Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in HIV-infected individuals in Rakai, Uganda View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2017-06

AUTHORS

Mahsa Abassi, Bozena M. Morawski, Gertrude Nakigozi, Noeline Nakasujja, Xiangrong Kong, David B. Meya, Kevin Robertson, Ronald Gray, Maria J. Wawer, Ned Sacktor, David R. Boulware

ABSTRACT

In the USA, increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory cytokines have been observed in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). We characterized the relationship between HAND and CSF biomarker expression in ART-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals in Rakai, Uganda. We analyzed CSF of 78 HIV-seropositive, ART-naive Ugandan adults for 17 cytokines and 20 neurodegenerative biomarkers via Luminex multiplex assay. These adults underwent neurocognitive assessment to determine their degree of HAND. We compared biomarker concentrations between high and low CD4 groups and across HAND classifications, adjusting for multiple comparisons. Individuals with CD4 <200 cells/μL (N = 38) had elevated levels of CSF Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), TNF-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-7, and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) and lower levels of amyloid β42. Individuals with CD4 351-500 cells/μL (N = 40) had significantly higher CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, amyloid β42, and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE). Increasing levels of S100B, platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and sRAGE were associated with decreased odds of mild neurocognitive disorder (n = 22) or HIV-associated dementia (n = 15) compared with normal function (n = 30) or asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (n = 11). Increased levels of interferon (IFN)-γ were associated with increased odds of mild neurocognitive impairment or HIV-associated dementia relative to normal or asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. Proinflammatory CSF cytokines, chemokines, and neurodegenerative biomarkers were present in increasing concentrations with advanced immunosuppression and may play a role in the development of HAND. The presence of select CNS biomarkers may also play a protective role in the development of HAND. More... »

PAGES

369-375

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024557776

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27995575


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1103", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Clinical Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "AIDS Dementia Complex", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Adult", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Amyloid beta-Peptides", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Biomarkers", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "CD4 Lymphocyte Count", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Female", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Humans", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Interleukin-12", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Interleukin-2", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Male", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Matrix Metalloproteinase 1", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Matrix Metalloproteinase 7", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Middle Aged", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Neuropsychological Tests", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Peptide Fragments", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Platelet-Derived Growth Factor", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Prospective Studies", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Uganda", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Minnesota", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17635.36", 
          "name": [
            "University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA", 
            "Infectious Diseases Institute, Mulago Hospital Complex, PO BOX 22148, Kampala, Uganda"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Abassi", 
        "givenName": "Mahsa", 
        "id": "sg:person.01273606205.20", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01273606205.20"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Minnesota", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17635.36", 
          "name": [
            "University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA", 
            "Infectious Diseases Institute, Mulago Hospital Complex, PO BOX 22148, Kampala, Uganda"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Morawski", 
        "givenName": "Bozena M.", 
        "id": "sg:person.0610545064.20", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0610545064.20"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Rakai Health Sciences Program", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452655.5", 
          "name": [
            "Rakai Health Sciences Program, Entebbe, Uganda"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Nakigozi", 
        "givenName": "Gertrude", 
        "id": "sg:person.0712716272.16", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0712716272.16"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Makerere University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11194.3c", 
          "name": [
            "Infectious Diseases Institute, Mulago Hospital Complex, PO BOX 22148, Kampala, Uganda", 
            "Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Nakasujja", 
        "givenName": "Noeline", 
        "id": "sg:person.01200730170.51", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01200730170.51"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Johns Hopkins University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21107.35", 
          "name": [
            "Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kong", 
        "givenName": "Xiangrong", 
        "id": "sg:person.01357013615.71", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01357013615.71"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Makerere University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11194.3c", 
          "name": [
            "University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA", 
            "Infectious Diseases Institute, Mulago Hospital Complex, PO BOX 22148, Kampala, Uganda", 
            "Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Meya", 
        "givenName": "David B.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01074545727.36", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01074545727.36"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of North Carolina System", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.410711.2", 
          "name": [
            "University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Robertson", 
        "givenName": "Kevin", 
        "id": "sg:person.0754114270.51", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0754114270.51"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Johns Hopkins University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21107.35", 
          "name": [
            "Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Gray", 
        "givenName": "Ronald", 
        "id": "sg:person.012301720107.79", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012301720107.79"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Johns Hopkins University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21107.35", 
          "name": [
            "Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Wawer", 
        "givenName": "Maria J.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01000213534.23", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01000213534.23"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Johns Hopkins University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21107.35", 
          "name": [
            "Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Sacktor", 
        "givenName": "Ned", 
        "id": "sg:person.01064501570.98", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01064501570.98"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Minnesota", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17635.36", 
          "name": [
            "University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Boulware", 
        "givenName": "David R.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01361554135.48", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01361554135.48"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1386-6532(01)00196-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003535849"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1998.71041421.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006578131"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm.2011.083", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006914327"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1742-6405-11-13", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009033243", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-6405-11-13"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/1531-8249(199909)46:3<391::aid-ana15>3.0.co;2-0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011117469"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nm890", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011304929", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nm890"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nm890", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011304929", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nm890"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(98)06439-3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019720303"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11481-008-9136-0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021367268", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11481-008-9136-0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/nbdi.2000.0321", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021953243"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001610", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022140496"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.aids.0000161770.06158.5c", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022183452"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.aids.0000161770.06158.5c", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022183452"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0197-0186(01)00048-1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022682210"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.62.11.1734", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028296506"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00109-005-0688-7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029462163", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00109-005-0688-7"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00109-005-0688-7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029462163", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00109-005-0688-7"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2003.11.027", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036689583"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00005072-199405000-00003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037010288"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.56.5.481", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041074886"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1473-3099(13)70269-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042362028"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1590/s0004-282x1992000200008", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047436008"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11481-013-9481-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050698620", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11481-013-9481-5"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.0865-12.2012", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052886087"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000287431.88658.8b", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064347220"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000287431.88658.8b", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064347220"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000287431.88658.8b", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064347220"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000183293.95787.b7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064347574"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000183293.95787.b7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064347574"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000183293.95787.b7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064347574"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1212/wnl.38.1.9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064367445"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077098079", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082724972", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082858417", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2017-06", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2017-06-01", 
    "description": "In the USA, increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory cytokines have been observed in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). We characterized the relationship between HAND and CSF biomarker expression in ART-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals in Rakai, Uganda. We analyzed CSF of 78 HIV-seropositive, ART-naive Ugandan adults for 17 cytokines and 20 neurodegenerative biomarkers via Luminex multiplex assay. These adults underwent neurocognitive assessment to determine their degree of HAND. We compared biomarker concentrations between high and low CD4 groups and across HAND classifications, adjusting for multiple comparisons. Individuals with CD4 <200 cells/\u03bcL (N\u00a0=\u00a038) had elevated levels of CSF Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), TNF-\u03b1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-7, and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) and lower levels of amyloid \u03b242. Individuals with CD4 351-500 cells/\u03bcL (N\u00a0=\u00a040) had significantly higher CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-1\u03b2, amyloid \u03b242, and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE). Increasing levels of S100B, platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and sRAGE were associated with decreased odds of mild neurocognitive disorder (n\u00a0=\u00a022) or HIV-associated dementia (n\u00a0=\u00a015) compared with normal function (n\u00a0=\u00a030) or asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (n\u00a0=\u00a011). Increased levels of interferon (IFN)-\u03b3 were associated with increased odds of mild neurocognitive impairment or HIV-associated dementia relative to normal or asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. Proinflammatory CSF cytokines, chemokines, and neurodegenerative biomarkers were present in increasing concentrations with advanced immunosuppression and may play a role in the development of HAND. The presence of select CNS biomarkers may also play a protective role in the development of HAND.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isFundedItemOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.2563694", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.2552826", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.2688126", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.6585425", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.4106931", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.2624435", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.2682006", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.3802171", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }
    ], 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1114176", 
        "issn": [
          "1355-0284", 
          "1538-2443"
        ], 
        "name": "Journal of NeuroVirology", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "3", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "23"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in HIV-infected individuals in Rakai, Uganda", 
    "pagination": "369-375", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "74fe5498a5b1bbe010ea1ee62f1c569faf5b1448e55eaa89050a26978f8f962b"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "27995575"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "9508123"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1024557776"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024557776"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T09:57", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000347_0000000347/records_89807_00000001.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs13365-016-0505-9"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

350 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      80 URIs      45 LITERALS      33 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9 schema:about N0971c702f36a4adf8dc30b2c382f05b9
2 N0a9beb85d115455f833ed864ae9c2b8d
3 N0cfe695fc2964b73b0367d7dad26126c
4 N0ffb545384a3482d9a8013d02f03449f
5 N1b1ec83d508f48de91800941823cef3d
6 N20e9180d5bbb42df82982679c000e95f
7 N2d3248b88c404e04bbb51af6e55b1b46
8 N43034f1e9898473b86fbc99b346c0095
9 N4de617143407493fab725c0b14f50011
10 N508d8acb632649a7b8c04f0a72717fd7
11 N55bd5036a387490c8e5077b55a3c72cd
12 N7740dbcebf63463eb47a4bec39a07b66
13 N7cc84d85474d40519000f26dd3c40428
14 N868cd86d7c9d4deb9fb285f95174a1a7
15 N9d2f10f31d59473198d96519baaa6fcb
16 Nb1ad6997af7d4919aa23a9542675bd1d
17 Nb79e9aec72854d119be6416f40660191
18 Nd5d581901727444b87c682be62b6153a
19 Nd60e4ae7b15a42fe891ba5a7413f9874
20 Nde0070c718df4df9bb30dc72687d90b7
21 Nde6fcb8f7d88410399b60b0483d5c0ec
22 Ne8617c6176784194a2ac0a014479c6b5
23 Nf57dc12fc79344c28b03699d8a9124e8
24 Nf7808ccffa4c4498a833cd59bc3700e9
25 anzsrc-for:11
26 anzsrc-for:1103
27 schema:author N2100bdcde49a4bbf91f231a3850bf520
28 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s00109-005-0688-7
29 sg:pub.10.1007/s11481-008-9136-0
30 sg:pub.10.1007/s11481-013-9481-5
31 sg:pub.10.1038/nm890
32 sg:pub.10.1186/1742-6405-11-13
33 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077098079
34 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082724972
35 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082858417
36 https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.62.11.1734
37 https://doi.org/10.1002/1531-8249(199909)46:3<391::aid-ana15>3.0.co;2-0
38 https://doi.org/10.1006/nbdi.2000.0321
39 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2003.11.027
40 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(98)06439-3
41 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0197-0186(01)00048-1
42 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1386-6532(01)00196-2
43 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1473-3099(13)70269-x
44 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1998.71041421.x
45 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005072-199405000-00003
46 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.aids.0000161770.06158.5c
47 https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.56.5.481
48 https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000183293.95787.b7
49 https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000287431.88658.8b
50 https://doi.org/10.1212/wnl.38.1.9
51 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001610
52 https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm.2011.083
53 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.0865-12.2012
54 https://doi.org/10.1590/s0004-282x1992000200008
55 schema:datePublished 2017-06
56 schema:datePublishedReg 2017-06-01
57 schema:description In the USA, increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory cytokines have been observed in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). We characterized the relationship between HAND and CSF biomarker expression in ART-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals in Rakai, Uganda. We analyzed CSF of 78 HIV-seropositive, ART-naive Ugandan adults for 17 cytokines and 20 neurodegenerative biomarkers via Luminex multiplex assay. These adults underwent neurocognitive assessment to determine their degree of HAND. We compared biomarker concentrations between high and low CD4 groups and across HAND classifications, adjusting for multiple comparisons. Individuals with CD4 <200 cells/μL (N = 38) had elevated levels of CSF Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), TNF-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-7, and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) and lower levels of amyloid β42. Individuals with CD4 351-500 cells/μL (N = 40) had significantly higher CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, amyloid β42, and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE). Increasing levels of S100B, platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and sRAGE were associated with decreased odds of mild neurocognitive disorder (n = 22) or HIV-associated dementia (n = 15) compared with normal function (n = 30) or asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (n = 11). Increased levels of interferon (IFN)-γ were associated with increased odds of mild neurocognitive impairment or HIV-associated dementia relative to normal or asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. Proinflammatory CSF cytokines, chemokines, and neurodegenerative biomarkers were present in increasing concentrations with advanced immunosuppression and may play a role in the development of HAND. The presence of select CNS biomarkers may also play a protective role in the development of HAND.
58 schema:genre research_article
59 schema:inLanguage en
60 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
61 schema:isPartOf N533cbf15e58a40f695e3bcd3591428d7
62 Ne828c9229dee43ee8305e44c12e9b9d0
63 sg:journal.1114176
64 schema:name Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in HIV-infected individuals in Rakai, Uganda
65 schema:pagination 369-375
66 schema:productId N07f2ea175bf74d4089219db61f8aeecd
67 Nbc5bd7498eb24ac9ac6df7607ac0ea9a
68 Ndbfc3e2e495f4cd1967132aba7aa412d
69 Nec2843f019a247fa8fe9d9bf4926aaec
70 Nf146a0ef4c8740639a918c503d4dab5b
71 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024557776
72 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9
73 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T09:57
74 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
75 schema:sdPublisher Ndd38a787867e4206b509cab86a3af172
76 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs13365-016-0505-9
77 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
78 sgo:sdDataset articles
79 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
80 N07f2ea175bf74d4089219db61f8aeecd schema:name nlm_unique_id
81 schema:value 9508123
82 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
83 N09654c17c4024777be05aa4324c9ef36 rdf:first sg:person.01200730170.51
84 rdf:rest Nca0f6c64de664ee6b7ef8144ecb45606
85 N0971c702f36a4adf8dc30b2c382f05b9 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
86 schema:name Prospective Studies
87 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
88 N0a9beb85d115455f833ed864ae9c2b8d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
89 schema:name Uganda
90 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
91 N0cfe695fc2964b73b0367d7dad26126c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
92 schema:name Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
93 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
94 N0ffb545384a3482d9a8013d02f03449f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
95 schema:name Amyloid beta-Peptides
96 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
97 N1b1ec83d508f48de91800941823cef3d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
98 schema:name Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
99 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
100 N1c1bbc021d1345c2a85df2ae21d51f20 rdf:first sg:person.01064501570.98
101 rdf:rest N52c3b870c8da479293a4fe9fe54b5a7d
102 N1c844b9825834226a80959284178f6bf rdf:first sg:person.01000213534.23
103 rdf:rest N1c1bbc021d1345c2a85df2ae21d51f20
104 N20e9180d5bbb42df82982679c000e95f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
105 schema:name Male
106 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
107 N2100bdcde49a4bbf91f231a3850bf520 rdf:first sg:person.01273606205.20
108 rdf:rest Nbe7f4d91ea3d4078bf6d5d0dc16aac25
109 N2d3248b88c404e04bbb51af6e55b1b46 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
110 schema:name Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products
111 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
112 N43034f1e9898473b86fbc99b346c0095 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
113 schema:name Interleukin-2
114 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
115 N4de617143407493fab725c0b14f50011 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
116 schema:name Matrix Metalloproteinase 7
117 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
118 N508d8acb632649a7b8c04f0a72717fd7 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
119 schema:name Middle Aged
120 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
121 N52c3b870c8da479293a4fe9fe54b5a7d rdf:first sg:person.01361554135.48
122 rdf:rest rdf:nil
123 N533cbf15e58a40f695e3bcd3591428d7 schema:volumeNumber 23
124 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
125 N55bd5036a387490c8e5077b55a3c72cd schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
126 schema:name CD4 Lymphocyte Count
127 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
128 N7740dbcebf63463eb47a4bec39a07b66 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
129 schema:name Humans
130 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
131 N7cc84d85474d40519000f26dd3c40428 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
132 schema:name Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
133 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
134 N868cd86d7c9d4deb9fb285f95174a1a7 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
135 schema:name Neuropsychological Tests
136 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
137 N9d2f10f31d59473198d96519baaa6fcb schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
138 schema:name AIDS Dementia Complex
139 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
140 N9e96182624e04ccc914b627cfea28cd5 rdf:first sg:person.01074545727.36
141 rdf:rest Nd0b9ae6e9ec942079ffe1e6b8073487b
142 Nb1ad6997af7d4919aa23a9542675bd1d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
143 schema:name Adult
144 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
145 Nb79e9aec72854d119be6416f40660191 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
146 schema:name Biomarkers
147 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
148 Nbc5bd7498eb24ac9ac6df7607ac0ea9a schema:name pubmed_id
149 schema:value 27995575
150 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
151 Nbe6d219e20934ceda58eb9cdea773e5b rdf:first sg:person.0712716272.16
152 rdf:rest N09654c17c4024777be05aa4324c9ef36
153 Nbe7f4d91ea3d4078bf6d5d0dc16aac25 rdf:first sg:person.0610545064.20
154 rdf:rest Nbe6d219e20934ceda58eb9cdea773e5b
155 Nc3bf874e9fec410baec94087efa8fa83 rdf:first sg:person.012301720107.79
156 rdf:rest N1c844b9825834226a80959284178f6bf
157 Nca0f6c64de664ee6b7ef8144ecb45606 rdf:first sg:person.01357013615.71
158 rdf:rest N9e96182624e04ccc914b627cfea28cd5
159 Nd0b9ae6e9ec942079ffe1e6b8073487b rdf:first sg:person.0754114270.51
160 rdf:rest Nc3bf874e9fec410baec94087efa8fa83
161 Nd5d581901727444b87c682be62b6153a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
162 schema:name Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
163 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
164 Nd60e4ae7b15a42fe891ba5a7413f9874 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
165 schema:name S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit
166 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
167 Ndbfc3e2e495f4cd1967132aba7aa412d schema:name doi
168 schema:value 10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9
169 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
170 Ndd38a787867e4206b509cab86a3af172 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
171 rdf:type schema:Organization
172 Nde0070c718df4df9bb30dc72687d90b7 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
173 schema:name Peptide Fragments
174 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
175 Nde6fcb8f7d88410399b60b0483d5c0ec schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
176 schema:name Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
177 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
178 Ne828c9229dee43ee8305e44c12e9b9d0 schema:issueNumber 3
179 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
180 Ne8617c6176784194a2ac0a014479c6b5 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
181 schema:name Interleukin-12
182 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
183 Nec2843f019a247fa8fe9d9bf4926aaec schema:name readcube_id
184 schema:value 74fe5498a5b1bbe010ea1ee62f1c569faf5b1448e55eaa89050a26978f8f962b
185 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
186 Nf146a0ef4c8740639a918c503d4dab5b schema:name dimensions_id
187 schema:value pub.1024557776
188 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
189 Nf57dc12fc79344c28b03699d8a9124e8 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
190 schema:name Female
191 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
192 Nf7808ccffa4c4498a833cd59bc3700e9 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
193 schema:name CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes
194 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
195 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
196 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
197 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
198 anzsrc-for:1103 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
199 schema:name Clinical Sciences
200 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
201 sg:grant.2552826 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9
202 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
203 sg:grant.2563694 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9
204 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
205 sg:grant.2624435 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9
206 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
207 sg:grant.2682006 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9
208 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
209 sg:grant.2688126 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9
210 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
211 sg:grant.3802171 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9
212 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
213 sg:grant.4106931 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9
214 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
215 sg:grant.6585425 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s13365-016-0505-9
216 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
217 sg:journal.1114176 schema:issn 1355-0284
218 1538-2443
219 schema:name Journal of NeuroVirology
220 rdf:type schema:Periodical
221 sg:person.01000213534.23 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21107.35
222 schema:familyName Wawer
223 schema:givenName Maria J.
224 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01000213534.23
225 rdf:type schema:Person
226 sg:person.01064501570.98 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21107.35
227 schema:familyName Sacktor
228 schema:givenName Ned
229 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01064501570.98
230 rdf:type schema:Person
231 sg:person.01074545727.36 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11194.3c
232 schema:familyName Meya
233 schema:givenName David B.
234 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01074545727.36
235 rdf:type schema:Person
236 sg:person.01200730170.51 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11194.3c
237 schema:familyName Nakasujja
238 schema:givenName Noeline
239 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01200730170.51
240 rdf:type schema:Person
241 sg:person.012301720107.79 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21107.35
242 schema:familyName Gray
243 schema:givenName Ronald
244 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012301720107.79
245 rdf:type schema:Person
246 sg:person.01273606205.20 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17635.36
247 schema:familyName Abassi
248 schema:givenName Mahsa
249 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01273606205.20
250 rdf:type schema:Person
251 sg:person.01357013615.71 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21107.35
252 schema:familyName Kong
253 schema:givenName Xiangrong
254 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01357013615.71
255 rdf:type schema:Person
256 sg:person.01361554135.48 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17635.36
257 schema:familyName Boulware
258 schema:givenName David R.
259 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01361554135.48
260 rdf:type schema:Person
261 sg:person.0610545064.20 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17635.36
262 schema:familyName Morawski
263 schema:givenName Bozena M.
264 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0610545064.20
265 rdf:type schema:Person
266 sg:person.0712716272.16 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452655.5
267 schema:familyName Nakigozi
268 schema:givenName Gertrude
269 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0712716272.16
270 rdf:type schema:Person
271 sg:person.0754114270.51 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.410711.2
272 schema:familyName Robertson
273 schema:givenName Kevin
274 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0754114270.51
275 rdf:type schema:Person
276 sg:pub.10.1007/s00109-005-0688-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029462163
277 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00109-005-0688-7
278 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
279 sg:pub.10.1007/s11481-008-9136-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021367268
280 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11481-008-9136-0
281 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
282 sg:pub.10.1007/s11481-013-9481-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050698620
283 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11481-013-9481-5
284 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
285 sg:pub.10.1038/nm890 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011304929
286 https://doi.org/10.1038/nm890
287 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
288 sg:pub.10.1186/1742-6405-11-13 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009033243
289 https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-6405-11-13
290 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
291 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077098079 schema:CreativeWork
292 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082724972 schema:CreativeWork
293 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082858417 schema:CreativeWork
294 https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.62.11.1734 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028296506
295 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
296 https://doi.org/10.1002/1531-8249(199909)46:3<391::aid-ana15>3.0.co;2-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011117469
297 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
298 https://doi.org/10.1006/nbdi.2000.0321 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021953243
299 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
300 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2003.11.027 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036689583
301 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
302 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(98)06439-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019720303
303 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
304 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0197-0186(01)00048-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022682210
305 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
306 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1386-6532(01)00196-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003535849
307 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
308 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1473-3099(13)70269-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042362028
309 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
310 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1998.71041421.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006578131
311 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
312 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005072-199405000-00003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037010288
313 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
314 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.aids.0000161770.06158.5c schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022183452
315 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
316 https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.56.5.481 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041074886
317 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
318 https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000183293.95787.b7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064347574
319 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
320 https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000287431.88658.8b schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064347220
321 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
322 https://doi.org/10.1212/wnl.38.1.9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064367445
323 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
324 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001610 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022140496
325 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
326 https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm.2011.083 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006914327
327 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
328 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.0865-12.2012 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052886087
329 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
330 https://doi.org/10.1590/s0004-282x1992000200008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047436008
331 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
332 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11194.3c schema:alternateName Makerere University
333 schema:name Infectious Diseases Institute, Mulago Hospital Complex, PO BOX 22148, Kampala, Uganda
334 Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
335 University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
336 rdf:type schema:Organization
337 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17635.36 schema:alternateName University of Minnesota
338 schema:name Infectious Diseases Institute, Mulago Hospital Complex, PO BOX 22148, Kampala, Uganda
339 University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
340 rdf:type schema:Organization
341 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21107.35 schema:alternateName Johns Hopkins University
342 schema:name Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
343 Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
344 rdf:type schema:Organization
345 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.410711.2 schema:alternateName University of North Carolina System
346 schema:name University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
347 rdf:type schema:Organization
348 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452655.5 schema:alternateName Rakai Health Sciences Program
349 schema:name Rakai Health Sciences Program, Entebbe, Uganda
350 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...