Attachment and Its Social Determinants, Kenyan Child and Adolescent Perspective from Two Informal Settlements in Nairobi: A Qualitative Study View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2021-03-13

AUTHORS

Anastasia Polkovnikova Wamoto, Grace Nduku Wambua, Judith Osok, Beatrice Madeghe, Manasi Kumar

ABSTRACT

There has been a sustained interest in examining social determinants of health (SDH) for late childhood and adolescence to shift the focus from individual risk factors to social patterns, material conditions and to improve long-term health outcomes. This study offers an opportunity to look at the number of risk and protective factors associated with SDH using children's narratives around their attachment relationships. The research was carried out in Kariobangi and Kangemi health centers of Nairobi County, Kenya. All 83 participants were recruited from the community with the assistance of community health workers. Fifty-seven percent of participants were girls; 65.1% of ages 12–14 and 34.9% of ages 8–11 years. Child Attachment Interview (Target et al., 2003) was used to study attachment security as well as adolescents’ understanding of their relational and social world. Inductive thematic analysis was informed by preexisting themes identified from the literature on “risk” and “protective” factors within different layers of SDH and focused on identifying children’s understanding and appraisals of those factors. Secure attachment with both parents had 37.3% of participants 33.7% had insecure attachment with one parent, and 28.9% had insecure attachment with both parents. The overarching themes included poverty, parenting, religion, and schooling. Some factors commonly classified as protective or risk factors were described and appraised by children as a more complex and multidimensional phenomenon. Apart from it, these factors appeared interconnected and interrelated with each other on different levels of SDH. More... »

PAGES

393-407

References to SciGraph publications

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  • 2014-08-27. Adverse life events and delinquent behavior among Kenyan adolescents: a cross-sectional study on the protective role of parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem in CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY AND MENTAL HEALTH
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  • 2018-12-05. Mechanisms associated with maternal adverse childhood experiences on offspring’s mental health in Nairobi informal settlements: a mediational model testing approach in BMC PSYCHIATRY
  • 2015-11-02. Associations Between Attachment Narratives and Self-Report Measures of Attachment in Middle Childhood: Extending Evidence for the Validity of the Child Attachment Interview in JOURNAL OF CHILD AND FAMILY STUDIES
  • 2017-10-23. How Mothers in Poverty Explain Their Use of Corporal Punishment: A Qualitative Study in Kampala, Uganda in THE EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH
  • 2019-01-14. Malnutrition, morbidity and infection in the informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya: an epidemiological study in ITALIAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
  • 2009-06-30. The Association of Religiosity, Sexual Education, and Parental Factors with Risky Sexual Behaviors Among Adolescents and Young Adults in JOURNAL OF RELIGION AND HEALTH
  • 2012-03-17. A Review of Parenting Programs in Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges for Preventing Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties in Children in CLINICAL CHILD AND FAMILY PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
  • 2018-11-23. The Causal Relationship between Childhood Adversity and Developmental Trajectories of Delinquency: A Consideration of Genetic and Environmental Confounds in JOURNAL OF YOUTH AND ADOLESCENCE
  • 2017-03-08. Individual-level factors associated with mental health in Rwandan youth affected by HIV/AIDS in SOCIAL PSYCHIATRY AND PSYCHIATRIC EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • 2011-02-23. Timing and Sequencing of Events Marking the Transition to Adulthood in Two Informal Settlements in Nairobi, Kenya in JOURNAL OF URBAN HEALTH
  • 2019-02-22. Protective Factors Buffer Life Stress and Behavioral Health Outcomes among High-Risk Youth in JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY
  • 2018-06-01. The role of attachment relationship in adolescents’ problem behavior development: a cross-sectional study of Kenyan adolescents in Nairobi city in CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY AND MENTAL HEALTH
  • 2018-12-20. A cross-sectional study of depression with comorbid substance use dependency in pregnant adolescents from an informal settlement of Nairobi: drawing implications for treatment and prevention work in ANNALS OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY
  • 2017-09-05. Physical, Social, and Political Inequities Constraining Girls’ Menstrual Management at Schools in Informal Settlements of Nairobi, Kenya in JOURNAL OF URBAN HEALTH
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    39 Kariobangi
    40 Kenya
    41 Kenyan children
    42 Nairobi
    43 Nairobi County
    44 SDH
    45 adolescence
    46 adolescents
    47 adolescents' perspectives
    48 age 12
    49 age 8
    50 analysis
    51 appraisal
    52 assistance
    53 attachment
    54 attachment relationships
    55 attachment security
    56 center
    57 childhood
    58 children
    59 children's narratives
    60 children's understanding
    61 community
    62 community health workers
    63 conditions
    64 determinants
    65 different layers
    66 different levels
    67 factors
    68 focus
    69 girls
    70 health
    71 health centers
    72 health outcomes
    73 health workers
    74 individual risk factors
    75 inductive thematic analysis
    76 informal settlements
    77 insecure attachment
    78 interest
    79 interviews
    80 late childhood
    81 layer
    82 levels
    83 literature
    84 long-term health outcomes
    85 material conditions
    86 multidimensional phenomenon
    87 narratives
    88 number
    89 number of risks
    90 opportunities
    91 outcomes
    92 parenting
    93 parents
    94 participants
    95 participants 33.7
    96 patterns
    97 percent
    98 percent of participants
    99 perspective
    100 phenomenon
    101 poverty
    102 protective factors
    103 qualitative study
    104 relationship
    105 religion
    106 research
    107 risk
    108 risk factors
    109 secure attachment
    110 security
    111 settlement
    112 social determinants
    113 social patterns
    114 social world
    115 study
    116 thematic analysis
    117 themes
    118 understanding
    119 workers
    120 world
    121 years
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