561d1429eb2170cbe1fd02c8b
126 Nc233c9d63bb7470aa9e163e328471583 rdf:first sg:person.01321317252.31
127 rdf:rest rdf:nil
128 Nd2ca78da869849359113c9e2a925a2cb schema:name dimensions_id
129 schema:value pub.1141779825
130 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
131 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
132 schema:name Biological Sciences
133 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
134 anzsrc-for:0604 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
135 schema:name Genetics
136 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
137 sg:journal.1284515 schema:issn 2509-4254
138 2509-4262
139 schema:name PharmacoEconomics - Open
140 schema:publisher Springer Nature
141 rdf:type schema:Periodical
142 sg:person.01042065035.24 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.21613.37
143 schema:familyName Hicks
144 schema:givenName Geoffrey G.
145 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01042065035.24
146 rdf:type schema:Person
147 sg:person.011152562747.61 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.22072.35
148 schema:familyName Berrigan
149 schema:givenName Patrick
150 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011152562747.61
151 rdf:type schema:Person
152 sg:person.01201031706.74 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.17063.33
153 schema:familyName Ungar
154 schema:givenName Wendy J.
155 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01201031706.74
156 rdf:type schema:Person
157 sg:person.01321317252.31 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.22072.35
158 schema:familyName Zwicker
159 schema:givenName Jennifer D.
160 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01321317252.31
161 rdf:type schema:Person
162 sg:pub.10.1007/bf03404505 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074489377
163 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03404505
164 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
165 sg:pub.10.1007/s10488-014-0537-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035551547
166 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-014-0537-5
167 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
168 sg:pub.10.1007/s10803-020-04603-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1129322025
169 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04603-3
170 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
171 sg:pub.10.1007/s11065-011-9167-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046723129
172 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-011-9167-9
173 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
174 sg:pub.10.1186/s12889-019-8110-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1123694520
175 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-8110-5
176 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
177 sg:pub.10.1186/s13148-018-0439-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100381866
178 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13148-018-0439-6
179 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
180 grid-institutes:grid.17063.33 schema:alternateName Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
181 schema:name Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
182 Program of Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada
183 rdf:type schema:Organization
184 grid-institutes:grid.21613.37 schema:alternateName Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
185 schema:name Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
186 rdf:type schema:Organization
187 grid-institutes:grid.22072.35 schema:alternateName Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
188 School of Public Policy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
189 schema:name Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
190 School of Public Policy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
191 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...