Enhanced Differentiation of Dental Pulp Cells Cultured on Microtubular Polymer Scaffolds In Vitro View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2017-05-30

AUTHORS

Morteza Haeri, Karen Sagomonyants, Mina Mina, Liisa T. Kuhn, A. Jon Goldberg

ABSTRACT

Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease. Dental tissue engineering is a promising alternative approach to alleviate the shortcomings of the currently available restorative materials. Mimicking the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) could enhance the performance of tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, we developed microtubular (~20 μm diameter) polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) scaffolds resembling the tubular (~2.5 μm diameter) structure of dentin, the collagen-based mineralized tissue that forms the major portion of teeth, to study the effect of scaffold architecture on differentiation of mouse dental pulp cells in vitro. Flat (control), plasma-treated solid, and microtubular PMMA scaffolds with densities of 240 ± 15, 459 ± 51, and 480 ± 116 tubules/mm2 were first characterized using scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements. Dental pulp cells were cultured on the surface of the scaffolds for up to 21 days and examined using various assays. Cell proliferation and mineralization were examined using AlamarBlue and Xylenol Orange (XO) staining assays, respectively. The differentiation of pulp cells into odontoblasts was examined by immunostaining for nestin and by quantitative PCR analysis for dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1), dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp), and osteocalcin (Ocn). Our results showed that the highest tubular density scaffolds significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced differentiation of pulp cells into odontoblasts as compared to control flat scaffolds, as evidenced by increased expression of nestin (5.4×). However, mineralization was suppressed on all surfaces, possibly due to low cell density. These results suggest that the microtubular architecture may be a desirable feature of scaffolds developed for clinical applications.Lay SummaryRegenerative engineering of diseased or traumatized tooth structure could avoid the deficiencies of traditional dental restorative (filling) materials. Cells in the dental pulp have the potential to differentiate to dentin-producing odontoblast cells. Furthermore, cell-supporting scaffolds that mimic a natural extracellular matrix (ECM) are known to influence behavior of progenitor cells. Accordingly, we hypothesized that a dentin-like microtubular scaffold would enhance differentiation of dental pulp cells. The hypothesis was proven true, and differentiation to odontoblasts increased with increasing density of the microtubules. However, mineralization was suppressed, possibly due to a low density of cells. The results demonstrate the potential benefits of a microtubular scaffold design to promote odontoblast cells for regeneration of dentin. More... »

PAGES

94-105

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s40883-017-0033-z

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40883-017-0033-z

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1085722276

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29457125


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