Guidelines: The do’s, don’ts and don’t knows of direct observation of clinical skills in medical education View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2017-10

AUTHORS

Jennifer R. Kogan, Rose Hatala, Karen E. Hauer, Eric Holmboe

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Direct observation of clinical skills is a key assessment strategy in competency-based medical education. The guidelines presented in this paper synthesize the literature on direct observation of clinical skills. The goal is to provide a practical list of Do's, Don'ts and Don't Knows about direct observation for supervisors who teach learners in the clinical setting and for educational leaders who are responsible for clinical training programs. METHODS: We built consensus through an iterative approach in which each author, based on their medical education and research knowledge and expertise, independently developed a list of Do's, Don'ts, and Don't Knows about direct observation of clinical skills. Lists were compiled, discussed and revised. We then sought and compiled evidence to support each guideline and determine the strength of each guideline. RESULTS: A final set of 33 Do's, Don'ts and Don't Knows is presented along with a summary of evidence for each guideline. Guidelines focus on two groups: individual supervisors and the educational leaders responsible for clinical training programs. Guidelines address recommendations for how to focus direct observation, select an assessment tool, promote high quality assessments, conduct rater training, and create a learning culture conducive to direct observation. CONCLUSIONS: High frequency, high quality direct observation of clinical skills can be challenging. These guidelines offer important evidence-based Do's and Don'ts that can help improve the frequency and quality of direct observation. Improving direct observation requires focus not just on individual supervisors and their learners, but also on the organizations and cultures in which they work and train. Additional research to address the Don't Knows can help educators realize the full potential of direct observation in competency-based education. More... »

PAGES

286-305

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2016-10. Factors influencing students’ receptivity to formative feedback emerging from different assessment cultures in PERSPECTIVES ON MEDICAL EDUCATION
  • 2007-05. Broadening Perspectives on Clinical Performance Assessment: Rethinking the Nature of In-training Assessment in ADVANCES IN HEALTH SCIENCES EDUCATION
  • 2015-12. Guidelines: the do’s, don’ts and don’t knows of feedback for clinical education in PERSPECTIVES ON MEDICAL EDUCATION
  • 2013-05. Exploring the impact of mental workload on rater-based assessments in ADVANCES IN HEALTH SCIENCES EDUCATION
  • 2013-10. Expertise in performance assessment: assessors’ perspectives in ADVANCES IN HEALTH SCIENCES EDUCATION
  • 2004-05. Feedback and the mini clinical evaluation exercise in JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE
  • 2012-12. How do postgraduate GP trainees regulate their learning and what helps and hinders them? A qualitative study in BMC MEDICAL EDUCATION
  • 2013-08. Workplace-based assessment: raters’ performance theories and constructs in ADVANCES IN HEALTH SCIENCES EDUCATION
  • 2004-12. Medical Students' and Residents' preferred site characteristics and preceptor behaviours for learning in the ambulatory setting: a cross-sectional survey in BMC MEDICAL EDUCATION
  • 2011-05. Workplace-based assessment: effects of rater expertise in ADVANCES IN HEALTH SCIENCES EDUCATION
  • 2008-07. The Ambulatory Long-Block: An Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Educational Innovations Project (EIP) in JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE
  • 2014-08. Exploring the role of first impressions in rater-based assessments in ADVANCES IN HEALTH SCIENCES EDUCATION
  • 2013-08. In the Wake of the 2003 and 2011 Duty Hours Regulations, How Do Internal Medicine Interns Spend Their Time? in JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE
  • 2011-03. In-training assessment using direct observation of single-patient encounters: a literature review in ADVANCES IN HEALTH SCIENCES EDUCATION
  • 2016-10. Towards a program of assessment for health professionals: from training into practice in ADVANCES IN HEALTH SCIENCES EDUCATION
  • 2017-10. Inter-rater variability as mutual disagreement: identifying raters’ divergent points of view in ADVANCES IN HEALTH SCIENCES EDUCATION
  • 2013-12. Programmatic assessment of competency-based workplace learning: when theory meets practice in BMC MEDICAL EDUCATION
  • 2012-11. The Composition of Intern Work While on Call in JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE
  • 2015-04. Reflecting upon multisource feedback as ‘assessment for learning’ in PERSPECTIVES ON MEDICAL EDUCATION
  • 2009-01. Effect of Rater Training on Reliability and Accuracy of Mini-CEX Scores: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE
  • 2013-08. Seeing the same thing differently in ADVANCES IN HEALTH SCIENCES EDUCATION
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s40037-017-0376-7

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40037-017-0376-7

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091925832

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28956293


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1303", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Specialist Studies In Education", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/13", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Education", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Pennsylvania", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25879.31", 
              "name": [
                "Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kogan", 
            "givenName": "Jennifer R.", 
            "id": "sg:person.0711243444.04", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0711243444.04"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of British Columbia", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17091.3e", 
              "name": [
                "University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hatala", 
            "givenName": "Rose", 
            "id": "sg:person.0724544524.38", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0724544524.38"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of California, San Francisco", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.266102.1", 
              "name": [
                "University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hauer", 
            "givenName": "Karen E.", 
            "id": "sg:person.0754145611.50", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0754145611.50"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.413275.6", 
              "name": [
                "Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, Chicago, IL, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Holmboe", 
            "givenName": "Eric", 
            "id": "sg:person.01156313752.80", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01156313752.80"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.f1596", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000266328"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11606-008-0842-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001398701", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-008-0842-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000707", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001662450"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000707", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001662450"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.79.4.474", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001734599"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2007.02.011", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001881682"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.2011.02045.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002502148"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11606-008-0588-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002850093", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-008-0588-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12645", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003175192"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-199710000-00013", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003972595"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-199710000-00013", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003972595"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-199710000-00013", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003972595"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04126.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004010004"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328015tlm1802_2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004142325"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000001035", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005050212"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000001035", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005050212"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000001035", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005050212"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200205000-00003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005179106"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200205000-00003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005179106"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/tct.12126", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005733097"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.24.2313", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005939038"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-010-9235-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006670332", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-010-9235-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-010-9250-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007103035", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-010-9250-7"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12254", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007650158"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e31821db1bc", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007676064"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e31821db1bc", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007676064"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12733", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008076219"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/070674371205700411", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008124962"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/070674371205700411", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008124962"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-199009000-00045", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008274200"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-199009000-00045", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008274200"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04210.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009602019"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03913.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009723869"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2010.500709", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009815997"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02094.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010019040"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.41.10.1040", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010041552"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590400013529", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010186479"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.08.015", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010655261"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.08.015", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010655261"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2010.501190", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011186544"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e318212c2c9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011547149"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e318212c2c9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011547149"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03382.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011550038"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03382.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011550038"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2010.04.001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011809402"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2010.500704", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011862035"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0000000000001247", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012429080"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0000000000001247", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012429080"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04025.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012470358"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6920-12-67", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012496864", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-12-67"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2013.836267", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012822094"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2011.595434", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013268292"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2923.37.s1.8.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013320080"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1994.tb00562.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013395798"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/jedm.12000", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013555901"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200309000-00023", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013649505"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200309000-00023", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013649505"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200309000-00023", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013649505"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12387", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013695901"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200206000-00004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014075070"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200206000-00004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014075070"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200206000-00004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014075070"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12087", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014192606"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/chp.21202", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014340550"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/chp.21202", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014340550"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2009.09097.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014787827"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2009.09097.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014787827"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.3337", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015004056"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-012-9376-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015882010", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-012-9376-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0450", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015892710"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2011.588731", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016016820"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-012-9370-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016125492", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-012-9370-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-012-9370-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016125492", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-012-9370-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000736", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016443309"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000736", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016443309"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2004.06.002", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016514936"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12621", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017438927"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e31822a6cf8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018396617"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e31822a6cf8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018396617"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2011.599896", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018519007"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-006-9043-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018553586", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-006-9043-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-006-9043-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018553586", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-006-9043-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590801946962", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018564689"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e318183e78c", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019442119"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e318183e78c", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019442119"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.4300/jgme-d-14-00358.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020413822"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.acm.0000238323.73623.c2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020637237"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.acm.0000238323.73623.c2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020637237"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.acm.0000238323.73623.c2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020637237"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03230.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020898563"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159x.2016.1181851", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021387758"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02858.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021974045"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s40037-015-0231-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022187793", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-015-0231-7"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s40037-015-0231-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022187793", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-015-0231-7"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2011.565828", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022567449"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/10401330701366622", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022618200"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1037/h0040957", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023148475"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3181ed1aa3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023830924"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3181ed1aa3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023830924"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3181ed1aa3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023830924"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3181ed1aa3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023830924"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2012.652239", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024031782"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.121383", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024066762"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.121383", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024066762"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877x.2014.984600", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024234258"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11606-012-2120-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024651336", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-012-2120-7"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00668", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025310383"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2011.02.008", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025803370"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3181a814a3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026483356"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3181a814a3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026483356"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3181a814a3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026483356"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1056/nejm199704173361606", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026941032"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000067", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027096136"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000067", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027096136"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000809", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027236328"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000809", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027236328"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00688", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027516854"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/10401334.2015.1107489", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027584458"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0361-476x(85)90024-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027809244"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13122", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027902754"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2012.07.007", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028956265"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.121772", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028957554"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.121772", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028957554"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000001045", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028960987"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000001045", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028960987"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000001045", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028960987"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13062", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029130156"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000939", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029223480"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000939", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029223480"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3182676b55", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029230116"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3182676b55", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029230116"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590600902976", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029702260"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e31824858a9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030337033"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e31824858a9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030337033"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11606-013-2376-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030434932", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-013-2376-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2014.06.018", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030858642"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12839", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030876584"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/10401334.2013.827972", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031296778"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.4300/jgme-d-14-00484.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031788111"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.4300/jgme-d-09-00102.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031813600"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.15973", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032060789"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2015.1060308", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032076345"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2011.542519", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033485336"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surge.2013.03.001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033682774"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04137.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034836465"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2011.558140", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035035712"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2015.3637", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036437668"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2015.1073238", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036447095"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2010.507710", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036719981"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.1365", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036771169"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aeu052", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036936834"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000585", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036997825"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000585", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036997825"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2014.889814", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037915979"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000001044", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038081067"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000001044", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038081067"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000001044", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038081067"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3182675b08", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039298376"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3182675b08", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039298376"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2013.788789", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039353763"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2010.500898", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039466331"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2013.765547", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039488089"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.5116/ijme.5689.3c7f", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039512350"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200410001-00007", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040048470"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200410001-00007", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040048470"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2012.04209.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040442084"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03904.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040748674"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-013-9453-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040879042", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-013-9453-9"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2014.929098", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040995757"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b128", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041275910"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13067", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041562522"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.4300/jgme-d-15-00550.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041758977"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03642.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042728221"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000221", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044226992"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000221", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044226992"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.1356", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044584291"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2015.1017448", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044843595"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12678", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045232541"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s40037-016-0297-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045362600", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-016-0297-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s40037-016-0297-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045362600", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-016-0297-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0b013e3182a191ca", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045527441"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0b013e3182a191ca", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045527441"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.01022.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045842988"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02778.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045892320"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2011.0184", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046080877"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-015-9653-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047613046", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-015-9653-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-015-9653-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047613046", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-015-9653-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2013.06.015", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048002060"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12671", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048600772"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.04.019", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049069718"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000515", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049081746"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000515", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049081746"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s40037-015-0175-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049356731", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-015-0175-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-016-9711-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050279406", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-016-9711-8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-016-9711-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050279406", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-016-9711-8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0000000000001058", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050475859"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0000000000001058", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050475859"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-012-9392-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050767823", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-012-9392-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/03054980701476386", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051006795"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13063", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051526942"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9343(00)00301-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052243470"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9343(97)00092-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052252787"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.30134.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052391200", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.30134.x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6920-13-123", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052624555", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-13-123"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02341.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052754409"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02341.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052754409"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-012-9372-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053005267", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-012-9372-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-012-9372-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053005267", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-012-9372-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.4300/jgme-d-15-00144.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053420903"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6920-4-12", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053470013", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-4-12"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594x.2016.1268090", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058353888"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543065003245", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070970252"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543065003245", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070970252"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654307313795", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070970416"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654307313795", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070970416"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-123-10-199511150-00008", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073699678"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-125-8-199610150-00003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073700903"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-138-6-200303180-00012", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073706165"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-140-11-200406010-00008", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073707026"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-144-2-200601170-00008", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073708534"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13232", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084216168"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.18590/mjm.2017.vol3.iss1.2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1087126444"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231881.001.0001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1098730310"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2017-10", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2017-10-01", 
        "description": "INTRODUCTION: Direct observation of clinical skills is a\u00a0key assessment strategy in competency-based medical education. The guidelines presented in this paper synthesize the literature on direct observation of clinical skills. The goal is to provide a\u00a0practical list of Do's, Don'ts and Don't Knows about direct observation for supervisors who teach learners in the clinical setting and for educational leaders who are responsible for clinical training programs.\nMETHODS: We built consensus through an iterative approach in which each author, based on their medical education and research knowledge and expertise, independently developed a\u00a0list of Do's, Don'ts, and Don't Knows about direct observation of clinical skills. Lists were compiled, discussed and revised. We then sought and compiled evidence to support each guideline and determine the strength of each guideline.\nRESULTS: A\u00a0final set of 33\u00a0Do's, Don'ts and Don't Knows is presented along with a\u00a0summary of evidence for each guideline. Guidelines focus on two groups: individual supervisors and the educational leaders responsible for clinical training programs. Guidelines address recommendations for how to focus direct observation, select an assessment tool, promote high quality assessments, conduct rater training, and create a\u00a0learning culture conducive to direct observation.\nCONCLUSIONS: High frequency, high quality direct observation of clinical skills can be challenging. These guidelines offer important evidence-based Do's and Don'ts that can help improve the frequency and quality of direct observation. Improving direct observation requires focus not just on individual supervisors and their learners, but also on the organizations and cultures in which they work and train. Additional research to address the Don't Knows can help educators realize the full potential of direct observation in competency-based education.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s40037-017-0376-7", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1035596", 
            "issn": [
              "2212-2761", 
              "2212-277X"
            ], 
            "name": "Perspectives on Medical Education", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "5", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "6"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Guidelines: The do\u2019s, don\u2019ts and don\u2019t knows of direct observation of clinical skills in medical education", 
        "pagination": "286-305", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "6f2b4087228269e7526add6e2a3e5ff84cf6bbfadb90fd57975a9110a66186f7"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "28956293"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "101590643"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/s40037-017-0376-7"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1091925832"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-017-0376-7", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091925832"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T02:17", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8700_00000540.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs40037-017-0376-7"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s40037-017-0376-7'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s40037-017-0376-7'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s40037-017-0376-7'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s40037-017-0376-7'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    618 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      195 URIs      21 LITERALS      9 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/s40037-017-0376-7 schema:about anzsrc-for:13
    2 anzsrc-for:1303
    3 schema:author N2ba81b11b3144cdaaddbf89b71d2667c
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-006-9043-1
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-010-9235-6
    6 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-010-9250-7
    7 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-012-9370-3
    8 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-012-9372-1
    9 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-012-9376-x
    10 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-012-9392-x
    11 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-013-9453-9
    12 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-015-9653-6
    13 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-016-9711-8
    14 sg:pub.10.1007/s11606-008-0588-y
    15 sg:pub.10.1007/s11606-008-0842-3
    16 sg:pub.10.1007/s11606-012-2120-7
    17 sg:pub.10.1007/s11606-013-2376-6
    18 sg:pub.10.1007/s40037-015-0175-y
    19 sg:pub.10.1007/s40037-015-0231-7
    20 sg:pub.10.1007/s40037-016-0297-x
    21 sg:pub.10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.30134.x
    22 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6920-12-67
    23 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6920-13-123
    24 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6920-4-12
    25 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.1356
    26 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.1365
    27 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.15973
    28 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.24.2313
    29 https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.3337
    30 https://doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2015.3637
    31 https://doi.org/10.1002/chp.21202
    32 https://doi.org/10.1016/0361-476x(85)90024-4
    33 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2011.02.008
    34 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2010.04.001
    35 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2004.06.002
    36 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.04.019
    37 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.08.015
    38 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2012.07.007
    39 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2013.06.015
    40 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2014.06.018
    41 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2007.02.011
    42 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surge.2013.03.001
    43 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9343(00)00301-6
    44 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9343(97)00092-2
    45 https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.41.10.1040
    46 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.79.4.474
    47 https://doi.org/10.1037/h0040957
    48 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2923.37.s1.8.x
    49 https://doi.org/10.1056/nejm199704173361606
    50 https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590400013529
    51 https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590600902976
    52 https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590801946962
    53 https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159x.2016.1181851
    54 https://doi.org/10.1080/03054980701476386
    55 https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877x.2014.984600
    56 https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594x.2016.1268090
    57 https://doi.org/10.1080/10401330701366622
    58 https://doi.org/10.1080/10401334.2013.827972
    59 https://doi.org/10.1080/10401334.2015.1107489
    60 https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231881.001.0001
    61 https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aeu052
    62 https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-199009000-00045
    63 https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-199710000-00013
    64 https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200205000-00003
    65 https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200206000-00004
    66 https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200309000-00023
    67 https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200410001-00007
    68 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.acm.0000238323.73623.c2
    69 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000067
    70 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000221
    71 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000515
    72 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000585
    73 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000707
    74 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000736
    75 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000809
    76 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000939
    77 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000001035
    78 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000001044
    79 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000001045
    80 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e318183e78c
    81 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3181a814a3
    82 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3181ed1aa3
    83 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e318212c2c9
    84 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e31821db1bc
    85 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e31822a6cf8
    86 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e31824858a9
    87 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3182675b08
    88 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3182676b55
    89 https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0000000000001058
    90 https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0000000000001247
    91 https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0b013e3182a191ca
    92 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2009.09097.x
    93 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02778.x
    94 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02858.x
    95 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03230.x
    96 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03382.x
    97 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03642.x
    98 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03904.x
    99 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03913.x
    100 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04025.x
    101 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04126.x
    102 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04137.x
    103 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04210.x
    104 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2012.04209.x
    105 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02094.x
    106 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02341.x
    107 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.01022.x
    108 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1994.tb00562.x
    109 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.2011.02045.x
    110 https://doi.org/10.1111/jedm.12000
    111 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12087
    112 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12254
    113 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12387
    114 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12621
    115 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12645
    116 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12671
    117 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12678
    118 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12733
    119 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12839
    120 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13062
    121 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13063
    122 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13067
    123 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13122
    124 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13232
    125 https://doi.org/10.1111/tct.12126
    126 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b128
    127 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.f1596
    128 https://doi.org/10.1177/070674371205700411
    129 https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328015tlm1802_2
    130 https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0450
    131 https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2011.0184
    132 https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.121383
    133 https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.121772
    134 https://doi.org/10.18590/mjm.2017.vol3.iss1.2
    135 https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543065003245
    136 https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654307313795
    137 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2010.500704
    138 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2010.500709
    139 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2010.500898
    140 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2010.501190
    141 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2010.507710
    142 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2011.542519
    143 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2011.558140
    144 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2011.565828
    145 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2011.588731
    146 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2011.595434
    147 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2011.599896
    148 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2012.652239
    149 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2013.765547
    150 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2013.788789
    151 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2013.836267
    152 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2014.889814
    153 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2014.929098
    154 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2015.1017448
    155 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2015.1060308
    156 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2015.1073238
    157 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00668
    158 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00688
    159 https://doi.org/10.4300/jgme-d-09-00102.1
    160 https://doi.org/10.4300/jgme-d-14-00358.1
    161 https://doi.org/10.4300/jgme-d-14-00484.1
    162 https://doi.org/10.4300/jgme-d-15-00144.1
    163 https://doi.org/10.4300/jgme-d-15-00550.1
    164 https://doi.org/10.5116/ijme.5689.3c7f
    165 https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-123-10-199511150-00008
    166 https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-125-8-199610150-00003
    167 https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-138-6-200303180-00012
    168 https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-140-11-200406010-00008
    169 https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-144-2-200601170-00008
    170 schema:datePublished 2017-10
    171 schema:datePublishedReg 2017-10-01
    172 schema:description INTRODUCTION: Direct observation of clinical skills is a key assessment strategy in competency-based medical education. The guidelines presented in this paper synthesize the literature on direct observation of clinical skills. The goal is to provide a practical list of Do's, Don'ts and Don't Knows about direct observation for supervisors who teach learners in the clinical setting and for educational leaders who are responsible for clinical training programs. METHODS: We built consensus through an iterative approach in which each author, based on their medical education and research knowledge and expertise, independently developed a list of Do's, Don'ts, and Don't Knows about direct observation of clinical skills. Lists were compiled, discussed and revised. We then sought and compiled evidence to support each guideline and determine the strength of each guideline. RESULTS: A final set of 33 Do's, Don'ts and Don't Knows is presented along with a summary of evidence for each guideline. Guidelines focus on two groups: individual supervisors and the educational leaders responsible for clinical training programs. Guidelines address recommendations for how to focus direct observation, select an assessment tool, promote high quality assessments, conduct rater training, and create a learning culture conducive to direct observation. CONCLUSIONS: High frequency, high quality direct observation of clinical skills can be challenging. These guidelines offer important evidence-based Do's and Don'ts that can help improve the frequency and quality of direct observation. Improving direct observation requires focus not just on individual supervisors and their learners, but also on the organizations and cultures in which they work and train. Additional research to address the Don't Knows can help educators realize the full potential of direct observation in competency-based education.
    173 schema:genre research_article
    174 schema:inLanguage en
    175 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    176 schema:isPartOf N60be0925898c48858e45508bd5717da6
    177 N61ef5884acfc4bc79a1d0e29b641ffbf
    178 sg:journal.1035596
    179 schema:name Guidelines: The do’s, don’ts and don’t knows of direct observation of clinical skills in medical education
    180 schema:pagination 286-305
    181 schema:productId N3216f4893e4e4f5fb7b062f0a067ea6a
    182 N44b72b864b5f40e59185bc6cbbb73ce5
    183 N72a7994fc91142c9ba4d55002a53804a
    184 Na4a03be251374f3c836e7b187b708ae1
    185 Na66dc339928849a6b75938187f52d7ef
    186 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091925832
    187 https://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-017-0376-7
    188 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T02:17
    189 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    190 schema:sdPublisher Nba5ac6e168a9409fb0468bdf9d05bbba
    191 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs40037-017-0376-7
    192 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    193 sgo:sdDataset articles
    194 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    195 N0a14411febc04d9697e33e83b40969aa rdf:first sg:person.0754145611.50
    196 rdf:rest N37f18efc3af64db496f7362f24c6ee96
    197 N2527cc38c5274533a19c7e4faad49279 rdf:first sg:person.0724544524.38
    198 rdf:rest N0a14411febc04d9697e33e83b40969aa
    199 N2ba81b11b3144cdaaddbf89b71d2667c rdf:first sg:person.0711243444.04
    200 rdf:rest N2527cc38c5274533a19c7e4faad49279
    201 N3216f4893e4e4f5fb7b062f0a067ea6a schema:name nlm_unique_id
    202 schema:value 101590643
    203 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    204 N37f18efc3af64db496f7362f24c6ee96 rdf:first sg:person.01156313752.80
    205 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    206 N44b72b864b5f40e59185bc6cbbb73ce5 schema:name readcube_id
    207 schema:value 6f2b4087228269e7526add6e2a3e5ff84cf6bbfadb90fd57975a9110a66186f7
    208 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    209 N60be0925898c48858e45508bd5717da6 schema:issueNumber 5
    210 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    211 N61ef5884acfc4bc79a1d0e29b641ffbf schema:volumeNumber 6
    212 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    213 N72a7994fc91142c9ba4d55002a53804a schema:name dimensions_id
    214 schema:value pub.1091925832
    215 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    216 Na4a03be251374f3c836e7b187b708ae1 schema:name doi
    217 schema:value 10.1007/s40037-017-0376-7
    218 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    219 Na66dc339928849a6b75938187f52d7ef schema:name pubmed_id
    220 schema:value 28956293
    221 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    222 Nba5ac6e168a9409fb0468bdf9d05bbba schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    223 rdf:type schema:Organization
    224 anzsrc-for:13 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    225 schema:name Education
    226 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    227 anzsrc-for:1303 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    228 schema:name Specialist Studies In Education
    229 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    230 sg:journal.1035596 schema:issn 2212-2761
    231 2212-277X
    232 schema:name Perspectives on Medical Education
    233 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    234 sg:person.01156313752.80 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.413275.6
    235 schema:familyName Holmboe
    236 schema:givenName Eric
    237 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01156313752.80
    238 rdf:type schema:Person
    239 sg:person.0711243444.04 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25879.31
    240 schema:familyName Kogan
    241 schema:givenName Jennifer R.
    242 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0711243444.04
    243 rdf:type schema:Person
    244 sg:person.0724544524.38 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17091.3e
    245 schema:familyName Hatala
    246 schema:givenName Rose
    247 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0724544524.38
    248 rdf:type schema:Person
    249 sg:person.0754145611.50 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.266102.1
    250 schema:familyName Hauer
    251 schema:givenName Karen E.
    252 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0754145611.50
    253 rdf:type schema:Person
    254 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-006-9043-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018553586
    255 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-006-9043-1
    256 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    257 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-010-9235-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006670332
    258 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-010-9235-6
    259 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    260 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-010-9250-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007103035
    261 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-010-9250-7
    262 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    263 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-012-9370-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016125492
    264 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-012-9370-3
    265 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    266 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-012-9372-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053005267
    267 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-012-9372-1
    268 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    269 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-012-9376-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015882010
    270 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-012-9376-x
    271 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    272 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-012-9392-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050767823
    273 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-012-9392-x
    274 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    275 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-013-9453-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040879042
    276 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-013-9453-9
    277 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    278 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-015-9653-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047613046
    279 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-015-9653-6
    280 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    281 sg:pub.10.1007/s10459-016-9711-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050279406
    282 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-016-9711-8
    283 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    284 sg:pub.10.1007/s11606-008-0588-y schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002850093
    285 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-008-0588-y
    286 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    287 sg:pub.10.1007/s11606-008-0842-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001398701
    288 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-008-0842-3
    289 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    290 sg:pub.10.1007/s11606-012-2120-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024651336
    291 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-012-2120-7
    292 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    293 sg:pub.10.1007/s11606-013-2376-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030434932
    294 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-013-2376-6
    295 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    296 sg:pub.10.1007/s40037-015-0175-y schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049356731
    297 https://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-015-0175-y
    298 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    299 sg:pub.10.1007/s40037-015-0231-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022187793
    300 https://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-015-0231-7
    301 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    302 sg:pub.10.1007/s40037-016-0297-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045362600
    303 https://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-016-0297-x
    304 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    305 sg:pub.10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.30134.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052391200
    306 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.30134.x
    307 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    308 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6920-12-67 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012496864
    309 https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-12-67
    310 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    311 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6920-13-123 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052624555
    312 https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-13-123
    313 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    314 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6920-4-12 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053470013
    315 https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-4-12
    316 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    317 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.1356 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044584291
    318 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    319 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.1365 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036771169
    320 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    321 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.15973 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032060789
    322 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    323 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.24.2313 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005939038
    324 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    325 https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.3337 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015004056
    326 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    327 https://doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2015.3637 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036437668
    328 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    329 https://doi.org/10.1002/chp.21202 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014340550
    330 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    331 https://doi.org/10.1016/0361-476x(85)90024-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027809244
    332 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    333 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2011.02.008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025803370
    334 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    335 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2010.04.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011809402
    336 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    337 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2004.06.002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016514936
    338 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    339 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.04.019 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049069718
    340 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    341 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.08.015 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010655261
    342 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    343 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2012.07.007 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028956265
    344 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    345 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2013.06.015 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048002060
    346 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    347 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2014.06.018 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030858642
    348 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    349 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2007.02.011 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001881682
    350 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    351 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surge.2013.03.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033682774
    352 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    353 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9343(00)00301-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052243470
    354 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    355 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9343(97)00092-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052252787
    356 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    357 https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.41.10.1040 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010041552
    358 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    359 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.79.4.474 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001734599
    360 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    361 https://doi.org/10.1037/h0040957 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023148475
    362 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    363 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2923.37.s1.8.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013320080
    364 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    365 https://doi.org/10.1056/nejm199704173361606 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026941032
    366 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    367 https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590400013529 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010186479
    368 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    369 https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590600902976 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029702260
    370 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    371 https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590801946962 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018564689
    372 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    373 https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159x.2016.1181851 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021387758
    374 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    375 https://doi.org/10.1080/03054980701476386 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051006795
    376 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    377 https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877x.2014.984600 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024234258
    378 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    379 https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594x.2016.1268090 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058353888
    380 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    381 https://doi.org/10.1080/10401330701366622 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022618200
    382 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    383 https://doi.org/10.1080/10401334.2013.827972 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031296778
    384 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    385 https://doi.org/10.1080/10401334.2015.1107489 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027584458
    386 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    387 https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231881.001.0001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1098730310
    388 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    389 https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aeu052 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036936834
    390 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    391 https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-199009000-00045 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008274200
    392 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    393 https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-199710000-00013 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003972595
    394 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    395 https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200205000-00003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005179106
    396 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    397 https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200206000-00004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014075070
    398 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    399 https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200309000-00023 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013649505
    400 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    401 https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200410001-00007 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040048470
    402 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    403 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.acm.0000238323.73623.c2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020637237
    404 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    405 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000067 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027096136
    406 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    407 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000221 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044226992
    408 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    409 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000515 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049081746
    410 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    411 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000585 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036997825
    412 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    413 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000707 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001662450
    414 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    415 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000736 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016443309
    416 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    417 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000809 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027236328
    418 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    419 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000000939 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029223480
    420 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    421 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000001035 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005050212
    422 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    423 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000001044 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038081067
    424 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    425 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000001045 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028960987
    426 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    427 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e318183e78c schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019442119
    428 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    429 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3181a814a3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026483356
    430 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    431 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3181ed1aa3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023830924
    432 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    433 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e318212c2c9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011547149
    434 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    435 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e31821db1bc schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007676064
    436 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    437 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e31822a6cf8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018396617
    438 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    439 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e31824858a9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030337033
    440 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    441 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3182675b08 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039298376
    442 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    443 https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3182676b55 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029230116
    444 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    445 https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0000000000001058 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050475859
    446 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    447 https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0000000000001247 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012429080
    448 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    449 https://doi.org/10.1097/sla.0b013e3182a191ca schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045527441
    450 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    451 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2009.09097.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014787827
    452 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    453 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02778.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045892320
    454 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    455 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02858.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021974045
    456 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    457 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03230.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020898563
    458 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    459 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03382.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011550038
    460 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    461 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03642.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042728221
    462 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    463 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03904.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040748674
    464 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    465 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03913.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009723869
    466 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    467 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04025.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012470358
    468 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    469 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04126.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004010004
    470 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    471 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04137.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034836465
    472 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    473 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04210.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009602019
    474 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    475 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2012.04209.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040442084
    476 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    477 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02094.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010019040
    478 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    479 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02341.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052754409
    480 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    481 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.01022.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045842988
    482 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    483 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1994.tb00562.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013395798
    484 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    485 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.2011.02045.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002502148
    486 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    487 https://doi.org/10.1111/jedm.12000 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013555901
    488 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    489 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12087 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014192606
    490 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    491 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12254 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007650158
    492 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    493 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12387 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013695901
    494 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    495 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12621 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017438927
    496 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    497 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12645 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003175192
    498 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    499 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12671 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048600772
    500 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    501 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12678 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045232541
    502 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    503 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12733 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008076219
    504 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    505 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12839 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030876584
    506 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    507 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13062 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029130156
    508 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    509 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13063 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051526942
    510 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    511 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13067 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041562522
    512 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    513 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13122 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027902754
    514 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    515 https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13232 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084216168
    516 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    517 https://doi.org/10.1111/tct.12126 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005733097
    518 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    519 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b128 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041275910
    520 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    521 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.f1596 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000266328
    522 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    523 https://doi.org/10.1177/070674371205700411 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008124962
    524 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    525 https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328015tlm1802_2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004142325
    526 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    527 https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0450 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015892710
    528 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    529 https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2011.0184 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046080877
    530 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    531 https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.121383 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024066762
    532 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    533 https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.121772 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028957554
    534 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    535 https://doi.org/10.18590/mjm.2017.vol3.iss1.2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1087126444
    536 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    537 https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543065003245 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070970252
    538 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    539 https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654307313795 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070970416
    540 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    541 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2010.500704 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011862035
    542 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    543 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2010.500709 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009815997
    544 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    545 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2010.500898 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039466331
    546 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    547 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2010.501190 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011186544
    548 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    549 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2010.507710 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036719981
    550 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    551 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2011.542519 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033485336
    552 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    553 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2011.558140 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035035712
    554 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    555 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2011.565828 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022567449
    556 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    557 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2011.588731 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016016820
    558 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    559 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2011.595434 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013268292
    560 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    561 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2011.599896 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018519007
    562 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    563 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2012.652239 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024031782
    564 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    565 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2013.765547 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039488089
    566 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    567 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2013.788789 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039353763
    568 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    569 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2013.836267 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012822094
    570 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    571 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2014.889814 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037915979
    572 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    573 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2014.929098 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040995757
    574 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    575 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2015.1017448 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044843595
    576 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    577 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2015.1060308 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032076345
    578 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    579 https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159x.2015.1073238 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036447095
    580 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    581 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00668 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025310383
    582 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    583 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00688 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027516854
    584 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    585 https://doi.org/10.4300/jgme-d-09-00102.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031813600
    586 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    587 https://doi.org/10.4300/jgme-d-14-00358.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020413822
    588 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    589 https://doi.org/10.4300/jgme-d-14-00484.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031788111
    590 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    591 https://doi.org/10.4300/jgme-d-15-00144.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053420903
    592 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    593 https://doi.org/10.4300/jgme-d-15-00550.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041758977
    594 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    595 https://doi.org/10.5116/ijme.5689.3c7f schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039512350
    596 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    597 https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-123-10-199511150-00008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073699678
    598 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    599 https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-125-8-199610150-00003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073700903
    600 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    601 https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-138-6-200303180-00012 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073706165
    602 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    603 https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-140-11-200406010-00008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073707026
    604 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    605 https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-144-2-200601170-00008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073708534
    606 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    607 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17091.3e schema:alternateName University of British Columbia
    608 schema:name University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    609 rdf:type schema:Organization
    610 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25879.31 schema:alternateName University of Pennsylvania
    611 schema:name Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    612 rdf:type schema:Organization
    613 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.266102.1 schema:alternateName University of California, San Francisco
    614 schema:name University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    615 rdf:type schema:Organization
    616 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.413275.6 schema:alternateName Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education
    617 schema:name Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, Chicago, IL, USA
    618 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...