Monitoring the Efficacy and Safety of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies: A Review and Network Meta-analysis of Antimalarial Therapeutic Efficacy Trials in ... View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2019-01-17

AUTHORS

Solange Whegang Youdom, Andreas Chiabi, Leonardo K. Basco

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the first-line antimalarial drugs used to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum alaria in many endemic countries worldwide. The present work reviewed the therapeutic efficacy of ACT in Cameroon more than 10 years after the initial change in national drug policy in 2004. METHODS: A PubMed literature search was performed to analyse clinical trials conducted in Cameroon from 2001 to May 2017. Clinical studies that evaluated ACT for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children or adults, and reported efficacy and/or safety, were included. In addition, a small network meta-analysis (NMA) with a frequentist approach was performed. RESULTS: Six papers were selected from 48 articles screened and were full-text reviewed. The efficacy of both artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) ranged from moderate to high, with polymerase chain reaction-corrected cure rates ranging from 96.7 to 100% and 88.2 to 100%, respectively, in per-protocol analysis, and 86.2 to 96.7% and 74.0 to 90.6%, respectively, in intention-to-treat analysis. The malaria evidence network suggested that AL and ASAQ efficacies were comparable. The highest day 3 parasite positivity rate was 8.2% for ASAQ and 4% for AL. A novel ACT, artesunate-atovaquoneproguanil (ASATPG) was tested once and showed a cure rate of 100%. Based on an ITT approach, the NMA revealed that AL was more efficacious than ASAQ, but the difference was not statistical significant (706 participants, three randomised clinical trials (RCT); OR 1.25, 95%CI 0.78-2.00). Adverse events ranged from mild to moderate severity but were not directly attributed to drug intake. CONCLUSION: ACTs are still effective and safe in Cameroon; however, there are insufficient data on their efficacy, safety and tolerability, therefore more RCTs should be conducted, including novel ACTs. More... »

PAGES

1-14

References to SciGraph publications

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  • 2015-10-29. Artesunate-amodiaquine versus artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of acute uncomplicated malaria in Congolese children under 10 years old living in a suburban area: a randomized study in MALARIA JOURNAL
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  • 2011-07-20. Multicentric assessment of the efficacy and tolerability of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine compared to artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa in MALARIA JOURNAL
  • 2010-02-19. Efficacy of non-artemisinin- and artemisinin-based combination therapies for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Cameroon in MALARIA JOURNAL
  • 2011-07-08. Comparative study of the efficacy and tolerability of dihydroartemisinin - piperaquine - trimethoprim versus artemether - lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cameroon, Ivory Coast and Senegal in MALARIA JOURNAL
  • 2011-02-28. Safety and efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine versus artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Zambian children in MALARIA JOURNAL
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    31 schema:description INTRODUCTION: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the first-line antimalarial drugs used to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum alaria in many endemic countries worldwide. The present work reviewed the therapeutic efficacy of ACT in Cameroon more than 10 years after the initial change in national drug policy in 2004. METHODS: A PubMed literature search was performed to analyse clinical trials conducted in Cameroon from 2001 to May 2017. Clinical studies that evaluated ACT for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children or adults, and reported efficacy and/or safety, were included. In addition, a small network meta-analysis (NMA) with a frequentist approach was performed. RESULTS: Six papers were selected from 48 articles screened and were full-text reviewed. The efficacy of both artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) ranged from moderate to high, with polymerase chain reaction-corrected cure rates ranging from 96.7 to 100% and 88.2 to 100%, respectively, in per-protocol analysis, and 86.2 to 96.7% and 74.0 to 90.6%, respectively, in intention-to-treat analysis. The malaria evidence network suggested that AL and ASAQ efficacies were comparable. The highest day 3 parasite positivity rate was 8.2% for ASAQ and 4% for AL. A novel ACT, artesunate-atovaquoneproguanil (ASATPG) was tested once and showed a cure rate of 100%. Based on an ITT approach, the NMA revealed that AL was more efficacious than ASAQ, but the difference was not statistical significant (706 participants, three randomised clinical trials (RCT); OR 1.25, 95%CI 0.78-2.00). Adverse events ranged from mild to moderate severity but were not directly attributed to drug intake. CONCLUSION: ACTs are still effective and safe in Cameroon; however, there are insufficient data on their efficacy, safety and tolerability, therefore more RCTs should be conducted, including novel ACTs.
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