Is Desistance Invariant Across Time and Geography? Examining Desistance in Released Prisoners from 30 States over 9 Years View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2019-01-21

AUTHORS

Mariel Alper

ABSTRACT

Most criminal career research must use data with inherent limitations. Two common areas of data-imposed limitations for recidivism and desistance researchers are short observation lengths (i.e., follow-up periods) and jurisdiction-specific criminal histories. To help researchers understand the effect of data-imposed limitations, this study explores and compares the criminal career patterns observed (1) with varying follow-up periods and (2) using individuals’ jurisdictionally limited vs. national criminal history records. This study uses criminal history data to track a sample of about 70,000 prisoners selected to represent the more than 400,000 prisoners released in 2005 from 30 states from their first arrest to 9 years after their release. Using a multivariate analysis, this study measures desistance as the cessation of arrest activity after release from prison in 2005. First, the study examines if the correlates of desistance after release from prison are consistent across 3-, 6-, and 9-year follow-up periods. Second, the study examines if the correlates of desistance are consistent when post-release data only describe arrests that occurred in the state of release from prison compared to arrests occurring within and outside the state of release (i.e., nationwide). Given their unique offending patterns and pathways to crime, separate models are presented for males and females. Those who are falsely labeled as desisters in the shorter follow-up periods or when using just in-state arrest records differ from those labeled as desisters in the more complete criminal histories. This study has implications for developmental and life-course theories that rely on empirical support from limited recidivism follow-up periods and jurisdiction-specific criminal histories. By understanding the effects of data-imposed limitations of follow-up periods and geographical coverage on criminal career research, the validity of criminological theories of desistance across the life course and across place can be better measured and understood. More... »

PAGES

1-16

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2005-09. Ex-offender employment programs and recidivism: A meta-analysis in JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CRIMINOLOGY
  • 1985-03. Selective incapacitation and the Philadelphia cohort data in JOURNAL OF QUANTITATIVE CRIMINOLOGY
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s40865-019-0104-6

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40865-019-0104-6

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1111580252


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1602", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Criminology", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/16", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Studies in Human Society", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "United States Department of Justice", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.423379.8", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 810 7th St NW, 20531, Washington, DC, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Alper", 
            "givenName": "Mariel", 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11292-005-8127-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007298662", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11292-005-8127-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11292-005-8127-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007298662", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11292-005-8127-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1993.tb01133.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012350717"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1993.tb01133.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012350717"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9133.2009.00551.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013384487"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9133.2009.00551.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013384487"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2009.00155.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027598954"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2009.00155.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027598954"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2010.00205.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029312575"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2010.00205.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029312575"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1996.tb01220.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036086287"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1996.tb01220.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036086287"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.73.6.1154", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040610585"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.73.6.1154", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040610585"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2010.00217.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042379958"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2003.tb00987.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042787640"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2003.tb00987.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042787640"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01065247", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044138143", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01065247"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/0032885505276969", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053821545"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/0032885505276969", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053821545"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/0032885505276969", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053821545"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/449107", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058733763"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/652208", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058841586"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854811401990", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063726327"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854811401990", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063726327"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/1477370808095124", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064031482"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/1477370808095124", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064031482"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bjc.a046912", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083473092"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697243.001.0001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1098704810"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1037/10430-000", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1109721171"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000170", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1110201988"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000170", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1110201988"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2019-01-21", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2019-01-21", 
        "description": "Most criminal career research must use data with inherent limitations. Two common areas of data-imposed limitations for recidivism and desistance researchers are short observation lengths (i.e., follow-up periods) and jurisdiction-specific criminal histories. To help researchers understand the effect of data-imposed limitations, this study explores and compares the criminal career patterns observed (1) with varying follow-up periods and (2) using individuals\u2019 jurisdictionally limited vs. national criminal history records. This study uses criminal history data to track a sample of about 70,000 prisoners selected to represent the more than 400,000 prisoners released in 2005 from 30 states from their first arrest to 9 years after their release. Using a multivariate analysis, this study measures desistance as the cessation of arrest activity after release from prison in 2005. First, the study examines if the correlates of desistance after release from prison are consistent across 3-, 6-, and 9-year follow-up periods. Second, the study examines if the correlates of desistance are consistent when post-release data only describe arrests that occurred in the state of release from prison compared to arrests occurring within and outside the state of release (i.e., nationwide). Given their unique offending patterns and pathways to crime, separate models are presented for males and females. Those who are falsely labeled as desisters in the shorter follow-up periods or when using just in-state arrest records differ from those labeled as desisters in the more complete criminal histories. This study has implications for developmental and life-course theories that rely on empirical support from limited recidivism follow-up periods and jurisdiction-specific criminal histories. By understanding the effects of data-imposed limitations of follow-up periods and geographical coverage on criminal career research, the validity of criminological theories of desistance across the life course and across place can be better measured and understood.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s40865-019-0104-6", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1051481", 
            "issn": [
              "2199-4641", 
              "2199-465X"
            ], 
            "name": "Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Is Desistance Invariant Across Time and Geography? Examining Desistance in Released Prisoners from 30 States over 9 Years", 
        "pagination": "1-16", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "e5e7e21a130dd693214e698b3b2a2fefd268533564792f9cf53259555b66c8fd"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/s40865-019-0104-6"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1111580252"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s40865-019-0104-6", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1111580252"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T08:55", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000325_0000000325/records_100779_00000000.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs40865-019-0104-6"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s40865-019-0104-6'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s40865-019-0104-6'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s40865-019-0104-6'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s40865-019-0104-6'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    113 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      43 URIs      16 LITERALS      5 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/s40865-019-0104-6 schema:about anzsrc-for:16
    2 anzsrc-for:1602
    3 schema:author Nc2f30e25bf6f4242b99798568c1c9733
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf01065247
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/s11292-005-8127-x
    6 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.73.6.1154
    7 https://doi.org/10.1037/10430-000
    8 https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000170
    9 https://doi.org/10.1086/449107
    10 https://doi.org/10.1086/652208
    11 https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697243.001.0001
    12 https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bjc.a046912
    13 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1993.tb01133.x
    14 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1996.tb01220.x
    15 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2003.tb00987.x
    16 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2009.00155.x
    17 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2010.00205.x
    18 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2010.00217.x
    19 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9133.2009.00551.x
    20 https://doi.org/10.1177/0032885505276969
    21 https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854811401990
    22 https://doi.org/10.1177/1477370808095124
    23 schema:datePublished 2019-01-21
    24 schema:datePublishedReg 2019-01-21
    25 schema:description Most criminal career research must use data with inherent limitations. Two common areas of data-imposed limitations for recidivism and desistance researchers are short observation lengths (i.e., follow-up periods) and jurisdiction-specific criminal histories. To help researchers understand the effect of data-imposed limitations, this study explores and compares the criminal career patterns observed (1) with varying follow-up periods and (2) using individuals’ jurisdictionally limited vs. national criminal history records. This study uses criminal history data to track a sample of about 70,000 prisoners selected to represent the more than 400,000 prisoners released in 2005 from 30 states from their first arrest to 9 years after their release. Using a multivariate analysis, this study measures desistance as the cessation of arrest activity after release from prison in 2005. First, the study examines if the correlates of desistance after release from prison are consistent across 3-, 6-, and 9-year follow-up periods. Second, the study examines if the correlates of desistance are consistent when post-release data only describe arrests that occurred in the state of release from prison compared to arrests occurring within and outside the state of release (i.e., nationwide). Given their unique offending patterns and pathways to crime, separate models are presented for males and females. Those who are falsely labeled as desisters in the shorter follow-up periods or when using just in-state arrest records differ from those labeled as desisters in the more complete criminal histories. This study has implications for developmental and life-course theories that rely on empirical support from limited recidivism follow-up periods and jurisdiction-specific criminal histories. By understanding the effects of data-imposed limitations of follow-up periods and geographical coverage on criminal career research, the validity of criminological theories of desistance across the life course and across place can be better measured and understood.
    26 schema:genre research_article
    27 schema:inLanguage en
    28 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    29 schema:isPartOf sg:journal.1051481
    30 schema:name Is Desistance Invariant Across Time and Geography? Examining Desistance in Released Prisoners from 30 States over 9 Years
    31 schema:pagination 1-16
    32 schema:productId N739a7f9302424783ad9be144d8e0b088
    33 Nb001b4f787c1433399d910a26cb3a331
    34 Nf40600ed66464878a0365f444e2285e5
    35 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1111580252
    36 https://doi.org/10.1007/s40865-019-0104-6
    37 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T08:55
    38 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    39 schema:sdPublisher N400bb530f2a94841912e433e8e0683af
    40 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs40865-019-0104-6
    41 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    42 sgo:sdDataset articles
    43 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    44 N26a4b6242493430695ef3a6ef9413bbf schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.423379.8
    45 schema:familyName Alper
    46 schema:givenName Mariel
    47 rdf:type schema:Person
    48 N400bb530f2a94841912e433e8e0683af schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    49 rdf:type schema:Organization
    50 N739a7f9302424783ad9be144d8e0b088 schema:name dimensions_id
    51 schema:value pub.1111580252
    52 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    53 Nb001b4f787c1433399d910a26cb3a331 schema:name doi
    54 schema:value 10.1007/s40865-019-0104-6
    55 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    56 Nc2f30e25bf6f4242b99798568c1c9733 rdf:first N26a4b6242493430695ef3a6ef9413bbf
    57 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    58 Nf40600ed66464878a0365f444e2285e5 schema:name readcube_id
    59 schema:value e5e7e21a130dd693214e698b3b2a2fefd268533564792f9cf53259555b66c8fd
    60 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    61 anzsrc-for:16 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    62 schema:name Studies in Human Society
    63 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    64 anzsrc-for:1602 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    65 schema:name Criminology
    66 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    67 sg:journal.1051481 schema:issn 2199-4641
    68 2199-465X
    69 schema:name Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology
    70 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    71 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01065247 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044138143
    72 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01065247
    73 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    74 sg:pub.10.1007/s11292-005-8127-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007298662
    75 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11292-005-8127-x
    76 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    77 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.73.6.1154 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040610585
    78 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    79 https://doi.org/10.1037/10430-000 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1109721171
    80 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    81 https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000170 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1110201988
    82 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    83 https://doi.org/10.1086/449107 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058733763
    84 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    85 https://doi.org/10.1086/652208 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058841586
    86 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    87 https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697243.001.0001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1098704810
    88 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    89 https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bjc.a046912 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083473092
    90 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    91 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1993.tb01133.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012350717
    92 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    93 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1996.tb01220.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036086287
    94 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    95 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2003.tb00987.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042787640
    96 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    97 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2009.00155.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027598954
    98 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    99 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2010.00205.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029312575
    100 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    101 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2010.00217.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042379958
    102 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    103 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9133.2009.00551.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013384487
    104 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    105 https://doi.org/10.1177/0032885505276969 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053821545
    106 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    107 https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854811401990 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063726327
    108 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    109 https://doi.org/10.1177/1477370808095124 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064031482
    110 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    111 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.423379.8 schema:alternateName United States Department of Justice
    112 schema:name Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 810 7th St NW, 20531, Washington, DC, USA
    113 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...