Wire-based additive manufacturing using an electron beam as heat source View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2018-03

AUTHORS

J. Fuchs, C. Schneider, N. Enzinger

ABSTRACT

Many standard welding processes, such as gas metal arc-, laser-, or electron-beam welding, can be used for additive manufacturing (AM) with only slight adaptions. Wire-based additive manufacturing provides an interesting alternative to powder-based processes due to their simplicity and comparatively high deposition rates. The use of an electron beam as heat source for AM offers unique possibilities for construction of components due to its inherent flexibility. It is possible to efficiently build bigger parts with comparably fine features and high complexity. Furthermore, additional working steps such as preheating, surface modification, welding, or heat treatments can be implemented into the additive manufacturing process and thereby alleviate the bottleneck of the evacuation of the vacuum chamber. Aside from this, the ultra high vacuum atmosphere can be beneficial, when working with reactive materials such as Ti or Mo. The intrinsic complexity of electron-beam additive manufacturing (EBAM) can make a stable and reproducible process control quite challenging. In this study, the influence of the main process parameters, such as heat input, energy distribution, wire feed, and their complex interactions are investigated. Based on single beads on a mild steel substrate using an unalloyed metal core wire (G4Si1), the correlation between the process parameters such as beam current, acceleration voltage, speed, wire feed rate and position, and the resulting bead geometry, height, width and penetration was studied. These findings were used to successfully establish a multi pass layout consisting of one to six beads next to each other and up to ten layers in height. For basic characterization, metallographic analysis as well as hardness measurements were performed. More... »

PAGES

1-9

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2015-10. Wire-feed additive manufacturing of metal components: technologies, developments and future interests in THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
  • Journal

    TITLE

    Welding in the World

    ISSUE

    2

    VOLUME

    62

    Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s40194-017-0537-7

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40194-017-0537-7

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100247590


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0910", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Manufacturing Engineering", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/09", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Engineering", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Institute of Materials Science, Joining and Forming, Kopernikusgasse 24, 8010, Graz, Austria"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Fuchs", 
            "givenName": "J.", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Institute of Materials Science, Joining and Forming, Kopernikusgasse 24, 8010, Graz, Austria"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Schneider", 
            "givenName": "C.", 
            "id": "sg:person.07510155354.40", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07510155354.40"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Institute of Materials Science, Joining and Forming, Kopernikusgasse 24, 8010, Graz, Austria"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Enzinger", 
            "givenName": "N.", 
            "id": "sg:person.013524415675.35", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013524415675.35"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2015.01.024", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001019015"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1179/1743284714y.0000000704", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006914201"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2014.09.004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019272176"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00170-015-7077-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021417337", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-7077-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2014.06.048", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025768608"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2014.08.008", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026942316"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2015.07.001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034796877"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2015.12.004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043469653"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046310122", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046310122", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1243/0954405042418545", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064448187"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1243/0954405042418545", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064448187"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2018-03", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2018-03-01", 
        "description": "Many standard welding processes, such as gas metal arc-, laser-, or electron-beam welding, can be used for additive manufacturing (AM) with only slight adaptions. Wire-based additive manufacturing provides an interesting alternative to powder-based processes due to their simplicity and comparatively high deposition rates. The use of an electron beam as heat source for AM offers unique possibilities for construction of components due to its inherent flexibility. It is possible to efficiently build bigger parts with comparably fine features and high complexity. Furthermore, additional working steps such as preheating, surface modification, welding, or heat treatments can be implemented into the additive manufacturing process and thereby alleviate the bottleneck of the evacuation of the vacuum chamber. Aside from this, the ultra high vacuum atmosphere can be beneficial, when working with reactive materials such as Ti or Mo. The intrinsic complexity of electron-beam additive manufacturing (EBAM) can make a stable and reproducible process control quite challenging. In this study, the influence of the main process parameters, such as heat input, energy distribution, wire feed, and their complex interactions are investigated. Based on single beads on a mild steel substrate using an unalloyed metal core wire (G4Si1), the correlation between the process parameters such as beam current, acceleration voltage, speed, wire feed rate and position, and the resulting bead geometry, height, width and penetration was studied. These findings were used to successfully establish a multi pass layout consisting of one to six beads next to each other and up to ten layers in height. For basic characterization, metallographic analysis as well as hardness measurements were performed.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s40194-017-0537-7", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1136492", 
            "issn": [
              "0043-2288", 
              "1878-6669"
            ], 
            "name": "Welding in the World", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "2", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "62"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Wire-based additive manufacturing using an electron beam as heat source", 
        "pagination": "1-9", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "51d27217d1c762e30db5084776d5dffcda6e8d1330daba3e84135c8ace9b4237"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/s40194-017-0537-7"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1100247590"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s40194-017-0537-7", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100247590"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T23:39", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8693_00000603.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40194-017-0537-7"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s40194-017-0537-7'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s40194-017-0537-7'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s40194-017-0537-7'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s40194-017-0537-7'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    107 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      37 URIs      19 LITERALS      7 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/s40194-017-0537-7 schema:about anzsrc-for:09
    2 anzsrc-for:0910
    3 schema:author Nbde188d0ec044e7789dc4b4bd310ef79
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s00170-015-7077-3
    5 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046310122
    6 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2014.09.004
    7 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2015.07.001
    8 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2014.06.048
    9 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2015.01.024
    10 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2014.08.008
    11 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2015.12.004
    12 https://doi.org/10.1179/1743284714y.0000000704
    13 https://doi.org/10.1243/0954405042418545
    14 schema:datePublished 2018-03
    15 schema:datePublishedReg 2018-03-01
    16 schema:description Many standard welding processes, such as gas metal arc-, laser-, or electron-beam welding, can be used for additive manufacturing (AM) with only slight adaptions. Wire-based additive manufacturing provides an interesting alternative to powder-based processes due to their simplicity and comparatively high deposition rates. The use of an electron beam as heat source for AM offers unique possibilities for construction of components due to its inherent flexibility. It is possible to efficiently build bigger parts with comparably fine features and high complexity. Furthermore, additional working steps such as preheating, surface modification, welding, or heat treatments can be implemented into the additive manufacturing process and thereby alleviate the bottleneck of the evacuation of the vacuum chamber. Aside from this, the ultra high vacuum atmosphere can be beneficial, when working with reactive materials such as Ti or Mo. The intrinsic complexity of electron-beam additive manufacturing (EBAM) can make a stable and reproducible process control quite challenging. In this study, the influence of the main process parameters, such as heat input, energy distribution, wire feed, and their complex interactions are investigated. Based on single beads on a mild steel substrate using an unalloyed metal core wire (G4Si1), the correlation between the process parameters such as beam current, acceleration voltage, speed, wire feed rate and position, and the resulting bead geometry, height, width and penetration was studied. These findings were used to successfully establish a multi pass layout consisting of one to six beads next to each other and up to ten layers in height. For basic characterization, metallographic analysis as well as hardness measurements were performed.
    17 schema:genre research_article
    18 schema:inLanguage en
    19 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    20 schema:isPartOf N3d92b14b2d5d4deb9d549c6fbb327fdc
    21 Nb7c9a3d709174fa49146c911144e4398
    22 sg:journal.1136492
    23 schema:name Wire-based additive manufacturing using an electron beam as heat source
    24 schema:pagination 1-9
    25 schema:productId N475001f6b1704a61989274eff3920bb4
    26 Ndec3894551f34ed29948c2058adf2d52
    27 Nfc757c9e814247099e12129fa83556a5
    28 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100247590
    29 https://doi.org/10.1007/s40194-017-0537-7
    30 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T23:39
    31 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    32 schema:sdPublisher N0668f1bca763496a91999fd40e61b131
    33 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40194-017-0537-7
    34 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    35 sgo:sdDataset articles
    36 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    37 N0668f1bca763496a91999fd40e61b131 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    38 rdf:type schema:Organization
    39 N169356d481b44a2abe55805fcf21cc43 rdf:first sg:person.013524415675.35
    40 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    41 N1f44de1f0d504de390d3857188adea08 schema:name Institute of Materials Science, Joining and Forming, Kopernikusgasse 24, 8010, Graz, Austria
    42 rdf:type schema:Organization
    43 N3d92b14b2d5d4deb9d549c6fbb327fdc schema:issueNumber 2
    44 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    45 N475001f6b1704a61989274eff3920bb4 schema:name readcube_id
    46 schema:value 51d27217d1c762e30db5084776d5dffcda6e8d1330daba3e84135c8ace9b4237
    47 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    48 N5834898e494647069a179fccf1187385 schema:name Institute of Materials Science, Joining and Forming, Kopernikusgasse 24, 8010, Graz, Austria
    49 rdf:type schema:Organization
    50 N68661602f4ae42f595d227087a421792 schema:name Institute of Materials Science, Joining and Forming, Kopernikusgasse 24, 8010, Graz, Austria
    51 rdf:type schema:Organization
    52 N86fdfbaa814a4fc48977f28515e19065 schema:affiliation N1f44de1f0d504de390d3857188adea08
    53 schema:familyName Fuchs
    54 schema:givenName J.
    55 rdf:type schema:Person
    56 Naabba34b38d04c0cb5dfb13e76c8d670 rdf:first sg:person.07510155354.40
    57 rdf:rest N169356d481b44a2abe55805fcf21cc43
    58 Nb7c9a3d709174fa49146c911144e4398 schema:volumeNumber 62
    59 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    60 Nbde188d0ec044e7789dc4b4bd310ef79 rdf:first N86fdfbaa814a4fc48977f28515e19065
    61 rdf:rest Naabba34b38d04c0cb5dfb13e76c8d670
    62 Ndec3894551f34ed29948c2058adf2d52 schema:name dimensions_id
    63 schema:value pub.1100247590
    64 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    65 Nfc757c9e814247099e12129fa83556a5 schema:name doi
    66 schema:value 10.1007/s40194-017-0537-7
    67 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    68 anzsrc-for:09 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    69 schema:name Engineering
    70 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    71 anzsrc-for:0910 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    72 schema:name Manufacturing Engineering
    73 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    74 sg:journal.1136492 schema:issn 0043-2288
    75 1878-6669
    76 schema:name Welding in the World
    77 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    78 sg:person.013524415675.35 schema:affiliation N5834898e494647069a179fccf1187385
    79 schema:familyName Enzinger
    80 schema:givenName N.
    81 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013524415675.35
    82 rdf:type schema:Person
    83 sg:person.07510155354.40 schema:affiliation N68661602f4ae42f595d227087a421792
    84 schema:familyName Schneider
    85 schema:givenName C.
    86 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07510155354.40
    87 rdf:type schema:Person
    88 sg:pub.10.1007/s00170-015-7077-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021417337
    89 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-7077-3
    90 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    91 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046310122 schema:CreativeWork
    92 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2014.09.004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019272176
    93 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    94 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2015.07.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034796877
    95 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    96 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2014.06.048 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025768608
    97 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    98 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2015.01.024 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001019015
    99 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    100 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2014.08.008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026942316
    101 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    102 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2015.12.004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043469653
    103 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    104 https://doi.org/10.1179/1743284714y.0000000704 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006914201
    105 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    106 https://doi.org/10.1243/0954405042418545 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064448187
    107 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...