Ghrelin forms in the modulation of energy balance and metabolism View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2018-10-24

AUTHORS

Gianluca Gortan Cappellari, Rocco Barazzoni

ABSTRACT

Ghrelin is a gastric hormone circulating in acylated (AG) and unacylated (UnAG) forms. This narrative review aims at presenting current emerging knowledge on the impact of ghrelin forms on energy balance and metabolism. AG represents ~ 10% of total plasma ghrelin, has an appetite-stimulating effect and is the only form for which a receptor has been identified. Moreover, other metabolic AG-induced effects have been reported, including the modulation of glucose homeostasis with stimulation of liver gluconeogenesis, the increase of fat mass and the improvement of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. On the other hand, UnAG has no orexigenic effects, however recent reports have shown that it is directly involved in the modulation of skeletal muscle energy metabolism by improving a cluster of interlinked functions including mitochondrial redox activities, tissue inflammation and insulin signalling and action. These findings are in agreement with human studies which show that UnAG circulating levels are positively associated with insulin sensitivity both in metabolic syndrome patients and in a large cohort from the general population. Moreover, ghrelin acylation is regulated by a nutrient sensor mechanism, specifically set on fatty acids availability. These recent findings consistently point towards a novel independent role of UnAG as a regulator of muscle metabolic pathways maintaining energy status and tissue anabolism. While a specific receptor for UnAG still needs to be identified, recent evidence strongly supports the hypothesis that the modulation of ghrelin-related molecular pathways, including those involved in its acylation, may be a potential novel target in the treatment of metabolic derangements in disease states characterized by metabolic and nutritional complications.Level of evidence Level V, narrative review. More... »

PAGES

997-1013

References to SciGraph publications

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  • 2015-06-25. Neutralizing circulating ghrelin by expressing a growth hormone secretagogue receptor-based protein protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice in GENE THERAPY
  • 2004-01-13. Molecular screening of the ghrelin gene in Italian obese children: the Leu72Met variant is associated with an earlier onset of obesity in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
  • 2011-07-08. Ghrelin Acts as an Antioxidant Agent in the Rat Kidney in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PEPTIDE RESEARCH AND THERAPEUTICS
  • 2007-08-30. Revised genomic structure of the human ghrelin gene and identification of novel exons, alternative splice variants and natural antisense transcripts in BMC GENOMICS
  • 2002-02. Uncoupling protein-2: evidence for its function as a metabolic regulator in DIABETOLOGIA
  • 2001-06. Post-prandial decrease of circulating human ghrelin levels in JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION
  • 1999-12. Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach in NATURE
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s40519-018-0599-6

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519-018-0599-6

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1107803986

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30353455


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    43 schema:description Ghrelin is a gastric hormone circulating in acylated (AG) and unacylated (UnAG) forms. This narrative review aims at presenting current emerging knowledge on the impact of ghrelin forms on energy balance and metabolism. AG represents ~ 10% of total plasma ghrelin, has an appetite-stimulating effect and is the only form for which a receptor has been identified. Moreover, other metabolic AG-induced effects have been reported, including the modulation of glucose homeostasis with stimulation of liver gluconeogenesis, the increase of fat mass and the improvement of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. On the other hand, UnAG has no orexigenic effects, however recent reports have shown that it is directly involved in the modulation of skeletal muscle energy metabolism by improving a cluster of interlinked functions including mitochondrial redox activities, tissue inflammation and insulin signalling and action. These findings are in agreement with human studies which show that UnAG circulating levels are positively associated with insulin sensitivity both in metabolic syndrome patients and in a large cohort from the general population. Moreover, ghrelin acylation is regulated by a nutrient sensor mechanism, specifically set on fatty acids availability. These recent findings consistently point towards a novel independent role of UnAG as a regulator of muscle metabolic pathways maintaining energy status and tissue anabolism. While a specific receptor for UnAG still needs to be identified, recent evidence strongly supports the hypothesis that the modulation of ghrelin-related molecular pathways, including those involved in its acylation, may be a potential novel target in the treatment of metabolic derangements in disease states characterized by metabolic and nutritional complications.Level of evidence Level V, narrative review.
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